Adonis Diaries

Archive for October 3rd, 2017

Taxation’s redistribution effect

Kick-starting the process of change? On burdening even further the poorer classes?

Half of Lebanon workforce is in the public sector. That Not a force, it is resistance to reform change.

by 

Alain Bifani, director general of Lebanon’s finance ministry, tells Executive that newly enacted taxation will shore up revenue in the public coffer. (Yes, but the Lebanese getting poorer by the days can No longer suffer the hundreds of indirect taxes like these stupid stamps for every transaction)

During an interview at the end of August (before the constitutional court froze the new tax measures) Bifani detailed the tax measures and discussed their impact on segments of the population and on the economy.

He said that the new taxation plus the salary scale increase for public sector workers would lead to a redistribution of wealth, but cautioned that this is only a starting point toward leveling a fair system of taxation, and added that now is the time for lawmakers to seriously reform public spending.

  One of the early responses to the tax proposals was that an increase in taxation would have a subduing effect on the national economy. Can you comment on this notion from the perspective of the Ministry of Finance?

I think it’s an idea that is a bit simple because any tax hike has a negative impact on the economy.

But when the economy is suffering from a high deficit, and an increasing public debt, in addition to many other things, then one should expect that the deficit is brought under control, and that, one way or another, we have the breathing space to enable the economy to grow again. (And who brought about this yearly increase in public debt?)

There is an answer that has to come on the revenue side because the government hasn’t been able to contain the expenditures. (Expenditure to filling the coffers of the militia leaders of the civil war?)

To the contrary, we’re seeing a rise in expenditure to debt servicing, a rise in salaries, and a long-awaited wage increase. What can you do to contain the deficit? You either go for tax measures or higher debt. Debt has an even bigger and broader impact on the economy, and on the human beings in this economy. So what do you do? (Stop borrowing at high interest rates from the colonial powers)

Second, how about the loopholes in the system, where you have people bringing in lots of profits and not [being] taxed at all, like capital gains on real estate. This is outrageous. Of course these people are allowed to make profits, and we want them to. (No, we don’t want them to rob us dry)

We want banks to be profitable, we want companies to be profitable, we want individuals to be profitable. But we don’t want biases in the system. (Because we refuse to create a valid State?)

There is no reason why someone who buys and sells plots of land wouldn’t be taxed, whereas someone who invests in companies, creates jobs, and creates values would be. This is something that’s not only good for revenue, but also good for the fairness of the system. (So why this system is Not being applied in new tax scheme?)

There is a kind of redistribution effect when you slightly increase taxes on corporations, and when you bring the banks into the 5 percent tax system now at 7 percent.

Ideally, yes, I’d like to decrease taxes, but we have to face reality — we can’t have the salary scheme coming in, an increase in debt services, transfers to EDL that are crazy, hiring thousands of people in the system, and at the same time, saying ‘we don’t want to increase the burden,’ it’s just impossible. (To whom are you talking? The developed nations?)

  How much added burden does the Value Added Tax (VAT) increase to 11 percent translate for low income households?

On the small income layer the VAT increase is going to have an impact of 0.35 percent, [so] very little, up to $40 [over one year]. If you consider they spend mostly on housing, education, health, public transportation, insurance if they can, and basic foods of course — all of this is exempt from VAT. Clothing is not, and there are some food and beverages that are not. (A lot of crap. VAT is used a seesaw on every product and service and the cumulative 11% on the product reaching the customer is far higher than the 0. 35%)

  New tax revenues have been presented as if they’ll offset spending from the public sector wage increase. Can you tell us the aggregate number that would benefit from the wage increase?

My personal argument is the tax measures are not meant to offset the salary increase.

There is no allocation of resources, those are resources for the budget as a whole.

So it would be unfair to say we are taxing people to pay salaries. We are taxing people because we have a huge deficit and those [salary] increases should’ve happened way before all other expenditures took place and became recurrent. It’s true that the figures are more or less the same, and that was the occasion to pass the tax increase.

Who’s benefiting from [the salary increase]? You have an enormous amount of Lebanese households benefiting — I don’t really have a figure, but it is about 200,000. [Some households have several beneficiaries], roughly 10,000 civil servants, about 53,000 in public education, and about 110,000 in the armed forces, plus about 85,000 pensioners and retirees, you have contractuals, and people who work for public enterprises and municipalities.

It’s unfortunate that we ended up having so many people in the public sector because the private sector is not absorbing the workforce anymore.

But this is a fact, they are here, and by law, they are allowed to have this increase.

The impact is that, somehow, this is going to contribute to bring them up from below the [poverty] line to some sort of a middle class, which the country needs badly.  (Are you kidding us? A slight increase in 11 years would change the class structure in Lebanon?)

This will remain not enough until the government takes the proper steps to unleash the potential of the economy, allow the economy to grow again, and the private sector to be able to absorb the workforce especially [those] at the higher [level of] skills.

What’s badly missing in the country is that we aren’t able to create high value added jobs, and not even low.

  Do you forecast growth to the salary scale increase figure of $1.2 billion?

The $1.2 billion will grow or not depending on the pace of recruitment that we’re witnessing in the public sector, which has been extremely high in the last year.

For good reasons or bad, it doesn’t matter. But what would the good reasons be? For example, the security situation is forcing recruitment in the armed forces — fine. But this doesn’t mean that the solution is always more people. We can be effective differently, and we have to be because Lebanon simply can’t have half of its workforce in the public sector. It’s not normal, it’s not good for the future, and it’s absorbing too much of the meager resources that Lebanon has.

  With the salary increase, would the public sector’s share in the economy grow?

No, I’m not saying that necessarily it’s going to grow, but it’s one first step that is legally binding, and also, very important for the economy.

If you want to increase consumption, you have to increase the number of consumers (with affordable prices?).

When you provide a scale like that, you’re creating the possibility for many Lebanese households to become consumers again. On the other hand, you’re allowing them to live normally, to have their children go to school (in private schools?  Which increase tuition twice the salary increase and every year?), to universities, to be able to create something, and create value.

Once you do that in the public sector, the private sector has to realign. You can’t let the private sector realign on its own, it’s unfair when you have a system that doesn’t help it grow and create jobs. You have to help them, not by giving subsidies or anything like that, but by creating the proper environment for corporations to grow. (Are you insinuating that the business laws are handicapping the economy?)

This is going to be the next challenge. Otherwise, if we really miss that, the load on the private sector is going to be tremendous because those kinds of measures increase the load on them. It’s important on one hand, but it’s very important to have the proper follow up on the other end.

  Is there a tradeoff effect? Will inflation eat up some of these gains that people are looking forward to, and how will that be balanced by the Ministry of Finance?

Very roughly, if we look at inflation per se the figures look very stable, and they’re not likely to be high. We’re in the midst of a very low inflation period in Lebanon. After the whole operations that took place with the banks, the inflation didn’t really move, this is where logically the offset happened. (Thus, banks are the main source of inflation?)

Inflation in general terms, won’t matter a lot. (Since when?) What will matter are specific issues that are going to see hikes. For instance, private schools. It’s clear that if nothing happens, they’re going to increase the fees again. This, and many other issues, will probably eat up something like 15 to 20% of the increase. (Why you intentionally lower this percentage?)

This is a rough estimate, but you will still have about 80 percent net increase for those who are benefiting from the salary increase.

  Are you expecting redistribution of wealth that’s not going to be just on paper?

Between the tax measures and the salary scale, no doubt redistribution is going to happen. Nevertheless, this is a scale that’s far from being ideal, in terms of how fair it is, where and how and who’s getting what.

There are plenty of questions and plenty of things that are still not satisfactory. But again, when you want to start something, you have to have the system move, you have to kickstart the whole process hoping that some kind of positive momentum will take place.

  What kind of GDP growth rate is the ministry calculating for 2018?

We’re hoping to have 2.5% growth in 2018, but the figure is not yet final. (In which sectors, please?)

  In an op-ed for the September issue of Executive, a former minister of finance wrote that the Lebanese tax policy of the last two decades was not very coherent. What is your comment?

My comment is that he’s right. We have to admit that it’s not only the tax policy, it’s the whole fiscal policy that wasn’t coherent at all.

When you’re making comments, you can say things very clearly because you are commenting, but when you are a player from within, you have to fight to have some kind of coherence and to introduce what you think is required.

For instance, in the tax measures just the capital gain on real estate is something that I’ve been promoting for 17 years, since I joined the ministry. And you have to keep fighting. It was very clear from the beginning, we were a system that taxes labor and investment much more than any kind of windfall income.

And this is also a fight that’s going to take a long time because you’re fighting the main interests in the system. And yes, when you have weak governance, you can’t all of a sudden have something coherent put in place. It takes ages, but you have to keep fighting and pushing.

When you have weak governance, you can’t all of a sudden have something coherent put in place

  Do you see it as your mandate to push for coherence?

One of them, yes. And to tell you that today it’s very satisfactory after all these years? No, it’s far from being satisfactory. We still have a lot to do, but we will keep pushing.

  One of the things that the business community especially is very sensitive to is tax certainty and predictability into the future. What’s most realistic framework for looking ahead?

What happened now is probably something that won’t witness major changes for at least three years. Which, in terms of predictability, is very good; not to mention that, for the business community, the changes are not huge. (Meaning, no more salary increases in the coming 3 years?)

We should keep two things in mind.

The first is that we aren’t in tax hell here. The level of taxation is very reasonable. The citizen of Lebanon complains, and he’s right to complain because of the cost of public services. This is what is extremely high. The real burden on individuals in Lebanon is about the cost of utilities, of public services, everything that forces them to take a big cut on whatever is available to them to live properly.

Of course they call them taxes because all of this is considered as the cut, but if you really look at the tax burden on low income people, it’s practically nothing. (You mean the direct taxing scheme?)

The second, in addition to predictability, fairness is very important. We’re not yet in a very fair system. We know that and it’s our duty to admit it because if we don’t say how things are, then we won’t improve.

But we also have to bear in mind that from 2000 until now, the number of taxpayers in the system has been multiplied by 3.5, which means that the tax authorities are reaching practically everybody now in the system.

Now that we are reaching the margins that we basically have everybody integrated into the tax circle, compliance is also improving. For everybody complaining that the system is not fair and again, she or he are right to complain, and they have to complain because this is how things improve, they also have to realize that the improvement has been tremendous. We’re not coming from nothing, and it’s not still the same system that we used to have.

Those two things in parallel, improving the system as a whole, and improving its administration, are taking place. Maybe too slowly. But at least improvement is taking place on a permanent basis at three levels — policy, administratively, and at the services level.

Now you can settle your taxes, check on them using your mobile and e-services. This makes it easy. At the administrative level, we’re reaching roughly everybody in the country, increasing the compliance of most of the sectors and segments of the economy. At the policy level, we’re dealing with the loopholes, bringing more coherence, and decreasing the gap between windfall income and business and labor income.

  But do you still face challenges like lobbying for or against increases of taxation for products, such as tobacco or alcohol?

Those aren’t really the worst we face, they’re details in the system. Honestly, when it comes to tobacco, it doesn’t have much to do with lobbies. It really has to deal with the fact that the management of tobacco is still very much afraid of smuggling because we had a very tough experience in 1999-2000.

At that time, the interim minister was Nasser Saidi, and he decided to increase the rates, and the fall in income was unbelievable. It took us 11 years to come back to the levels of just before the hike. So this is something that is still in their minds, and they can see it. It’s immediate.

Whenever you increase slightly, you see flows. Again, the Ministry of Finance is not an island, and we can’t work alone. If the borders aren’t well kept, if the judiciary system doesn’t work well, and if the police isn’t able to enforce the law, then of course you take a hit on your revenue.

Alcohol is different. I believe it’s [the approved tax measure is] not adequate. And the text that was voted was not the text prepared by the ministry, it was amended. And I think it needs to be revisited because it’s harmful to imports and to tourism.

But those aren’t the lobbies that we’re fighting everyday.

  Which are those?

You have in the system much stronger lobbies who can twist the system to their benefit, just like in any other country. This is part of the game, and we have to admit that it takes a long time to convince, mobilize, and have lobbies facing lobbies.

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Who is behind resistance to Lebanese State dialogue with Syrian regime?

Almost all States have opened Embassies in Syria and negotiating business deals for the reconstruction of Syria after 7 years of devastating civil war.

Lebanese military and security forces, as long as many parties in the government, have opened lines of communications and cooperation with Syria, tacitly and directly.

The latest military victories on ISIS and Al Nusra Front that occupied our eastern mountain chains were mainly due to Syria army intervention and coordination with Lebanese army and Lebanon Hezbollah resistance force.

Who are behind the dragging of feet to establishing open channels with Syria? Especially to facilitate the return of 2 million Syrian refugees who have been a heavy burden on on economy, education and health institutions?

Certainly, Israel, USA and Saudi Kingdom are the main foreign powers that are exercising internal pressures Not to clear the way for open coordination and communications with legitimate Syrian institutions.

Many internal political parties are tightly linked to the diktat of these foreign powers and rely on their subsidies and political support. Who are they?

التحريض على السوريين: فَتِّش عن القوات

غسان سعود

في الشكل ثمة جمعية مرة، و»شبان الحيّ» مرة والتيار الوطني الحر مرات، أما في المضمون فهناك القوات اللبنانية وحدها. لا أحد يراها أو يسمع لها موقف، لكن ملائكتها حاضرة دائماً وهي المستفيد الوحيد من كل ما يحصل.

فبعيد تكفل التيار العونيّ بتبييض صفحة القوات ومحاولته محو آثامها بحق مجتمعها أولاً خلال الحرب الأهلية، ها هي المعزوفة تصدح من هنا وهناك عن تقصير الدولة و»يا محلا أيام الحرب» و»الأمن الذاتي» وغيرها من «الدرر». وللأمن الذاتي عنوان وحيد بطبيعة الحال هو معراب، لا منزل النائب جيلبرت زوين أو زميلها وليد الخوري وغيرهما من نواب التغيير والإصلاح. فهذا وذاك ممن يملؤون المواقع الافتراضية ببهلوانياتهم يسعهم «الحكي».

لكن حين تقع المشكلة أو «حين يدق الخطر على الباب»، وفق بروبغندا القوات، لن يكون هناك أحد مجهز وينظم ويسلح غير القوات اللبنانية طبعاً. فرغم إجماع أرقام وزارة الشؤون الاجتماعية على تفاقم الضغط الاقتصادي والاجتماعي والمعيشي للنازحين السوريين في طرابلس فعكار، هناك من يبالغ في التحريض على السوريين في جبل لبنان وزحلة وجزين. ومن دون أن ينكشف المصدر الحقيقيّ للشائعات، تنتشر يومياً عشرات الأكاذيب التي تتضخم وتتناقل بسرعة هائلة. ففي بلد يتجاوز فيه معدل السرقات اليومية الخمسين، يكفي أن يقبض على سارق سوريّ الجنسية من أصل خمسين ليندفع كثيرون إلى القول إن جميع السوريين سارقون.

وفي بلد، يتجاوز فيه معدل حالات التحرش والاغتصاب اليومية المصرَّح عنها العشرة، يكفي أن تتخيل إحدى الفتيات أن المتحرش بها سوريّ لتخرب الدنيا ويندفع كثيرون قائلين إن جميع السوريين مغتصبون ومتحرشون. ورغم تعدد الأزمات والعناوين الاقتصادية والاجتماعية الصالحة للتعبئة لا يجد بعض الأحزاب والزعماء شيئاً يفعلونه سوى تحميل اللاجئ السوري كل البلاء: شركة سوكلين كانت تقوم بواجبها لناحية جمع النفايات وفرزها، لكن بعد تضاعف عدد المقيمين في البلد بحكم المليون ونصف المليون لاجئ سوري، تضاعف حجم القمامة أيضاً وتجاوز قدرة سوكلين على الجمع والفرز وباتت الشركة تخسر. وعليه ينبغي التضامن مع «سوكلين» ولعن اللاجئين ونفاياتهم. أما المدرسة الرسمية فكانت بألف خير حتى أتاها اللاجئون بعد الظهر فباتت الطاولة تستخدم من قبل تلميذين بدل التلميذ الواحد، وحدثوا دون حرج عن الحمامات والملاعب والطابات وغيرها. علماً أن الزحمة في جونية

مثلاً أزمة طارئة يسببها العمال المجتمعون في «بورة» بجانب الطريق أو سيارات النازحين لا شيء آخر. أما أزمة التفاح فسببها الرئيسي عدم قيام الجمعيات المعنية بدعم اللاجئين بشراء الإنتاج اللبناني من التفاح. وما على المزارعين بالتالي سوى صبّ جام غضبهم على النازحين السورين والجمعيات المعنية بإغاثتهم. هناك نفور لدى بعض اللبنانيين تجاه جيرانهم أسوة بكل الجيران في العالم، صحيح. لكن ثمة مبالغة تثير الشك والريبة هذه الأيام. هناك من يتقصد يوماً تلو الآخر وضع إصبعه في جراح السوريين النازحين.

هناك من يعتقد أن العائلات السورية مسرورة بمغادرة قراها ومنازلها وأراضٍ تملكها ووظائف ومدارس و… من أجل السكن في خيمة عند قارعة الأوتوستراد. هناك من لا يميز بين سوريّ وآخر ويفترض كل نقاش من هذا النوع رفاهية في غير وقتها. هناك من يقرع لأسباب مجهولة طبول الحرب، دون تقديم أي بديل أو حلول. ثمة مجتمع يقول للسوريين: ارحلوا أو نبيدكم، وهم لا يستطيعون الرحيل. لماذا؟ لا أحد يعلم. ومن المستفيد؟ لا أحد يعلم أيضاً. الأكيد أن الأقساط المخيفة في المدارس والجامعات الخاصة لا يتحمل مسؤوليتها النازح السوري. الجريمة في لبنان لا يتحمل مسؤوليتها النازح السوري، وكذلك ارتفاع أسعار العقارات وانعدام فرص العمل وعدم تصريف الإنتاج الزراعي وغيره الكثير. الفواتير الوهمية وتلك المضخمة في مجلس الإنماء والإعمار والتمديد للمجلس النيابي والفراغ الرئاسي والتمديد للمسؤولين الأمنيين لا يتحمل مسؤوليته النازح السوري طبعاً، لكن لا أحد يسمع. هناك من يريد شغل أنظار اللبنانيين، عن كل ما يحيط بهم، بهذا النازح الذي لا يعلم كيف انتهى به الأمر هنا.

وهناك من يستر كل تقصيره بهذا النازح، فيعيد تعبئة من فقدوا ثقتهم به عبر التحريض الرخيص
ما حصل في نهاية الأسبوع الماضي في زحلة كان أكثر من معبِّر ومخيف. فقد اعتدى شاب يعتقد أنه «قد يكون سوريّ الجنسية» على صبية زحلية، ما كان منها سوى الدفاع عن نفسها. ورغم أن أرقام وزارة الداخلية غير الرسمية تشير إلى حصول بين خمسة وعشرة اعتداءات مماثلة وأكثر وحشية في زحلة ومحيطها شهرياً أبطالها لبنانيون، اندلعت فجأة على مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي حملة تحريض هائلة تطالب بـ «تحرير زحلة» ممن يمكن أن «يسرقوا المنازل ويعتدوا على الأعراض ما لم نضعهم عند حدهم». وهبّت النخوة؛ هنا تطالب بالأمن الذاتي بعد «فشل القوى الأمنية والجيش» لأن «شباب الأمن الذاتي» لم ينشطوا خمسة عشر عاماً في اغتصاب الأبرياء وسرقة المنازل وربطات الخبز؛ وهنا تدعو إلى تلقين «مجموعة صغيرة» درساً ليتعظ الآخرون.

وفي ظل الغوغاء الشعبية وركض السياسيين خلف المواقف الشعبوية كان يمكن أي انفعال إضافي أن يوصل التوتر إلى حالة الانفجار الكامل. علماً أن المليون ونصف المليون سوري ما زالوا جميعاً يضبطون أنفسهم ولا يبالون بالإهانات اليومية الكثيرة، لكن يوماً ما ــ قد لا يكون بعيداً ــ سيرفع أحد الناجين من الحرب السورية عينيه ويقول لمهينه أن «يحلّ عنه» فتتدحرج كرة النار. والمشكلة الرئيسية هنا تكمن في اعتقاد بعض الأشاوس أنهم ربحوا حرب زحلة وحرب الأشرفية وكل الحروب الأخرى التي هدت مناطق وقضت على مئات الشباب وهجرت عائلات برمتها وكانت السبب في اختلال الموازين الديموغرافية والاقتصادية في البلد وهم يجاهرون باستعدادهم لتكرار مآثرهم إن تطلب الأمر ذلك.

هؤلاء يشمّرون عن زنودهم مفاخرين بأنهم جاهزون إذا دق الخطر على الأبواب. أما المحذرون من خطورة ما يحصل، فهم مجرد عملاء لـ»الغريب»، لا يريدون إزعاجه في استيلائه على البلد. والمطلوب في الخلاصة تحرك فاعل وجدي من أجل وقف ما يحصل؛ إلا إذا كانت الفعاليات المدنية ومن يفترض التعويل عليهم يعتقدون أن ما ينقص مناطقهم هو جبهات مفتوحة وحملات إبادة والميليشيات من جديد؛ علماً أن رئيس حزب القوات اللبنانية سمير جعجع، كان يوحي أنه تعقل بهذا الخصوص وتراجع خطوات إلى الوراء ليتأكد اليوم أن الطبع ينتصر على التطبع كالعادة، ولا بد في عرف القوات من تخويف المواطنين لمواكبة تقدمهم السياسيّ الملحوظ بإمساك أمنيّ ــ عسكريّ بهذا التقدم.

يمكنكم متابعة الكاتب عبر تويتر | ghassansaoud@

ابتداءً من تاريخ 30 تموز 2015، تم إيقاف التعليقات على المقالات مؤقتاً نظراً لبعض الصعوبات والتعديلات التقنية، يمكنكم التعليق وإبداء الرأي والتواصل مع الكتاب عبر صفحتنا الالكترونية على

فايسبوك ( https://www.facebook.com/AlakhbarNews)، أو عبر البريد الالكتروني:comments@al-akhbar.com

 

The One-Minute Principle For Self-Improvement

At the heart of this method is the idea that a person should practice doing something for a single minute, every day at the same time.

Almost all of us periodically set ourselves a new goal or challenge — and just as often in the end we fail to achieve it. We end up telling ourselves that we’re just not ready yet, that we’ll do it next week, next month…next year.

We might even pursue them with zeal at the start. But once we’ve made a small amount of effort, we’ll tell ourselves we’ve done enough, and it’s time to take this whole “starting a new life” thing more slowly.

Why does it always turn out like this?

The answer’s fairly obvious: because we try to achieve too much, too fast, we get sick of the new responsibility and, because it’s difficult to change old habits and try something new.

Alt text hereKaizen is the simple technique of practicing something for one minute every day.

Just One Minute A Day

In Japanese culture there exists the practice of Kaizen, which includes the idea of the “one-minute principle” for self-improvement. At the heart of this method is the idea that a person should practice doing something for a single minute, every day at the same time.

You can’t do Kaizen just once or twice and expect immediate results. You have to be in it for the long haul. — Masaaki Imai

it shouldn’t be any trouble for absolutely anyone — even the laziest person — to carry out a given task for such a small amount of time.

Whereas you will more often than not find an excuse not to do something when faced with carrying it out for 30 minutes or an hour a day, you should be able to do it without any misgivings for just 60 seconds.

Alt text hereEven the biggest mountain can seem smaller if you take it one step at a time.

The Pursuit of Continuous Improvement

Whether it’s doing press-ups or reading a book in a foreign language, in this case the task before you won’t seem like something unpleasant which you have to get through, but will instead be an activity which brings you joy and satisfaction.

By taking one little step at a time, you will move on to the path of self-perfection and achieve great results.

When you’re inspired by such feelings, you will gradually begin to increase the amount of time you spend doing the task which you have set yourself.

It’s important to overcome that lack of confidence you might have in your own abilities, as well as free yourself from those feelings of guilt and helplessness.

Alt text hereA simple technique that requires daily discipline to achieve noticeable results.

Celebrate Each Step Forward

You need to experience a sense of victory and success to move forward.

Maybe at first just for five minutes more, but then this will soon turn into half an hour, and then even longer after that.

In this way, the one-minute principle lets you see the progress you’re making right before your eyes.

Alt text hereEach step that you take in your personal growth is a cause for celebration.

Change and Wisdom

Kaizen originated in Japan. The word itself contains two roots — “kai” (change) and “zen” (wisdom). It was invented by Masaaki Imai, who believes this philosophy can be applied just as successfully to the world of business as it can to one’s personal life.

At first glance, this practice might seem doubtful and ineffective for people who have grown up in Western culture, with its emphasis on the idea that results can be achieved only by undertaking immense efforts.

Alt text hereImagine what you could achieve through the pursuit of continuous improvement.

Applicable for Everybody

But elaborate, challenging programs of self-improvement which deprive a person of huge amounts of energy can simply end up exhausting them, and leave no tangible results.

Kaizan is something that anyone can attempt in virtually any sphere of their life. In Japan, for example, it is often applied to improve management techniques.

All you have to do is understand what it is you want to achieve, and you’re already set to go.

Note: If you intend to write, you have got to read all kinds of books every day and practice writing every day


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

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