Adonis Diaries

Archive for May 11th, 2015

Reversing Type 2 Diabetes: From FIFO to LIFO paths



John Peter  shared

Mechanisms that are First-In/First-Out (FIFO) (path independent) do not like variability and volatility (i.e., Jensen’s Inequality/Antifragility) as much as ones that are Last-In/First-Out (LIFO) (hence path dependent).
Take diabetes.

We are discovering that diabetes is not (as we thought) the result of being overweight, rather the effect of absence of variation, not losing weight, not having periods of starvation (that among other things, clean up the fat deposit in the pancreas that is LIFO).

So someone overweight who loses weight can be much better-off than the same person a bit thinner at stable weight.

There is plenty of research in diabetes hinting at this from many sides but nobody tried to put a systematic mathematical apparatus on it.

Though the math is not trivial (because of path dependence), I was able to play with it with Monte Carlo analyses.

Note that the Russians have known that for over a century.

Reversing Type 2 Diabetes

Our work has shown that type 2 diabetes is not inevitably progressive and life-long.

We have demonstrated that in people who have had type 2 diabetes for 4 years or less, major weight loss returns insulin secretion to normal.

It has been possible to work out the basic mechanisms which lead to type 2 diabetes.

Too much fat within liver and pancreas prevents normal insulin action and prevents normal insulin secretion. Both defects are reversible by substantial weight loss.

A crucial point is that individuals have different levels of tolerance of fat within liver and pancreas.

Only when a person has more fat than they can cope with does type 2 diabetes develop.

In other words, once a person crosses their personal fat threshold, type 2 diabetes develops. Once they successfully lose weight and go below their personal fat threshold, diabetes will disappear.

Some people can tolerate a BMI of 40 or more without getting diabetes.

Others cannot tolerate a BMI of 22 without diabetes appearing, as their bodies are set to function normally at a BMI of, say 19.

This is especially so in people of South Asian ethnicity.

Information for people with diabetes

Information for your doctor

It is important that people with diabetes discuss their management with their own doctor. It will take years for this new knowledge to become incorporated into textbooks and guidelines, so your doctor may be wary of information from the internet.

Newcastle University researchers have written some notes for you to take to your doctor. Download our information sheet for doctors on the practical management of type 2 diabetes in respect of reversal (PDF: 220KB).


Dinka, a Wonderful Nilotic Ethnic Group from Sudan


The Dinka are a Nilotic ethnic group from South Sudan. They live from the tenth century on both sides of the Nile River and speak a language belonging to the Nilo-Saharan group.

They are about 3 million and are divided into about 21 groups, each with its own legitimate leader.

Although farming has always been its main economic resource, there has never missed an important agricultural and fishing activity that allowed them to be self-sufficient in food.

Their trade and light industry are increasingly gaining importance.

Photographers Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher have an experience of over 30 years recording ceremonies, rituals and daily life of African tribal peoples.

His photographs reflect a long and deep relationship of respect for the customs and people of these tribes, especially those of the Dinka:


Dinka de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone wp-image-1872 size-full” src=”án-1.jpg” alt=”Dinka de Sudán” width=”628″ height=”862″/>

Dinka de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone wp-image-1873 size-full” src=”án-2.jpg” alt=”Dinka de Sudán” width=”628″ height=”812″/>

Dinka de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone wp-image-1874 size-full” src=”án-3.jpg” alt=”Dinka de Sudán” width=”628″ height=”860″/>

Dinka de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone wp-image-1875 size-full” src=”án-4.jpg” alt=”Dinka de Sudán” width=”628″ height=”887″/>

Dinka de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone wp-image-1876 size-full” src=”án-5.jpg” alt=”Dinka de Sudán” width=”628″ height=”858″/>

Dinka de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone wp-image-1877 size-full” src=”án-6.jpg” alt=”Dinka de Sudán” width=”628″ height=”885″/>

Dinka de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone wp-image-1878 size-full” src=”án-7.jpg” alt=”Dinka de Sudán” width=”628″ height=”866″/>

Dinka de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone wp-image-1879 size-full” src=”án-8.jpg” alt=”Dinka de Sudán” width=”628″ height=”513″/>


<img class=”alignnone wp-image-1880 size-full” src=”án-9.jpg” alt=”Dinka de Sudán” width=”628″ height=”463″/>

Dinka de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone wp-image-1881 size-full” src=”án-10.jpg” alt=”Dinka de Sudán” width=”628″ height=”452″/>

Dinka de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone wp-image-1847 size-full” src=”ágenes-de-una-tribu-de-Sudán-11.jpg” alt=”Dinka de Sudán” width=”628″ height=”426″/>

Impresionantes imágenes de una tribu de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone size-full wp-image-1848″ src=”ágenes-de-una-tribu-de-Sudán-12.jpg” alt=”Impresionantes imágenes de una tribu de Sudán” width=”628″ height=”418″/>

Impresionantes imágenes de una tribu de Sudán

Impresionantes imágenes de una tribu de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone size-full wp-image-1849″ src=”ágenes-de-una-tribu-de-Sudán-13.jpg” alt=”Impresionantes imágenes de una tribu de Sudán” width=”718″ height=”492″/>

Impresionantes imágenes de una tribu de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone size-full wp-image-1850″ src=”ágenes-de-una-tribu-de-Sudán-14.jpg” alt=”Impresionantes imágenes de una tribu de Sudán” width=”711″ height=”492″/>

Impresionantes imágenes de una tribu de Sudán

Impresionantes imágenes de una tribu de Sudán

Impresionantes imágenes de una tribu de Sudán 

<img class=”alignnone size-full wp-image-1854″ src=”ágenes-de-una-tribu-de-Sudán-18.jpg” alt=”Impresionantes imágenes de una tribu de Sudán” width=”628″ height=”417″/>

Impresionantes imágenes de una tribu de Sudán

Photos of Lebanon civil war: 40th commemoration

The voices behind the photos

An exposition of 40 pictures taken by 6 photographers  in the Villa Paradiso

Liban: Echos, les voix derrière les photographies,

Une exposition pour la 40ème commémoration de la guerre civile


A l’occasion de la 40ème commémoration du début de la guerre civile, le Comité International de la Croix Rouge et la Croix Rouge Libanaise organisent conjointement au sein de la Villa Paradiso, située dans le quartier d’Ashrafieh, à Gemmayzeh, elle-même rescapée de l’Histoire contemporaine une exposition regroupant témoignages écrits, audio, vidéo et photographies du conflit fratricide et des guerres contemporaines des victimes, et autres parties prenantes dont des volontaires et travailleurs humanitaires ayant opéré durant les heures les plus sombres de cette période.

Difficile de résumer le conflit par 40 photographies prises par 6 photographes, intitulée « Echoes, The Voices behind the Pictures » – « échos, les voix derrières les photographies » , allusion aux victimes présentes, morts ou blessés, disparus ou prisonniers, l’exposition a été inaugurée ce 16 avril en présence du secrétaire général de la Croix Rouge Libanaise Georges Kettaneh et du responsable local du CICR, Fabrizzio Carboni.

The exposition sera ouverte jusqu’au 26 avril 2015.

D’une durée de 15 ans, la guerre civile libanaise a fait entre 150 000 à 250 000 morts et on dénombre toujours aujourd’hui 17 000 disparus au cours de ses différentes phases.

Une exposition à voir, non pas pour en souffrir mais pour se remémorer des moments pénibles et pour plus encore, refuser tout nouveau conflit au Liban.

Le CICR organise au sein de la villa Paradiso, elle-même rescapée du conflit et de l’Histoire récente, située à Gemmayzeh, une exposition intitulée “Echoes, The voices behind the pictures”, regroupant témoignages et photographies des différentes phases de la guerre civile libanaise de 1975 à 1990, ainsi que quelques photographies des guerres israélo-libanaises de 1996 et de 2006.

Crédit photo: François el Bacha, tous droits réservés. Visitez mon blog

Cynthia Choucair and Jamil Berry  shared this link

Une exposition préparée par le CICR et la Croix Rouge Libanaise dont on entend cependant peu parler mais qu’il serait intéressant à voir pour se souvenir et pour dire plus jamais.

Echos, les voix derrière les Photographies ou le témoignage de la souffrance de la Guerre Civile, 40 ans après.

Lire la Suite: Liban: Echos, les voix derrière les photographies, une exposition pour la 40ème commémoration de la guerre civile…/…
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Liban: A l’occasion de la 40ème commémoration du début de la guerre civile, le Comité International de la Croix Rouge et la Croix Rouge Libanaise organisent…


 Fertilizers shipped from Turkey to ISIS to prepare suicide car bombs

Red letters on the sacks identified their contents as ammonium nitrate

Mixed with fuel oil, the compound forms an explosive that can be 85 % as powerful as TNT

AKCAKALE, Turkey —

The laborers work all day, piling bags of fertilizer onto carts and wheeling them through the crossing that connects this southern border town AKCAKALE, to Syria.

The Syrian town next door is firmly controlled by the extremists of the Islamic State (ISIS or Daesh), as is clear from the black flag flying over downtown.

And while the fertilizer, ammonium nitrate, is widely used for agriculture, it has also been used by terrorists around the world — including the Islamic State — to build powerful explosives.

Few here think the fertilizer is meant to help Syrian farmers.

“It is not for farming. It is for bombs,” said Mehmet Ayhan, an opposition politician from Akcakale who is running for Parliament. But he did not oppose the deliveries, saying they created jobs in his impoverished town.

“As long as the Turkish people benefit from this — regardless of where it goes on the other side — it is a good thing,” Mr. Ayhan said.

The rise of the Islamic State, also known as ISIS and ISIL, in Iraq and Syria has terrified the world.

Europe is struggling to stop its Muslims from slipping off to war; the United States is leading Arab countries in a bombing campaign; and Turkey has vowed to close its southern border to foreign fighters seeking to join the jihad.

But the open transport of ammonium nitrate into Islamic State territory points to lingering questions about Turkey’s commitment to isolating its jihadist neighbors.

Yet for the people here, the cross-border trade offers some relief in an economy that has been battered by the war in Syria.

Analysts said Turkey had recently made efforts to secure its border and to halt the flow of foreign fighters. But the country still allows cross-border trade that gives the Islamic State access to goods from energy drinks to fertilizer.

“Trade continues to go into the north, not just to ISIS, but ISIS is a tangential beneficiary of the trade policy,” said Aaron Stein, an associate fellow at the Royal United Services Institute who studies Turkey.

Cross-border connections have long defined Akcakale, which is home to 90,000 Turks and directly across the border from the Syrian town of Tel Abyad. The towns share so many family and trade ties that residents said they used to be like one town.

But the war has split them. Fleeing Syrians now outnumber the Turks in Akcakale; they have opened restaurants, and they work for lower wages. Smugglers who once moved sugar, tea and cement now move items like foreign jihadists.

One Turkish smuggler used to help Syrian rebels transfer goods and people across the border. Then the Islamic State offered him $35 a head to get its fighters into Syria, he said.

He moved 25 in, nearly all of them foreigners, before quitting because he worried that the Islamic State would threaten Turkey.

“I worked for them for two months, and I still regret that I let all those people in,” he said, withholding his name for fear of the jihadists.

Outside the border gate on a recent day, scores of Syrians lined up to return home. Nearby, traders sold sandwiches, drinks and cigarettes, an indulgence banned under the Islamic State.

Also for sale were black gowns for women needing to meet the jihadists’ dress code.

In line, Nasser al-Ali, 30, lifted a cigarette to his mouth with a tattooed arm. The jihadists also oppose tattoos.

“I can throw this away and cover this,” he said with a shrug, pointing to his cigarette and his tattoo.

There was little work in the city of  Raqqa, he said, but life under the jihadists was not bad.

“No one bothers you if you don’t bother anyone,” he said. When asked if the Islamic State would last, he smiled and said, “God willing.”

Four times on two recent days, reporters for The New York Times saw large wooden carts loaded with fertilizer enter the crossing and come back empty a short time later.

The workers then refilled their carts from a pile of sacks as large as a semi-truck in a nearby lot.

Red letters on the sacks identified their contents as ammonium nitrate.

When the reporters arrived at the crossing, the carts stopped moving. When asked what they contained, a City Hall employee who was escorting the reporters replied, “Flour.”

Residents said the shipments began a few months earlier between traders on each side. Some residents said the fertilizer was for agriculture, noting that it is sold legally in Turkey and widely used for farming.

But ammonium nitrate has also been a vital ingredient in some of the world’s most notorious terrorist attacks, including the bombing of the Oklahoma City federal building in 1995 and the bombings of the United States Embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998.

It has also been widely used by militants in Iraq and Afghanistan, and by the Islamic State.

Turkey, too, has been a victim; bombs made with ammonium nitrate struck Istanbul in 2003, killing scores of people.

Shown pictures of the sacks, John Goodpaster, a forensic chemist at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, said they were clearly marked as ammonium nitrate.

Mixed with fuel oil, the compound forms an explosive that can be 85 % as powerful as TNT, he said. Twenty pounds of the mix can fill a suicide vest, while 200 pounds can make a car bomb.

A bomb filled with about 45,000 pounds could damage 16 city blocks, Dr. Goodpaster said, adding that there appeared to be at least 55,000 pounds in the pile of sacks waiting to enter the crossing.

“That is a definite concern,” he said.

Turkish officials failed to explain why the substance was allowed to cross.

A spokesman for the Akcakale’s mayor’s office, Mustafa Guçlu, first denied that any fertilizer was crossing, then said that if there was any, it would be for agriculture.

An official in the governor’s office for Sanliurfa Province, which includes Akcakale, said fertilizer was not allowed to cross.

Another official, reached by phone at the crossing, said that about 500 Syrians returned home every few days and that each was allowed 30 or 40 bags of low-nitrate fertilizer, which is less explosive.

“There is no way high-ration nitrate fertilizer can go through, because we have ISIS on the other side,” the official said. Both officials spoke on the condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to talk to the news media.

Around town, the fertilizer shipments were common knowledge.

“Of course they use it to make bombs,” said Mustafa Kurt, a cafe owner.

Like many, he said he suspected that Islamic State fighters regularly passed through town, facing little interference from the authorities. “How can we tell the difference if they dress normal and aren’t carrying guns?” he said.

But he did not worry that they would launch attacks in Turkey, because that could hurt them in Syria. “They need us,” Mr. Kurt said. “Because if they hurt us, we can close the gate.”

Sabine Choucair  shared this link

Karam Shoumali and I were visiting the Turkish border town of Akcakale when we made a strange discovery: large shipments of fertilizer commonly used to make explosives crossing the border to territory controlled by the Islamic State. Raises questions about Turkey’s commitment to isolating its jihadist neighbors. With Ceylan Yeginsu and Christopher Chivers.

The fertilizer ammonium nitrate, which was used in explosives at the Oklahoma City federal building in 1995, has been moving into an extremist-controlled Syrian town…|By BEN HUBBARD




May 2015

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