Adonis Diaries

“The greatest work that has ever been created by anyone so far, in all times and locations”?

Posted on: July 1, 2016

The Introduction: Al Moukkaddima of Ibn Khaldoun

Greatest work ever?

“Al Moukkaddima of (Abderrahman Ibn Khaldoun al Hadrami, 1331, 1406)) is, without any doubt, the greatest work that has ever been created by anyone so far, in all times and locations
Arnold Toynbee in his “Study of history, 1935″

From the outside, History looks like a succession of dynasties and political events.
Taking a good look from the inside, history is meant to accede to truth, to explain the causes and origins of the facts.

“History is an independent discipline of philosophy and politics which are branches: the objective of history is to define human civilization and the social, economic and cultural events, taken in their totality, as a system (Ibn Khaldoun)”

Ibn Khladoun lived in a century of calamities: La grande peste qui tua 60% des population en France, Italie, Espagne, England and to a lesser extent in North Africa. C’etait une period de guerrre entre dynasties au Maghreb: Merinides (Maroc), Abdelwadides (Tlemsen, Algerie de L’ouest), Hafsides (Tunis, Bejaja, Biskra, Kairawan, Tripoli…)

Another nomadic influx came from western Sahara, the Almoravides, who expanded under a fundamentalism Islamic ideology and even spread to Andalusia.

What are the kinds of injustices committed by the power-to-be?

1. Speculation in trade of real estates

2. Force others to work for cheap

3. Imposing illegal taxes, mainly in indirect transactions

4. Not respecting the laws imposed on all the subjects

5. Confiscation of properties

Any law that hordes the surplus of production will quickly destroy the security and stability of a society.

All these injustices are mainly committed to satisfy the luxury standard of living of the powerful clans.

The inequalities observed in crumbling regimes are characteristics of the following processes:

1. Les etats rentiers sont caracterises par une forte concentration du pouvoir.
Le veritable noblesse de base n’appartient qu’a ceux qui ont l’esprit de clan.
les revenus des butins sont difficiles a distinguer parmi le souverain et la classe de nobless.

2. Les gains des commercants and artisans sont proportionelles aux capitaux investis. Les pratiques des classes aux pouvoirs sont de confisquees les resources qui ont degagees des surplus economiques: les prix sont administers, les taxes multiplies, et les douanes eleves

3. Ceux qui n’ont rien a gagner ou a perdre (paysans qui ont abandonnes leurs terre, petits artisans…) subissent de plein fouet toutes les pratiques rentieres et la famine est generalise. Les gens se disperssent pour trouver de quoi vivre a l’etranger

4. Le rapport economique entre campagnes et villes est ponctionne par les differentes composants de l’ économie citadine. Pour les Bedouins, leur seul espoir est d’obeir aux gens des villes

5. Dans une ville, l’inegale distribution des richesses divise les classes, et les classes les plus pauvres tendent a physiquement survivre du minimum. La cause est que la classe gouvernante delapide la richesse a des fins improductives. Toute classe sociale exerce le pouvoir sur les classes qui lui sont inferieures.

6. Donc, la puissance politiques du souverain depend du niveau des richesses produites par le travail de l’homme et des conditions de leur repartition.

7. Al Assabiyya (cohesion) des tribues se deteriore avec le declin economique .

Quand l’economie decline et le souverain (avec sa classe de clans au pouvoir) recourent a la force comme seul moyen

“Le peuple prend peur, devient deprime, cherche protection contre le souverain en recourant au mensonge, le ruse, la fraude. Cela influe sur le caractere des sujets qui se gate…

Le peuple abandonent leur roi  sur les champs de batailles et s’abstiennent de le soutenir dans ses entreprises defensives…”

La politique rationnelle fonde un system de moderateur or regulateur qui a engender 2 type de systems after l’Islam:

Type 1 est le califat qui tient compte du public avant l’interet de l’administration. Il dirige les gens selon la loi divine and entend preserver la foi. Seulement la loi divine rend le califat necessaire. Les clans qui n’etaient pas de Koreiche etaient excludes du califat.

Type 2: L’interet du monarque et ses clans devient priorite . Le monarque est l’objectif naturel de l’esprit de corps

L’Introduction fut la base de nombreuse disciples comme l’economie politique, sociologie, psychologie sociale, urbanism…

Note 1: Ibn Khaldoun (1332-1406) was born in current Tunisia and died in Cairo. Written by Smail Goumeziane (former Algeria minister of Commerce (1989-1991)

Note 2: Ibn Khladoun got immersed in politics for 3 decades in the many kingdoms in current Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Grenada and witnessed all kinds of coup d’ états, persecutions and exiles. He served as Chamberlin, Grand vizir, grand Judge (cadi) and all kinds of positions. he even served as lead negotiator with Tamerlan who was besieging Damascus. He stayed with Tamerlan for 7 months and eventually this butcher reneged on the promises and entered Damascus, massacred the population and displaced its artisans to Samarkand.

Ibn Khaldoun claimed to be originally from a Hilal tribe in Hardramout (current Yemen, close to the borders with Oman). He was part of the Dawawida tribe in Biskra, from which he hired mercenaries to various sultans.

He managed to get away from politics in 1372 and lived in the fortress of Beni Salama in order to write Al Mokaddama. Prior to that date, he published Ta3rif (autobiography),  Kitab Al 3ibar (Universal History), and commentaries on Al Busiri, Ibn Ruchd (Averroes) and the poet Ibn Khattib, and manuscripts on logic and arithmetics.

He travelled to Egypt in 1382 in order to join the caravan heading to the pilgrimage to Mecca and missed it. Thus, he ended up in Cairo.

In 1385, his wife and 5 daughters drowned before reaching Alexandria. His 2 other sons were Not in the convoy and met him a few months later.

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1 Response to "“The greatest work that has ever been created by anyone so far, in all times and locations”?"

Reblogged this on canisgallicus.

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