Adonis Diaries

Archive for September 2016

Ascending Mount Sannine in Lebanon:

The descent was the troubling part

There are 3 ways to descend Mount Sannine of Lebanon (barely 2,500 meters altitude):
La Grande Coulee, COUCADO, and Col Berland (seems that Berland managed to come down in just 34 seconds).

The descent is in most cases the hardest of any mountain climbing where people get injured.
The crest called Chamber of the French (Ghorfat fransawiyyeh) was erected by the Club Alpin Francais (CAF) in the 1920’s.

I managed to get to the top 3 times. The first time we had a substantial breakfast and a variety of mankoush and I had enormous pain digesting.

The second time, I was short on breath: The younger “mountaineers” considered that everyone of us must be a goat. All that I needed was just a few minutes to recover in this steep portion where Not a single bonsai tree or shrub grow.  I was climbing on my four.

A Syrian soldier in sandals (thongs) climbed down to help me to the top.

What bugs me is why after reaching the top, they all want to come down immediately. At least take some time to plant a flag, an underwear, anything to enjoy the scenery.

“You want to descend right away? Suit yourself”.

I remove my shirt, bare my chest, take off my “boots” (never had any kinds of boots to brag about) and my socks and lay down on a rock to dry my body.

Then, I change my socks and my shirt and get ready for the hardest part of the journey.

The last descent ( always the same route) was a catastrophe for me since we lost the way where we had to branche off.

We got lost and we could barely see ahead of us. The worst part is when the wind and the humidity put off the last of my cigarette lights.

At one point, most of the team got down using their behind as a gravity support.  I bucked and sat smoking a cigarette. They waited for me to decide and harangued me that it is Not that hard, to bruise my ass.

My nephew Cedric had to climb as help me descend.

I usually describe my adventures on my blog, but since these adventures diminished drastically, I opted Not to write any of the latest ones.

Could a book be worth $400?

Some people collect old cars or trade baseball cards.

I’m more interested in holding something I have a real connection with, something with ideas that have changed me. (May be the other collected items have the same connections?)

I’ve written in the past about luxury goods and the value of physical artifacts in a digital world.

A book is a special object, a time-tested conveyor of not just information, but emotion and connection. Some of my best friends are books.

This summer, I put together a worldwide team to create a book that might be worth owning, saving and sharing.

The goal was to create a substantial and beautiful book that would be scarce, valuable and worth it. (The elite acquisition? like old cars? old paintings?…)

We sent the files to the printer last week, and I couldn’t be more excited about what we’ve created. You can see some sample pages and read about the history of the project here.

It’s absolutely the most beautiful thing I’ve ever been privileged to put my name on. (Pretty subjective superlative). It weighs more than 15 hardcover books and is 800 pages long.

All the words are already online for free (it’s a collection of my online writing over the last four years). What you can’t get online, though, is the feeling of owning it and the joy of gifting it.

A few thousand people pre-ordered their reserved copy last week, and now we’re opening a window for pre-ship orders.

As I write this there are fewer than 2,400 copies available for sale between now and September 9th. There will be one more window at a higher price for any remaining copies in November when the books begin to ship. (How many billionaires does this world assess?)

There’s only one printing, and when the book is gone, that’s all there is.

The book doesn’t actually cost $400 or even half that, but the shipping fees to some countries are ridiculous. We worked hard to create something inspiring and timeless, and we’re doing our best to get it to the few people who would like to be part of this journey.

I hope you’ll take a moment to check it out here. Thanks for making it possible.

Posted by Seth Godin on September 06, 2016

The World’s Newest Major Religion: No Religion

As secularism grows, atheists and agnostics are trying to expand and diversify their ranks.

You don’t usually think of churches as going out of business, but it happens. In March, driven by parishioner deaths and lack of interest, the U.K. Mennonites held their last collective service.

It might seem easy to predict that plain-dressing Anabaptists—who follow a faith related to the Amish—would become irrelevant in the age of smartphones, but this is part of a larger trend.

Around the world, when asked about their feelings on religion, more and more people are responding with a meh.

The religiously unaffiliated, called “nones,” are growing significantly. They’re the second largest religious group in North America and most of Europe. In the United States, nones make up almost a quarter of the population.

In the past decade, U.S. nones have overtaken Catholics, mainline protestants, and all followers of non-Christian faiths.

Asad Ghsoub shared this link
news.nationalgeographic.com

A lack of religious affiliation has profound effects on how people think about death, how they teach their kids, and even how they vote.  (Watch The Story of God With Morgan Freeman for more about how different religions understand God and creation.)

There have long been predictions that religion would fade from relevancy as the world modernizes, but all the recent surveys are finding that it’s happening startlingly fast.

France will have a majority secular population soon. So will the Netherlands and New Zealand. The United Kingdom and Australia will soon lose Christian majorities.

Religion is rapidly becoming less important than it’s ever been, even to people who live in countries where faith has affected everything from rulers to borders to architecture.

But nones aren’t inheriting the Earth just yet. In many parts of the world—sub-Saharan Africa in particular—religion is growing so fast that nones’ share of the global population will actually shrink in 25 years as the world turns into what one researcher has described as “the secularizing West and the rapidly growing rest.”

(The other highly secular part of the world is China, where the Cultural Revolution tamped down religion for decades, while in some former Communist countries, religion is on the increase.)

And even in the secularizing West, the rash of “religious freedom bills”—which essentially decriminalize discrimination—are the latest front in a faith-tinged culture war in the United States that shows no signs of abetting anytime soon.

Within the ranks of the unaffiliated, divisions run deep.

Some are avowed atheists. Others are agnostic. And many more simply don’t care to state a preference.

Organized around skepticism toward organizations and united by a common belief that they do not believe, nones as a group are just as internally complex as many religions. And as with religions, these internal contradictions could keep new followers away.

Millennials to God: No Thanks

If the world is at a religious precipice, then we’ve been moving slowly toward it for decades.

Fifty years ago, Time asked in a famous headline, “Is God Dead?” The magazine wondered whether religion was relevant to modern life in the post-atomic age when communism was spreading and science was explaining more about our natural world than ever before.

We’re still asking the same question. But the response isn’t limited to yes or no.

A chunk of the population born after the article was printed may respond to the provocative question with, “God who?” In Europe and North America, the unaffiliated tend to be several years younger than the population average.

And 11 percent of Americans born after 1970 were raised in secular homes.

Scientific advancement isn’t just making people question God, it’s also connecting those who question.

It’s easy to find atheist and agnostic discussion groups online, even if you come from a religious family or community. And anyone who wants the companionship that might otherwise come from church can attend a secular Sunday Assembly or one of a plethora of Meetups for humanists, atheists, agnostics, or skeptics.

The groups behind the web forums and meetings do more than give skeptics witty rejoinders for religious relatives who pressure them to go to church—they let budding agnostics know they aren’t alone.

But it’s not easy to unite people around not believing in something.

“Organizing atheists is like herding cats,” says Stephanie Guttormson, the operations director of the Richard Dawkins Foundation, which is merging with the Center for Inquiry. “But lots of cats have found their way into the ‘meowry.’”

Guttormson says the goal of her group is to organize itself out of existence. They want to normalize atheism to a point where it’s so common that atheists no longer need a group to tell them it’s okay not to believe, or to defend their morals in the face of religious lawmakers.

But it’s not there yet.

Atheism’s Diversity Problem

The Center for Inquiry in Washington, D.C., hosts a regular happy hour called Drinking Skeptically. On a Wednesday in late March, about a dozen people showed up to faithlessly imbibe, and all but one were white.

“Most of the groups I’ve seen have been predominantly white, but I’m not sure what to attribute that to,” says Kevin Douglas, the lone African-American drinker, shrugging at the demographics. He came from a religious family in New York and struggled internally with his skepticism until shortly after college. The only time he mentions having difficulty with others accepting his atheism was when he worked in Dallas, Texas, and race, he says, had little to do with it.

But more typically, “there is pressure from our [African-American] community,” says Mandisa Thomas, the founder and president of the Atlanta-based Black Nonbelievers, Inc. This pressure stems from the place religion—Christianity in particular—holds in African-American history.

In the abolition movement churches “became a support system for blacks. It became almost the end-all be-all for the black community for a number of years,” Thomas says, adding that the Civil Rights movement was dominated—she says “hijacked”—by religious leaders.

“If you either reject or identify as a nonbeliever, you’re seen as betraying your race,” she says.

Thomas is an outlier among nonbelievers for another reason. She’s a woman.

The secularizing West is full of white men.

The general U.S. population is 46 percent male and 66 percent white, but about 68 percent of atheists are men, and 78 percent are white. Atheist Alliance International has called the gender imbalance in its ranks “a significant and urgent issue.”

The Privilege of Not Believing

There are a few theories about why people become atheists in large numbers. Some demographers attribute it to financial security, which would explain why European countries with a stronger social safety net are more secular than the United States, where poverty is more common and a medical emergency can bankrupt even the insured.

Atheism is also tied to education, measured by academic achievement (atheists in many places tend to have college degrees) or general knowledge of the panoply of beliefs around the world (hence theories that Internet access spurs atheism).

There’s some evidence that official state religions drive people away from faith entirely, which could help explain why the U.S. is more religious than most Western nations that technically have a state religion, even if it is rarely observed.

The U.S. is also home to a number of homegrown churches—Scientology, Mormonism—that might scoop up those who are disenchanted with older faiths.

The social factors that promote atheism—financial security and education—have long been harder to attain for women and people of color in the United States.

Around the world, the Pew Research Center finds that women tend to be more likely to affiliate with a religion and more likely to pray and find religion important in their lives. That changes when women have more opportunities.

“Women who are in the labor force are more like men in religiosity. Women out of the labor force tend to be more religious,” says Conrad Hackett with Pew. “Part of that might be because they’re part of a religious group that enforces the power of women being at home.”

In a Washington Post op-ed about the racial divides among atheists, Black Skeptics Group founder Sikivu Hutchinson points out that “the number of black and Latino youth with access to quality science and math education is still abysmally low.” That means they have fewer economic opportunities and less exposure to a worldview that does not require the presence of God.

Religion has a place for women, people of color, and the poor. By its nature, secularism is open to all, but it’s not always as welcoming.

Some of the humanist movement’s most visible figures aren’t known for their respect toward women. Prominent atheists Sam Harris and Richard Dawkins have awful reputations for misogyny, as does the late Christopher Hitchens. Bill Maher, the comedian and outspoken atheist, is no (nonexistent) angel, either.

The leaders of Atheist Alliance International, Dawkins Foundation, and Center for Inquiry who I talked to were all well aware of the demographic shortcomings, and they’re working on it: All of the leaders I spoke to were women.

Even people who are white, male, and educated may fear the stigma of being labeled a nonbeliever.

A white dentist at the CFI’s Drinking Skeptically event didn’t want to go on the record out of a fear that patients wouldn’t want an atheist working on their teeth.

“We have this stigma that we’re combative, that we’re arrogant, that we just want to provoke religious people,” Thomas with Black Nonbelievers, Inc. says. She’s working on changing that, and increasing the visibility of nonbelievers of color, too.

Thompson believes the demographics of nones don’t accurately reflect the number and diversity of nonbelievers; it just shows who is comfortable enough to say they don’t believe out loud.

“There are many more people of color, there are many more women who identify as atheists,” she says. “There are many people who attend church who are still atheists.”

Expanding the Ranks

What’s sometimes called the New Atheism picked up in the mid-2000s. These were years of war, when Islam was painted as a threat and Christianity infused U.S. policy, abroad and domestically, most visibly in faith-based ballot initiatives against same-sex marriage.

In the U.S., many state legislators are still using a narrow interpretation of Christian morals to deny services to gay people and appropriate restrooms to people who are transgender.

But the national backlash to religious legislation has become faster and fiercer than ever before.

Europeans seem set on addressing Islamophobia and the forces that could create tension with the “rapidly growing rest.”

And compared to past campaign seasons, religion is taking a backseat in this year’s U.S. presidential election. Donald Trump is not outwardly religious (and his attraction of evangelical voters has raised questions about the longevity and the motives of the religious right).

Hillary Clinton has said “advertising about faith doesn’t come naturally to me.”

And Bernie Sanders is “not actively involved” in a religion.

Their reticence about religion reflects the second largest religious group in the country they hope to run. Aside from Ted Cruz, the leading candidates just aren’t up for talking about religion. The number of Americans who seek divine intervention in the voting booth seems to be shrinking.

For all the work secular groups do to promote acceptance of nonbelievers, perhaps nothing will be as effective as apathy plus time. As the secular millennials grow up and have children of their own, the only Sunday morning tradition they may pass down is one everyone in the world can agree on: brunch.

A system that can read your hidden excitement, happiness, anger, or sadness. With or without your cooperation?

It’s called “EQ-Radio,” and it’s the creation of MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL).

September 23, 2016 by Robby Berman

They claim it’s accurate 87% of the time. It reads your feelings by bouncing ordinary WiFi signals off of you that can track your heart rate. There are no on-skin sensors involved with EQ-Radio.

How EQ-Radio Works

WiFi is a two-way form of communication: Your router carries internet data to your laptop, which then transmits data back to the router en route to the internet.

An EQ-Radio measures the speed at which data completes a round trip to its target — for example, you — and analyzes fluctuations in that speed to measure your heart rate. It’s your heart rate that gives away your emotional state. (Is there Not a wide array of emotions?)

The correlation of heartbeat to emotion in each person is unique to some extent, but MIT says they can accurately assess the emotional state even of people they’ve never before studied 70% of the time.

Mingmin Zhao, on the MIT team, told MIT News, “Just by knowing how people breathe and how their hearts beat in different emotional states, we can look at a random person’s heartbeat and reliably detect their emotions.”

One of the challenges the team faced was filtering out extraneous “noise” such as breath sounds to clearly detect the heart rate.

Bear in mind that it’s not audio that EQ-Radio has to analyze, but instead data that reflects the speed of the WiFi bounceback.

So “noise” refers to irrelevant data, not the actual sound of, say, your breath. That they’re able to measure heart rate with about a .3% margin of error is remarkable. That’s as good as an ECG monitor.

The EQ-Radio software is based on previous work the lab has done using WiFi to detect human movement. The goal of the earlier work was to use WiFi in smart homes that could do things like control heat and lighting based on your location, and detect if an elderly person has fallen. (It’s also seen as having potential use for animation motion-capture in films.)

The junction of that earlier project and EQ-Radio was the exploration of more-accurate health-tracking wearable devices.

The Possible Uses of EQ-Radio

There are a number of obvious applications for EQ-Radio, such as:

  • Far more accurate test screenings and focus groups for ad agencies and film studios
  • Smart homes that can adjust lighting and environmental controls to match, or help you out of, your mood
  • Smart hotels that could continually customize a guest’s environment according to mood
  • Non-invasive healthcare and psychiatric monitoring, with office or home-installed systems
  • Directed advertising based on an assessment of a target’s mood
  • Interrogations

Hopefully, EQ-Radio won’t turn up in personal devices that let you “read” the emotions of people around you.

(And after all these emotional diagnosis? How are our health to be treated? By EQ-Radio also? Can the people receive any feedback? Is this a one-way technique to accumulate meta data for ad. agencies?)

EQ-Radio and Privacy

When EQ-Radio moves beyond its current laboratory setting, there’ll be obvious privacy concerns: Do you have the right to keep your feelings to yourself? (Are you kidding?)

If you’re in a public place — say, a hospital or theater — where an EQ-Radio system is in operation, will a signed release from you be required before your emotional state can be tracked?

Would you have to give a police department permission to monitor your feelings during an investigation, or could you refuse as you can a polygraph test?

Could an authoritarian government “read” its citizenry at will?

Will this become a standard tool to anti-terrorism authorities?

It may be that the right to private emotion is the next personal freedom. It remains to be seen whether we’ll be asked to surrender it.

(Again. Welcome to this absurd future).

If you were born in a subjugated nation

Antoun Saadeh: Founder and leader of the Syrian National Social party (since 1936, during the French mandated power over Lebanon and Syria).

In a speech to immigrant youths in Santiago (Argentina) in 1940, during his forced exile from Lebanon, an exile that lasted till 1946.  The immigrant youths were Lebanese, Syrians, Palestinians… what the Party consider as one people, sharing the same culture, history and an economic life cycle.

First generation Immigrants who fled their occupied country, for any reason, feel their life is not complete, until they share in any kinds of resistance to the occupier.

Leading a passive life style in their foreign country, even if living in the most powerful of nations, affect the second generation in apathetic behaviour toward changing the status of the new host country.

Saadeh went on for 2 hours to remind the youth of the history of their Syrian nation since antiquity: Inventions, creativity, culture, the application of democracy, the navigation zeal to establish city-state around the Mediterranean Sea basin, the civil laws, the written language using alphabet…

Should Not forget that the entire world owe you much of what is practicing and it is about time to shed the apathy attitude that you are Not worth building an autonomous nation and proud nation.

‎علي كركلا‎'s photo.

علي كركلا to إضاءة اليوم. June 26 at 8:59am ·

تحيا سورية،
إضاءة اليوم:

…وهنا نقطة دقيقة قلّما يهتمّ بها الآباء ولكنّ الأبناء يهتمّون بها، وهي تشغل عقولهم وهي هٰذه: إنّ الولد الّذي أبوه من بلاد مستَعبَدة لا يكون فخاره كاملاً ولو وُلد في أعظم بلاد العالم. لأنّه يشعر دائمًا أنّه من أصلٍ غير متوفرة فيه شروط الكرامة والمجد.
فهٰذا الألم الخفيّ الّذي يكدّر سعادة كلّ أولاد السّوريين في أميركة جاء الآن من يزيله من صدورهم، ويبدّله بشجاعةٍ وقوةٍ وافتخار.
في إحدى اللّيالي وضع حضرة الزّعيم الخارطة أمام الشّـبّان، وكانوا جماهير مزدحمة، وأخذ يسرد لهم أمجاد سورية الخالدة وما أعطته إلى العالم من العلوم والاكتشافات في العصور القديمة، وكيف أنّ أعظم أنواع الفلسفة ظهرت في سورية، كما ظهر فيها أعظم القوّاد الّذين رسموا خططًا حربيّة لا تزال مستعملة عند أعظم الأمم، لأنّ الفكر البشريّ إلى الآن لم يتوصّل إلى أحسن منها.
ثمّ ذكر الشّرائع الّتي يسير عليها البشر فأبان لهم كيف أنّ الشّعاع الأوّل ظهر في سورية، وأخذ يمتدّ من هناك إلى العالم حيث أخذه المفكّرون مثالاً نسجوا عليه وأضافوا إليه ما قضت الحال به، ولا يزال ذٰلك إلى عصرنا هٰذا.
أمّا الدّيمقراطيّة الّتي يفتخر بها العالم الآن فهي من صنعٍ سوريّ أيضًا، لأنّ أوّل فكرة ديموقراطيّة تُعطي الشّعب حقّه في إبداء الرّأي في سائر شؤونه ظهرت في سورية، وبلا شك هي الغرسة الأولى في هٰذا الباب الّتي أعطت الثّمر الكثير للعالم كلّه، ولا يزال البشر إلى الآن يجاهدون في إيصال هٰذه الفكرة “حقوق الإنسان” إلى حدّ الكمال.
وأعظم ما يشير إليه الزّعيم في هٰذا الموضوع هو أنّ السّوريين القوميين يجب أن يعرفوا واجبهم في هٰذه القضيّة الخطيرة، وأنّ العالم بأسره ينتظر منهم تفكيرًا جديدًا، ولا سيّما في الوجهة الدّيمقراطيّة الّتي أصبحت الآن في حالٍ مبهمة، فالسّوريّ القوميّ يجب أن يعالجها من جديد ويدفعها إلى العالم كاملة.
فالسّوريّ المفكّر يجب أن يهتمّ في إنقاذ الدّيمقراطيّة من الهلاك. وذٰلك بأن يزيل ما دخل إليها من الفساد ويُدخل إليها تفكيرًا ينطبق على ما وصل إليه النّاس من العلم والمعرفة، فتصير صالحة لنفع الإنسان وتكفل حقوق الإنسان من كلّ مهاجمة وتعدٍّ.
هٰذا هو الإصلاح الّذي تتمخّض به البشريّة ولا بدّ أن يولد. فإذا جاء عن يدٍ سورية تكون هٰذه البلاد العزيزة – بلادنا – ولّدت الدّيمقراطيّة، ثمّ أنقذتها من الهلاك عندما داهمتها الأخطار الكثيرة. إنّ الأمّ تفهم آلام ابنها وتداويها أحسن من جميع النّاس.
ثمّ ذكر الزّعيم الأساطيل البحريّة الّتي كان السّوريّون أوّل من أوجدها في العالم، ثمّ إقامة المدن على السّواحل وفتح المعاملة التّجاريّة مع باقي البلدان، ومشاركة المرأة الرّجل في سائر الأعمال، إلى غير ذٰلك من الأعمال الّتي جاءت بها سورية قبل غيرها، ودفعتها إلى العالم مثالاً ينسجون على منواله.
أمّا اكتشاف حروف الهجاء فهو بلا شك أوّل درجة من سلّم التّرقّي البشريّ، إذا لم تكن أعظم درجة فيه على الإطلاق، وهو اكتشاف سوريّ لا ينازعنا فيه منازع.
هٰذه المحاضرة دامت أكثر من ساعتين وكانت جماهير الشّـبّان كلّها آذان صاغية كأنّ على رؤوسهم الطّير، كما يقولون، وما انتهى الزّعيم من الكلام حتّى هتفوا جميعًا من أعماق قلوبهم، وكأنّ كلّ واحد منهم تولّدت فيه شخصيّة جديدة أو كأنّه وجد شيئًا ييحث عنه ويرغب في الوصول إليه…
سعاده
الأعمال الكاملة، الجزء 4، صفحة 42-40
“الزّعيم في سانتياغو أيضًا”
“الشّبيبة كلّها تؤيّد مبادئ السّوريين القوميين”
عن “سورية الجديدة”، سان باولو، العدد 68،

1940/6/1

A Biography of Antoun Sa3adeh

Abou Majed with ‎شوقي خير الله‎ ‎.

بعرف إنو كلكم قاريين عن حياة الزعيم، بس تنشيط الذاكرة منيح

وقفات العزّ فيك بتعتزّ

أنطون سعادة (1 مارس 1904 – 8 يوليو 1949)، مؤسس الحزب السوري القومي الاجتماعي. ولد في بلدة الشوير في جبل لبنان. والده الدكتور خليل سعادة ووالدته نايفة نصير خنيصر.

تلقى علومه الأولى في مدرسة الفرير في القاهرة، وبعد وفاة والدته عاد إلى الوطن ليعيش في كنف جدته حيث سافر والده للعمل في الأرجنتين، وأكمل علومه في مدرسة برمانا. عام 1919 هاجر مع أخوته إلى الولايات المتحدة الأميركية وهناك عمل عدة أشهر في محطة للقطارات وبعدها انتقل إلى البرازيل حيث المقر الجديد لعمل والده.

في البرازيل، أقبل على نهل العلوم بمواظبة واهتمام على يد أبيه، وانكب على دراسة اللغات بجهد شخصي (برتغالية، الألمانية، و الروسية). بعدها، اتجهت قراءاته إلى الفلسفة والتاريخ وعلم الاجتماع والسياسة. وما لبث أن شارك والده في إصدار جريدة الجريدة، ثم في مجلة المجلة.

ظهرت كتاباته الأولى عندما كان في الثامنة عشرة. ونشر خلال عامي 1922 – 1923 عدة مقالات طالب فيها بإنهاء الاحتلال الفرنسي واستقلال سوريا ، واستشرف مشروع الحركة الصهيونية وخطره على سوريا الطبيعية رابطاً بين وعد بلفور بوطن قومي لليهود في فلسطين وبين اتفاقية سايكس بيكو التي قسمت سوريا الطبيعية إلى خمس كيانات.

حاول عام 1925 تأليف حزب لتوحيد أبناء الجالية السورية في البرازيل باسم “الشبيبة الفدائية السورية”، لكنه لم يلاق نجاحاً. وأعاد المحاولة عام 1927 فأسس “حزب السوريين الأحرار”، الذي توقف نشاطه بعد ثلاث سنوات.

وإثر توقف مجلة المجلة عن الصدور (1928) انصرف أنطون سعادة إلى التعليم في بعض المعاهد السورية في ساو باولو، كما شارك في بعض اللجان التربوية التي أقامتها الحكومة البرازيلية للإشراف على تطوير المناهج التعليمية، وفي هذه الفترة كتب رواية “فاجعة حب” التي نشرت فيما بعد في بيروت، وفي صيف 1931 أصدر روايته الثانية “سيدة صيدنايا”.

في تموز 1930 عاد أنطون سعادة إلى الوطن من البرازيل، وبعد إقامة قصيرة في ضهور الشوير سافر إلى دمشق لدراسة إمكانية العمل السياسي فيها، كونها العاصمة التاريخية لسوريا ومركز المعارضة السياسية للانتداب الفرنسي، فمارس التعليم لتأمين رزقه، وكتب سلسلة من المقالات في الصحف الدمشقية “اليوم، القبس، ألف باء”، لكنه سرعان ما عاد إلى بيروت (1931) وبدأ بإعطاء دروس من خارج الملاك في اللغة الألمانية في الجامعة الأميركية في بيروت. وقد أتاح له التدريس ساحة واسعة للحوار الفكري مع الطلبة والوسط الثقافي، إضافة إلى منابر فكرية أتاحتها له عدة جمعيات ثقافية في بيروت، منها : العروة الوثقى – جمعية الاجتهاد الروحي للشبيبة – “النادي الفلسطيني”. وقد حفلت هذه المحاضرات ببواكير فكرة القومي الاجتماعي في مرحلة ما قبل إعلان الحزب، وهو ما تمخض عنه فيما بعد العقيدة القومية الاجتماعية، المنهج الفكري للحزب السوري القومي الاجتماعي الذي أسسه في 16 تشرين الثاني 1932، وكان حزباً سرياً بسبب الظروف الصعبة الناجمة عن الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا الشمالية (لبنان وسوريا).

الوطن السوري كما يراه الحزب السوري القومي الاجتماعي
في عام 1933 أعـاد أنطون سعادة إصدار مجلة “المجلة” في بيروت لتساهم في توضيح أسس النهضة السورية القومية الاجتماعية التي طرحها، وعلى صفحاتها ظهرت في المشرق العربي، ولأول مرة، دراسات تحليلية لموضوع “الأمة” استناداً إلى علم الاجتماع الحديث، وبرؤية مستقلة عن نظريات الغرب التي فلسفت الأمة من منظور عرقي، وسياسي أحياناً أخرى.

في حزيران عام 1935، وبعد أن أصبح انتشار الحزب ملموساً في الأوساط الشبابية والثقافية، أقام سعادة الاجتماع العام الأول رغم سرية الحزب، وفي هذا الاجتماع ألقى خطاباً مكتوباً هـو من أهم الوثائق الفكرية في العقيدة السورية القومية الاجتماعية، ودليل عمل حركة النهضة القومية الاجتماعية التي يهدف إليها الحزب، لكن سلطات الانتداب الفرنسي سرعان ما اكتشفت أمر الحزب نتيجة معلومة نقلها رئيس الجامعة الأميركية إلى السلطة الفرنسية، فاعتقلت في 16 تشرين الثاني 1935 سعادة وعدداً من الأعضاء بتهمة تشكيل جمعية سرية والإخلال بالأمن العام والإضرار بأمن الدولة وتغيير شكل الحكم، فأصدرت سلطات الانتداب الفرنسي قراراً بسجنه ستة أشهر، أكمل خلالها كتابة مؤلفه العلمي “نشوء الأمم” الذي صدرت طبعته الأولى عام 1938. وخرج من السجن في 12 أيار 1936.

اعتقلت سلطات الانتداب سعادة مرة ثانية في 30 حزيران 1936 (أي بعد أسابيع من الإفراج عنه) لأن مشروع سعادة أصبح يهدد السياسة الاستعمارية الفرنسية بفصل لبنان عن سوريا التاريخية ،وتشكيل لبنان كقدم لفرنسا في الشرق الأوسط، وظل في السجن إلى 12 تشرين الثاني 1936 وخلال هذه الفترة أنجز سعادة كتابه شرح مبادئ الحزب وغايته.

أعيد اعتقاله في 9 آذار 1937 وظل في السجن حتى 15 أيار 1937. وفي 14 تشرين الأول 1937 أصدر جريدة النهضة التي استقطبت النخبة الثقافية الشابة في تناول السياسة الخارجية والأمور الفكرية والردّ على القوى السياسية المناوئة، وقد حظيت ردود سعادة القومية على البطريرك الماروني والأحزاب الانعزالية في لبنان والشام باهتمام كبير من مختلف الأوساط.

في 11 حزيران 1938 غادر سعادة الوطن في جولة على فروع الحزب في المغتربات. وسافر براً من بيروت إلى الأردن ومنها إلى فلسطين، حيث اجتمع مع السوريين القوميين الاجتماعيين في عمان وفي حيفا. ثم إلى قبرص وألمانيا، ومنها سافر إلى البرازيل، حيث استقر في سان باولو مرتع صباه (كانون الأول 1938). وفور مغادرته بيروت قامت سلطات الانتداب بمداهمة مركز الحزب، وعطلت صحيفة النهضة، وحظرت على السوريين القوميين الاجتماعيين ممارسة العمل الحزبي، كما أصدرت مذكرة قضائية بمحاكمة سعادة. سجن شهراً في البرازيل بضغط من فرنسا، فغادر إلى الأرجنتين بعد خروجه وومكث فيها حتى أيار 1940 وظل في مغتربه القسري حتى عام 1947 وأصدر خلال هذه الفترة جريدة “الزوبعة”. بعد جلاء القوات الفرنسية عام 1946 حاول العودة إلى لبنان لكن تحالف بشارة الخوري (رئيس الجمهورية) ورياض الصلح (رئيس الحكومة) كان يعرقل عودته بحجة الحكم القضائي الصادر بحقه منذ أيام الانتداب. في 2 آذار 1947 وصلت طائرة سعادة إلى بيروت فأصدرت الحكومة اللبنانية في أعقاب الاستقبال الكبير مذكرة توقيف بحقه وألغتها في تشرين الأول 1947.

قام بإطلاق حركـة مواجهة قومية شاملة خلال حرب فلسطين 1948. وكان رد فعل الحكومة اللبنانية مباشراً، إذ أصدرت سلسلة قرارات منعت بموجبها الحزب من عقد الاجتماعات العلنية وحدثت عدة صدامات بين أعضاء الحزب والسلطة خلال احتفالات آذار 1949 وبعد الانتخابات البرلمانية الملغاة لجأ على إثرها سعادة إلى دمشق. استقبله حسني الزعيم، وبعد شهر، سلمه للسلطات اللبنانية وفق صفقة يوم 7 تموز 1949 فحاكمته وأعدمته فجر يوم 8 يوليو/تموز 1949.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

September 2016
M T W T F S S
 1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
2627282930  

Blog Stats

  • 1,377,254 hits

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.adonisbouh@gmail.com

Join 722 other followers

%d bloggers like this: