Adonis Diaries

Archive for October 2008

Normalcy in Randomness (October 30, 2008)

 

Many mathematicians and scientists earned Nobel Prizes for researching the phenomena of randomness and chaos in the universe and the extremely rare events located on the tails of the Bell Curve shaped graph of the probability for the occurrence of events.  A Lebanese/American thinker from Amyoun (Lebanon), Naseem Taleb, had published last year “Black swan theory” that predicted the crash of Wall Street. Since the Middle Age nobody believed that a swan could be but white in color until a black one was discovered in Australia in the 17th century.  Professor in Epistemology or the study of knowledge sciences Taleb wrote also “Fooled by randomness” and he participated in the elaboration of “complex financial derivatives”, this evil source of the current financial crisis, when he worked for a Wall Street company a while ago. 

Professor Taleb realized a year ago that a crash of large magnitude was to happen on account that the fundamentals of financial analysis of experts are outdated: the experts rely in their analysis on the most probable occurrences and do not examine the alarming cases of rare events that have the possibility of happening.  One of the first sign that a major problem might take place is when Bernarki was appointed to head the Federal Reserve Board for the retiring Greenspan.  Taleb knew that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, the largest property lenders of over 45% in the Real Estate business were in deep financial difficulty.  In fact, the US government by nationalizing these two companies own over 75% of the USA lands.

There are three levels to studying randomness mathematically, in physical sciences and in social psychological behavior.  For example, the Japanese society experiences the highest rate of suicide, especially among the students because of the competitive nature in those militaristic disciplined schools.  The Japanese society comprehends and admits crazy people in their enterprises: this authoritarian society with strictly controlled morals at work and in families has a high rate of males cracking down and losing it and it is normal to keep them on lower promoted jobs. Women are even encouraged to commit suicide to safeguarding their “honors” but they are cleverer than the stupid males; they leave such honor to the males.  Although women are completely controlled in enless set of prescriptions on how to behave they manage not to reach the act of committing suicide because society does not expect much of them for promotion or eccentricity or high “flatulent” feelings and compassion.

In societies that focus on the behaviors of average “normal” people like the USA then “crazy” individuals are fired instantly and then relegated to asylums for a while and then set free on the streets to lead a homeless life. 

We know that people with extreme characters attract one another and that people who resemble in characters do not like one another, although they congregate on animal instincts. My idea is to find a function that would reverse the Bell Shaped curve where the tails would converge and the Bell shape would baloon away. The problem is what axis would be most appropriate to represent social psychological behavior.

 

Stupeur et tremblements by Amelie Nothomb (Book review, October 30, 2008)

 

Amelia Nothomb in her captivating, touching and very funny book of 189 pages “Stupeur et tremblements” describes her experiences for a whole year at the Japanese Import/Export large company of Yumimoto in 1990.  The title was extracted from the behavior and acting of any Japanese in the presence of the Emperor. As a mater of fact, the whole story is mostly a long series of stupor and quavering by the Japanese employees dealing with the culture of a western girl. As we recall, Amelie was born in Japan when her dad was the Belgian Consul and loved her first 5 years there and felt that Japan was her homeland after so many transfers to other countries. Amelie returned to Japan with fresh recollections of her sweet and unforgettable years there as a child.  Amelie will discover at her expense that she was not to prove in business meetings with other friendly Japanese companies that she understands the Japanese language!

Amelie had a life after her 10-hour work day but she decided to focus her autobiography of that year on the enterprise. Nothomb described in details the strict hierchical structure of the company, its unwritten rules, the behavior of the employees, and the status of women in society. With or without a contract an employee at that period was not expected to be fired. The initiative for leaving a company was left to the employee who would have to meet personally with each boss in the higher levels in the hierarchy and present his resignation.  A sample of the verbal resignation should be stated is what Amilie memorized “We are at the end of term of my contract and I would like to announce to you my regret for not being able to renew it.  The company of Yumimoto offered me multiple occasions to prove my potentials.  I will be eternally grateful. Unfortunately, I could not satisfy the expectation of the honor accorded to me.” 

It is unheard of that an employee could take the initiative without the permission of his immediate boss or even complains to a higher level.  In general, the higher levels would refrain from undercutting the responsibilities of the immediate boss, although they could and had the total right to curse, lambaste and humiliate any lower level employee in front of all the employees for no specific reasons; the cadre was not permitted to defend himself or speak; all that he should be doing is to lower his head and show respect until the verbal storm is over.  For example, Mori Fubuki, a most beautiful and classy lady of 29 boss of Amelie, was subject of such a scene.  Mori hurried to the toilet to cry her eyes out and Amelie followed her to express her compassion as western custom is preponderant; Mori was greatly furious that Amelie dared to see her crying and she vowed to humiliate her at the extreme.  Fubuli thus decided to relegate Amelie to cleaning the toilets for seven months at 44th floor of the building or the accounting department.

Fubuki selected the boring task of classifying receipts by company names and ordering them by date of receipt to punish Amelie.  Amelie ordered the names of the German companies called GMBH in one file on account that any additional prefix can only mean to be an affiliate to GMBH; it turned out that GMBH stands for Ltd in German.  The accounting cadre laughed very hard and every employee shared in the merriment.  Fubuki was humiliated because Amelie was her responsibility. 

Fubuki then endeavored to find a task for Amelie that does not require “intelligence”.  Amelie was assigned to verify the accounting of business charge trips.  The genius of Amelie was that for a whole month not a single number matched!  Calculating and accounting was the worst job that could be asked of her.  Fubuli knew that Amelie will never finish the job but she waited patiently for Amelie to concede defeat.

The way I see it, the President of the company (not necessarily the owner) should be considered as God; as such he should be handsome, tall, soft spoken, and no one except the Vice-President is permitted to visit him or a cadre he summons to see.  The job of the Vice-President is play Bad Cop; as such he should look ugly, an ogre, and should be trained to curse and his powerful voice should transmit far away; basically, the Vice-President is to keep all cadres to their proper place in the hierarchy and remind them that no one is above the unwritten rules.

Once, Amelie took the initiative of aiding a cadre from another section without asking permission of Fubuki.  Fubuki wrote a complaint to Omochi and the cadre and Amelie had a thorough wash down.  Fubuki would not allow a new comer to be promoted quickly when she had to suffer for ten years to get her present promotion.

Nothomb explains why the Japanese society comprehends and admit crazy people in their company: this authoritarian society with strictly controlled morals at work and in families has a high rate of males cracking down and losing it.  The women are more controlled than men in society but they manage not to reach the act of committing suicide, an act viewed within society as the ultimate in honor for a woman; may be the only honorable decision that a woman can make beside marrying before the age of 25. Working and breeding are the only tasks of a woman; she should not expect much in promotion or eccentricity or compliments. Children are treated as God till the age of three; from 3 to 18 they are sent to schools with “military” discipline; from 18 to 25 offspring have the only break in their lives to be free in university settings; then they are back to concentration camps in their enterprises and strict duties and responsibilities to their institutions.

The Japanese fathers have an inkling of giving infinitive verbs for names to their boys such as “Work”; whereas females receive poetic names such as “Snow”, Rain”, or “Flower”.

Here is a list of prescriptions that women have to follow to the letters:

  1. 1. If you are not married by the age of 25 then you have good reasons to be ashamed.
  2. 2. If you laugh then you will not be distinguished.
  3. 3. If your face shows feelings then you are vulgar.
  4. 4. If you mention that you have a single hair on your body then you are vile.
  5. 5. If a boy kisses you in public on the cheek then you are a whore.
  6. 6. If you eat with pleasure then you are a sow.
  7. 7. If you experience pleasure sleeping then you are a cow.
  8. 8. If you go to the toilet for body releases then make sure nobody hear anything.
  9. 9. You should never sweat  Thus avoid voluptuous love making.
  10. 10. You should not marry for love.
  11. 11. If you fall in love then you were not educated well.
  12. 12. Stay thin because males do not appreciate round shapes in the body

All the sufferings in sticking to these precepts have the sole objective of preserving your honor and nothing else.

In 1993, Amelie had published two books and Fubuki sent her a brief letter in Japanese saying simply “Congratulation”.

“Stupor and quavering” by Amelie Nothomb  

Stupeur et tremblements by Amelie Nothomb, (Book review, October 30, 2008)

Amelia Nothomb in her captivating, touching and very funny book of 189 pages “Stupeur et tremblements” describes her experiences for a whole year at the Japanese Import/Export large company of Yumimoto in 1990.  The title was extracted from the behavior and acting of any Japanese in the presence of the Emperor.

As a mater of fact, the entire story is mostly a long series of stupor and quavering by the Japanese employees, who are dealing with the culture of a western girl.  As we recall, Amelie was born in Japan when her dad was the Belgian Consul and loved her first 5 years there and felt that Japan was her homeland after so many transfers to other countries. Amelie returned to Japan with fresh recollections of her sweet and unforgettable years there as a child.  Amelie will discover at her expense that she was not to prove in business meetings with other friendly Japanese companies that she understands the Japanese language!

Amelie managed to have a life after her 10-hour work day, but she decided to focus her autobiography of that year on her work at the enterprise. Nothomb described in details the strict hierchical structure of the company, its unwritten rules, the behavior of the employees, and the status of women in society.

With or without a contract, an employee at that period was not expected to be fired. The initiative for leaving a company was left to the employee who would have to meet personally with each boss in the higher levels in the hierarchy and present his resignation.  A sample of the verbal resignation should be stated is what Amilie memorized “We are at the end of term of my contract and I would like to announce to you my regret for not being able to renew it.  The company of Yumimoto offered me multiple occasions to prove my potentials.  I will be eternally grateful. Unfortunately, I could not satisfy the expectation of the honor accorded to me.”

It is unheard of that an employee could take the initiative without the permission of his immediate boss or even complains to a higher level.  In general, the higher levels would refrain from undercutting the responsibilities of the immediate boss, although they could and had the total right to curse, lambaste and humiliate any lower level employee in front of all the employees for no specific reasons; the cadre was not permitted to defend himself or speak; all that he should be doing is to lower his head and show respect until the verbal storm is over.

For example, Mori Fubuki, a most beautiful and classy lady of 29 boss of Amelie, was subject of such a scene.  Mori hurried to the toilet to cry her eyes out and Amelie followed her to express her compassion as western custom is preponderant; Mori was greatly furious that Amelie dared to see her crying and she vowed to humiliate her at the extreme.  Fubuli thus decided to relegate Amelie to cleaning the toilets for seven months at 44th floor of the building or the accounting department.

Fubuki selected the boring task of classifying receipts by company names and ordering them by date of receipt to punish Amelie.  Amelie ordered the names of the German companies called GMBH in one file on account that any additional prefix can only mean to be an affiliate to GMBH; it turned out that GMBH stands for Ltd in German.  The accounting cadre laughed very hard and every employee shared in the merriment.  Fubuki was humiliated because Amelie was her responsibility.

Fubuki then endeavored to find a task for Amelie that does not require “intelligence”.  Amelie was assigned to verify the accounting of business charge trips.  The genius of Amelie was that for a whole month not a single number matched!  Calculating and accounting was the worst job that could be asked of her.  Fubuli knew that Amelie will never finish the job but she waited patiently for Amelie to concede defeat.

The way I see it, the President of the company (not necessarily the owner) should be considered as God; as such he should be handsome, tall, soft spoken, and no one except the Vice-President is permitted to visit him or a cadre he summons to see.  The job of the Vice-President is play Bad Cop; as such he should look ugly, an ogre, and should be trained to curse and his powerful voice should transmit far away; basically, the Vice-President is to keep all cadres to their proper place in the hierarchy and remind them that no one is above the unwritten rules.

Once, Amelie took the initiative of aiding a cadre from another section without asking permission of Fubuki.  Fubuki wrote a complaint to Omochi and the cadre and Amelie had a thorough wash down.  Fubuki would not allow a new comer to be promoted quickly when she had to suffer for ten years to get her present promotion.

Nothomb explains why the Japanese society comprehends and admit crazy people in their company: this authoritarian society with strictly controlled morals at work and in families has a high rate of males cracking down and losing it.  The women are more controlled than men in society but they manage not to reach the act of committing suicide, an act viewed within society as the ultimate in honor for a woman; may be the only honorable decision that a woman can make beside marrying before the age of 25.

Working and breeding are the only tasks of a woman; she should not expect much in promotion or eccentricity or compliments. Children are treated as God till the age of three; from 3 to 18 they are sent to schools with “military” discipline; from 18 to 25 offspring have the only break in their lives to be free in university settings; then they are back to concentration camps in their enterprises and strict duties and responsibilities to their institutions.

The Japanese fathers have an inkling of giving infinitive verbs for names to their boys such as “Work”; whereas females receive poetic names such as “Snow”, Rain”, or “Flower”.

Here is a list of prescriptions that women have to follow to the letters:

  1. If you are not married by the age of 25 then you have good reasons to be ashamed.
  2. If you laugh then you will not be distinguished.
  3. If your face shows feelings then you are vulgar.
  4. If you mention that you have a single hair on your body then you are vile.
  5. If a boy kisses you in public on the cheek then you are a whore.
  6. If you eat with pleasure then you are a sow.
  7. If you experience pleasure sleeping then you are a cow.
  8. If you go to the toilet for body releases then make sure nobody hear anything.
  9. You should never sweat  Thus avoid voluptuous love making.
  10. You should not marry for love.
  11. If you fall in love then you were not educated well.
  12. Stay thin because males do not appreciate round shapes in the body

All the sufferings in sticking to these precepts have the sole objective of preserving your honor and nothing else.

In 1993, Amelie had published two books and Fubuki sent her a brief letter in Japanese saying simply “Congratulation”.

Whom are we amusing? (October 29, 2008)

I know! We are puppets.

Whom, I am trying to figure out,

Are we amusing?

Millions of small investors in stocks lost their life savings.

At least they played a game.

 

Over two millions of civilian Iraqis have perished

Since the Bush Jr, Administration invasion in 2003.

What role have the collateral dead played?

Over two millions of Iraqis babies died

From lack of medicines and powder milk

During the economical and oil embargo of Bush Senior.

 

What role do babies play?

I know!  We are all puppets.

Whom are we entertaining?

Why the ignoramus GW Bush had agreed to lead the World?

Because he is a fool, stupid. Good reason.

Dick Cheney survived ten years of congenital heart disease.

Why did he survive destiny?

Because he had to play to perfection the Devil incarnate of the decade.

 

I know!  But why millions in Bangladesh have to die,

Every year, during the monsoon season?

Why millions in Africa have to die, every year, of famine , curable diseases and malnutrition?

Why hundreds of Chinese have to die, every day, in mining operations?

Why the rich Chinese Administration has to forget its famished citizens in the provinces?

I know!  But why the untouchables, sickly, and handicapped

Have mostly to suffer?

 

The affluent, healthy and influential are not that happy;

But why do they have to make fun at the expense of the “others”?

I know! Everyone could be playing a part.

Whom, I need to know,

Are we diverting?

Fools, jesters, and tragic-comedians dust you are.

Dust blowing in the wind.

Why can we not enjoy and be happy,

Making fun at our own expense?

Let us doubly entertain

Whoever are watching us!

Redundant Prophets (written in October 30, 2007)

Tormented youths, hearing voices, experiencing apocalyptic nightmares,

Seeking desperately a corner of a desert, preferably when available nearby,

In desolate locations, in complete isolation,

To exorcise their demons and to find peace of mind.

Some of them see Archangel Gabriel in person, talking to them in a centaur voice,

Urging them to fear the Unique God, and pray and glorify his Name,

And proselytize in his Name.

Some are not that lucky in fame,  and never see a divine apparition

For their good mental stability and reduced level of exacerbated anxiousness.

The difference between Prophets and crazies can be traced

To the genetic laziness of Gabriel;

Or most probably to the glut in redundant prophets.

May 6, 2007

“A woman of independent means” by Elizabeth Forsythe Hailey

The heroine Bess Steed Garner wrote to her father when she learned that her mother left her rich in her will: “I never realized she was a woman of independent means.  I always attributed her sense of dignity and self-esteem to a more spiritual source.”  In May 5, 1909 Bess wrote her mother: “I will marry Rob this summer. Please don’t say anything to him as I want to be the first to tell him”.  She proposed to her long time friend from grade school because she was rich and he was poor and she knew that he wouldn’t take the next step before he is well off.

Bess lent her husband $20,000 in due legal papers and signed by two witnesses to be paid $1000 a year for twenty years. Rob reimbursed her the full amount within four years when his real estate business took off. When Bess was pregnant with her third child she went on vacation to Europe in 1913 with her two kids; she wrote to her mother-in-law: “Ever since Annie (her German helper) described to me the freedom accorded expectant mothers in Europe, I have been hinting to Rob that I would be happier spending the summer abroad. I would have felt at home this summer hiding behind shuttered windows.  It is ironic that the Old World is more permissive concerning the conduct of pregnant women than the New World. We may have won our freedom as a country in 1776 but in the area of feminine legal rights the battle is still raging.”

Rob died in 1919 due to the influenza epidemic that the US soldiers brought with them from Europe after WWI.  Bess was barely 27 and she decided to take over the board of directors of her husband’s insurance business; she opted to sell her house in order to pay the debts due to the rate of mortality that year instead of declaring bankruptcy; she convinced the employees to accept a reduced wage in compensation of shares in the company.

Bess lost her eldest ten year-old son to spinal meningitis while taking her family to spend the summer in Vermont on a farm.  Death was her Enemy and she encouraged her friends to fight it with their nails and teeth; she castigated those who sent condolence letters asking her to accept death as a way of life.  She writes: “Injustice makes villains of us all, and I am afraid I am going to lose more than my husband before I find enough charity in my heart to forgive those whose only sin is that they are still alive.”  At the death a friend that the kids knew very well she asked her second son to write a letter recalling the important moments in his life that the diseased made an impact on him.

Bess handled money as an important leverage to get her way by attaching checks as deposits or for advanced several months rent or tuitions or reservations.

When Bess’s kid daughter Eleanor was stuck by a car, Bess stayed by her side at the hospital for a whole year; Bess used to write Eleanor a letter every day about kids sending her letters from the clouds in the sky.  Bess sensed that the advent of automobile is going to be a scourge to humanity and she also predicted that aviation will keep husbands away on business trips with goals of building empires for profit.

“A woman of independent means” is written in the style of a series of frank and witty letters that Bess Steed Garner sent to family members, friends and officials that let her life unfold before us as a woman of independent means as well as independent in spirit. Her daughter fell in love with a young Italian Count until they visited with his family in Sicily.  Bess wrote her friend Totsie: “I cannot imagine any woman who is used to having her opinions received with respect, submitting by choice to such arbitrary authority of her husband”.

Bess sent her boy to the East of the USA for schooling so that he gets a better education and acquire a different cultural perspective than what is offered in Dallas.  She purchased lands around the provinces of Dallas because she forecasted that this city is bound to expand and made plenty of profit.

Her son and daughter being married with children Bess visited with her second husband the world every summer; she flew to Europe for the third time, Finland, Alaska, Hawaii and Mexico.  As most Americans, her second husband was very reluctant to go out of the USA because of the language barrier and the different life styles.

When on a trip to Mexico she offered to hold one of the babies of a Mexican woman in the bus and Bess was terribly hungry: “She offered me a banana and I ate it so hungrily that, four bananas later, we were fast friends.  My hunger had made me seem like a sister no matter what language I spoke”.  After Eleanor married and got three girls she started to reluctantly invite her mother Bess to luncheon that consisted of the younger generations and Bess to write her daughter: “How dare polite society segregate people on the basis of age?  I feel that when I am alone with you I am continually auditioning for the pleasure of your company.  I find myself apologizing for boring you with answers to questions you never asked”.

Bess even wrote her own obituary way ahead of her timely death and asked the editor of “The Dallas Morning News” to interview her so that he might fill in more complete information and then to send her the edited version for her approval. She also wrote the obituary of her ailing husband.  She used to amend her testament every year or when a new grand-grandchild comes to this world.  Those who benefited from her finances while she was alive she reduced the amount commensurate to allow the newly born a higher trust fund paid with quarterly checks.

I feel like writing almost verbatim Bess last unfinished letter to her favorite namesake granddaughter Betsy before she suffered a massive stoke.  Although it might not make mush sense to anyone who didn’t read the book it does make a lot of sense to me: “It is hard for me but I want you to know, Baby is beautiful.  Like child of Cloud Fairy. I want to hold.  Not just pictures.  When will we see? You can go and leave baby here.  I will hold tight to her hand.  Trust me. Soon baby will walk, thinking I am always behind. Guests are coming and Eleanor too.  Still no flowers are on the table.  I must go into the garden. Where did red birds go? So many places I never saw. This is a strange land. Sun never stops shining. I must call Sam so he can go to bed.  Then I can sail.  I am dining with Captain tonight. I want letters waiting.  Adieu.  Nana.”

Article #42  (April 6, 2006)

 “New semester, new approach to teaching the HF course”

This semester ten students enrolled for my class; only one is a computer engineer finishing his degree and the remaining are industrial engineers.  As a reminder, this course is required for IE and the other engineering disciplines managed to open up new elective courses and were trying to market them at the expense of the wishes of many students who wanted to take my course and their petitions were denied.

With a class, one fourth its usual number, I had to capitalize on the advantages of smaller classes, once the shock is under control.  This semester, methods applied in human factors engineering are the focus and the reduction to half the previous semester of body of knowledge in the course materials might encourage my class to appreciate the efforts and time invested by the pool of human factors researchers and professionals to make available practical design guidelines for the other engineering professions.

Whereas in the previous semesters I shun away from exposing my class to new methods, except teaching them explicitly the concept of controlled experimentations, the differences among dependent, independent and controlled variables and correcting their misunderstanding, thinking that there was an abundance of knowledge to assimilate for a meager semester, I boldly changed direction in my teaching approach by investing more time on exposing and explaining the various methods that human factors might be applying in their profession.  The first assignment was using excel to compare 40 methods used in human factors, industrial engineering, industrial psychology, and designers of intelligent machines.  This assignment was a version of article #14, about the taxonomy of methods, from 20 articles that I wrote the previous years and offered them as an introduction to the course, in addition to the course materials. The students were supposed to select five categories from more than the dozen ways to classifying methods such as definition, purpose, applications, inputs, processes, procedures, output/product, mathematical requirements, disciplines teaching them, advantages, disadvantages, sources/links, connections with other methods, and comments.

I expected that, as engineers, they would logically select for columns applications, input, procedure, output, and comments because they are what define a method but somehow they opted for applications, procedures, advantages, disadvantages, and comments mainly because it is how the internet offer information.  After 3 students submitted their assignment on time I handed them over 40 summary sheets for the 16 methods used to analyzing a system or a mission, at least 2 sheets for each of 16 methods, one sheet on the purpose, input, procedure, and output/product of the method and the other sheets as examples of what the output is expected to look for presentation. I then asked the less performing students to concentrate on only the 16 methods for their assignment and most of them did not submit this assignment even two months later.

So far I used up six sessions for methods or related topics such as the methods applied in the process of analyzing systems’ performance, psychophysical procedures, the fundamentals of controlled experimentation methods, human factors performance criteria, and what human factors measure in their experiments. 

As for the body of knowledge I extract a few facts from experiments and asked them to participate in providing me with the rationales or processes that might explain these facts. For example, if data show that females on average are two third the strength of males then what could be the underlying causes for that discovery?  Could that fact be explained by the length of the muscles, the cross section thickness of the muscles, the number of muscle fibers, or the length of the corresponding bones?

Facts are entertaining but I figured that they are big boys to be constantly entertained while shovelful of money is being spent for their university education. Facts are entertaining but there have to come a time when these big boys stop and wonder at the brain power, Herculean patience, and hard work behind these amusing sessions.

The next assignment was to observe the business of the family’s bread earner, note down the minute tasks of his typical day work, learn about the business by attempting to generate detailed answers from a questionnaire they have to develop based on a set of investigative query and problems related to human factors performance criteria in the assignment sheet, and to report back what are the routine and daily tasks that enabled the students to join a university.  Three students worked with their fathers’ in summer times and enjoyed the assignment; the remaining students could not shake off their 8th grade habits, wrote the questionnaire, mailed it, and waited for the answers.  I was expecting that the students would apply the methodology they learned in analyzing systems such as activity, decision, and task analyses but the good stuff was not forthcoming. To encourage them to cater to the business that they might inherit, I assigned them a lecture project that would generate the requisite analyses with a clear objective of focusing on near-accidents, foreseeable errors, safety of the workers and heath conditions in the work place.

So far, the products of the two quizzes were complete failures; although most of the questions in the second quiz were from the same chapter sources as the first quiz, it is amazing how ill prepared are the students for assimilating or focusing on the essential ideas, concepts, and methods. So far, with a third of the semester over, I can points to only two students who are delivering serious investment in time, hard work, and excitement and are shooting for a deserved grade of A.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

October 2008
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