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Archive for February 15th, 2015

 

 

 

NASA team hacks Opportunity to treat Mars Rover’s amnesia

Jan 01, 2015 by Amina Khan, Los Angeles Times

NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this southward uphill view after beginning to ascend the northwestern slope of “Solander Point” on the western rim of Endeavour Crater. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA’s Mars rover Opportunity has been working well into its golden years – after nearly 11 years roaming the Red Planet, it has survived more than 40 times past its warranty.
But now, this trusty veteran explorer is experiencing some worrisome memory loss.

The long-lived has been having some senior moments, according to John Callas, project manager for the Mars Exploration Rover mission (as Opportunity and its defunct twin Spirit are formally known).

The episodes of amnesia stem from faulty flash memory – the kind of memory in your digital camera that allows your pictures to stay saved even after your device is turned off.

But flash memory doesn’t last forever – and the seventh, final bank in the flash memory appears to be malfunctioning.

“Flash memory has a limited lifetime,” Callas said. “It only allows so many read-write cycles before it starts to wear out some of the cells. And after 11 years of operation on Mars, we now suspect we’re seeing a wear-out of some of those cells.”

This leads to a pair of problems.

Since the rover can’t use the seventh memory bank, it uses its random-access memory – or RAM, the kind of memory your computer uses when it’s on for temporary data storage. The problem is, as soon as the rover (or your computer) is switched off, the information stored in RAM is lost.

So if the rover turns off before sending all of its at-risk data back to its handlers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in La Canada Flintridge, then those data are lost forever.

That’s an annoying, but manageable, issue, Callas said.

The second snag is that the flash memory issue also causes the rover to reboot – and when it reboots, it stops the long-term activities the team had planned for the rover and simply waits for further instructions on the ground.

On weekends and over the holiday season, when people are out of the office, these unexpected hang-ups can put the team days behind schedule, Callas said.

“It’s like you’re taking a family trip and your car stalls, and every time your car stalls you have to call triple-A – but now it’s stalling every 20 miles,” Callas said. “You’re not going to make much progress.”

The researchers do have a clever little fix, Callas added.

The team plans on modifying the software so that the rover thinks it only has six banks’ worth of flash memory – which should make it skip faulty bank No. 7, since that’s at the very end. (They’re lucky the faulty segment wasn’t right in the middle of the module, Callas added – that would make a fix much more complicated.)

“You have a piece of lettuce you want to put on your sandwich and the edge of the lettuce is a little bit brown, and you just cut it off and you put the rest in your sandwich and you go,” Callas said by way of analogy. “Maybe you have a little less lettuce, but it doesn’t have any brown on it.”

Opportunity, which along with its twin Spirit arrived at the Red Planet in early 2004, set out to find signs of past water on Earth’s dry, dusty next-door neighbor. It did that and more, even finding evidence of past habitable environments in its later years that complemented the findings from its descendant, NASA’s 2012 rover Curiosity.

Opportunity was never meant to last this long, and it’s picked up a number of scars along the way. It’s been described as arthritic, with a gimpy elbow and a somewhat disabled front wheel, but that hasn’t kept the robot from logging roughly 26 miles on the Red Planet.

It’s unclear how long Opportunity will last, said Callas, who compared the aging rover to an elderly parent (one in good health, who still plays tennis every day).

“With each passing day we get one day closer to that end … but until that time, we’re going to keep going, keep exploring,” Callas said.

Do tamper your categorical opinions and positions on life

Contradictions in logical arguments do not directly relate to contradictions and paradoxes applied to real life.

The existential approach to life emphasizes the importance of the individual and his perspective on the world and his needs to make his own choices, particularly his own set of values, are pertinent, assuming that choices are available and the values applicable within the society conditions.

Life exigencies are proving that our claim of the existence of fundamental choices are actually absurd in most situations.

Think of those wretched and poor people who happened to be living in a desert-like type of climate and no rains fell for two successive years.

What choices had they to avoid famine and high child mortality?

Did the UN food relief camps happened to be erected at walking distance?

Claiming that our actions are causally determined is mostly a fallacy. Even what we think is an intentional action, well-thought out and reflected upon is fundamentally related to many other influences and factors that we have accumulated and internalized through our previous experiences, community customs and traditions.

No! Human free-will and determinism are not necessarily compatible and logical, simply because neither are materially proven and are just a priori premises that satisfy our ego as strong and determined individuals. The Will needs to be recharged frequently to have any impact, and we keep forgetting to recharge it by resting and enjoying quality times. And Will is never Free, but a highly expensive commodity that require assiduity on a long series of actions till fruition.

And no, the rightness of actions is not related to the consequences of the actions. Simply because consequences are not necessarily linked to the decision of an action, but are related to many other factors that could not be controlled or were not fully considered before and during the process of actions.

And yes, all events are caused, with the understanding that complex causes and interactions cannot be exhaustively contemplated or fathomed. Thus, we tend to drop the causality concept in real life because we comprehend the almost impossibility of considering the myriad of variables affecting any action-decision.

And yes, presentism (only the present exist) is not necessarily contradicting eternalism (past, present and future are merely different segments of the temporal dimension relative to where we are).

First, no one actually consistently believe that only the present exist.

Second, our memories and learned experiences are drawn from the past and based on habit acquired from consistent applications of reactions, customs and traditions.

Third, we need to define what is Present. Is it in seconds, minutes, hours, your own life, the life of mankind, your generation…? Eternalism must also be clear whether their concept includes the history of earth, and the universe with all the species of animals and plants.

We are unable to shed from our reasoning the inductive processes. If the trend in the past indicated certain outcomes, then it is highly probable that the outcomes will be the same.

We are exposed to several problems in inductive reasoning:

First,the problem is that the underlining condition is that nature and conditions are uniform.

Generation change, and even nature climate is changing. To what extend can we delimit the uniformity concept?

Second, we are not capable of remembering the conditions and situations in the past that generated a specific event to feel confident that the same outcome will take place.

Third, we tend to forget the observed instances and rely instead on the current instances of characteristics of the premises.

We need rough inductive reasoning to survive, regardless of the many errors that we are led to.

Inductive reasoning help us in our daily quick decisions by retrieving outcomes from our memories.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

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