How human parts are disposed of in hospitals? And why experiment are done exclusively on male rats?
How human parts are disposed of in hospitals?
Thousands of hospitals perform surgeries and remove internal organs, cut arms and legs, extrude placenta, amniotic membrane, fetuses, fat, skin from esthetic surgery… Do all these body parts are treated in the same manner? Can fetuses be considered refuse if unclaimed?
In Germany, a fetus less than a pound is thrown in the medical waste bin if unclaimed, otherwise, the hospital bury it.
When a patient requests, before surgery, his body part, the surgeon has to deliver the good, unless the part is infected. The code 180102 for disposing of body parts states that “Anatomical refuse of human organs, including blood bags, must be treated separately from household garbage. They must be expedited in special hermetic containers to authorized particular incinerators and burned at 1,100 degree celsius. The ash must be placed in special containers and transported to secure locations (usually, in disaffected mines)”
Remondis Medison is one of Germany’s specialized company for collecting the medical bins and performing the requested procedures and destruction processes. Hospitals dispose of 30 or 60 litres of such hermetic waste bins and the company pick up the filled bins every couple of days.
The main problem is that the procedure is expensive: a ton costs between $1,500 to 3000 for special treatment in Germany.
Before 1970 and the spread of AIDS, female amniotic membrane and placenta were used in cosmetic cremes. Many donated organs are transplanted but human body parts waste amounts to millions of tons per day.
It appears that many patients request their removed body parts in order to bury them in their gardens or in the cemtery.
It turned out that human pharmacopeia is biased toward male people; many medicines were removed from the market for their counter-effects on women. Why?
All mice and rats used in labs are males? And why?
Experimenting with female rats and mice generate big problems: The ovarian cycle is of only 4 days and vaginal tampons are to be used and hormone fluctuation is a difficult variable to control.
Thus, a researcher has to use four times more female rats than males for the same kind of experimental design.
It turned out that human pharmacopeia is biased toward male people; many medicines were removed from the market for their counter-effects on women.