Adonis Diaries

Archive for December 2nd, 2021

Morning Coffee Talk~1-365
by ~mimo~

Good morning to you from Germany. How shall we start this?
I have been planning for a while to restart my 365 project that I did in the past and loved immensely: a picture and and a short writing every day for one year, and today felt like the right day to begin

.Its’ the first day our home tradition of exchanging 24 small gifts before Christmas and for this, my daughter has always woken up very early to see what awaits her.

There are 24 small boxes that contain 24 small gifts and thoughts of care about her and she has grown to love that.
This year, she gifted me one back, and now I can smile knowing that the tradition will carry on…~mimo~
 | December 1, 2021 at 6:31 am |



لعنة المحتل العثماني تلاحق السوريين في أملاكهم الشخصية!

BY زيد قطريب 

· 28 نوفمبر 2021

بادية الونوس

لم تعرف البشرية انحطاطًا أكثر من المحتل العثماني الغاشم، الذي دخل سوريا تحت اسم الإسلام، فقتل وسبى وذبح واحتل الأرض أربعة قرون لم تعرف البلاد خلالها صناعةً ولا تجارة.

شعاره الوحيد (الخازوق) لمواجهة أية حركة أو نقد. الموجع أنه وبعد ما يزيد على مائة عام من دحره، نُفاجأ ببصماته السوداء هنا وهناك، ومثال ذلك وجود أراضي أو حتى بيوت وعقارات تسمى (بالأميرية)، جزء منها لا يزال يحمل إشارة ورثة السلطان عبد الحميد أو أحد السلاطين حتى اليوم! رغم أن أهل الشأن يجمعون بأن هذه الإشارة ميتة لا قيمة لها، ولا تؤثر على الملكية أو حركة البيع والشراء. إلا أنها تبقى إشارة (مقزّزة) تذكّرنا بتاريخ وحشي لمحتل ارتكب جرائم يندى لها جبين الانسانية.

يرافق مصطلح “الأراضي الأميرية”، مصطلح “الجفتليك” الذي يعني أن هذه الأراضي أو تلك، ملك “للحكومة التركية” المحتلة، وأن الفلاحين يستأجرونها لفترة طويلة من الزمن!

دكتورة العلوم السياسية، أشواق عباس، وهي نائب سابق في مجلس الشعب، أكدت “أن ما تم الاستيلاء عليه بحكم بالقوة والقتل والنهب، يجب أن تزول آثاره التي وضعت بطرق غير شرعية. وذلك من خلال فريق قانوني مهمته الانتهاء من كل ما يمت لتلك الحقبة بصلة”. في هذا التحقيق، نحاول تسليط الضوء على ملف الأراضي الأميرية، من كل جوانبه.

النسبة الأكبر في (الجفتليك)

النسبة الأكبر من الأراضي التي تسمى بالأميرية، تقع في محافظتي حمص وحماه. تلك المنطقة التي تسمى بـ(الجفتليك) -ومعناها بالتركي الأراضي المملوكة من قبل “الحكومة” ولكن المستأجرة على أساس طويل الأجل لأهل القرية – تشكل نسبة الأراضي الأميرية فيها نحو 60% منها نحو 20% يحمل إشارة السلطان عبد الحميد. يقول القاضي العقاري محمد شحود، وهو مدير سابق للمصالح العقارية في حمص:

“إن تلك الإشارة لا معنى لها، ونتعامل معها على أنها إشارة ميتة لا تشكل أدنى أهمية ولا قيمة لها سوى أنها مثيرة للقرف، لأنها تذكرنا بحقبة الغزو العثماني الذي استولى على الأراضي بالقوة وبشتى أساليب القتل والتدمير. لكن ورغم أن قيمتها تساوي الصفر، إلا أنه لابد من ازالتها من خلال القوانين لإعادة فرز الأراضي.”

باستثناء 15 قرية

في منطقة المخرم التابعة لمحافظة حمص لوحدها تشكل الأراضي الأميرية نحو 90%. يقول حسن الصبح رئيس دائرة المصالح العقارية في منطقة المخرم: “إن عدد القرى التي تتبع لمنطقة المخرم يصل إلى 96 قرية، غالبيتها تحمل إشارة دعوى السلطان عبد الحميد، باستثناء 15 قرية فقط لا تحمل تلك الإشارة التي لا نتعامل بها أساسًا ولا تؤثر على حق الملكية. باستثناء حالات قليلة لمن يرغب بسحب قرض زراعي من المصرف العقاري يشترط عليه ترقين هذه الإشارة.”

 قرية بأكملها

    قرية تل عداي _ جب الجراح، تتبع لمحافظة حمص، لها صحيفة عقارية وتعد مفرزة ضمن العقارات لكن مكتوب على كل صفحة منها ورثة السلطان عبد الحميد، وهي ما تسمى بإشارة (رهن). هذا ما يؤكده لموقع (الفينيق) كل من سائر خليل ودريد عمران وهما من أهالي القرية: إن القرية بأكملها تحمل إشارة دعوى مكتوب عليها ورثة السلطان عبد الحميد. وهي لا تؤثر على معاملاتنا من ناحية الملكية أو البيع والشراء باستثناء بعض الحالات منها في حال أريد سحب قرض عقاري على أرضي وهذه المعاملة تشترط إزالة الإشارة (المقززة) لعدو أخذ أراضينا بالغزو والقتل والتنكيل. نتمنى على الجهات المعنية تصفية هذا الملف، لأن هناك قرى بأكملها تحمل تلك الإشارة.”

تبرع أم (هبة)

لم يتوقف الأمر على وضع إشارة رهن على أراضٍ أميرية وإن كانت عديمة  القيمة، وإنما يمتد ليشمل العقارات الموجودة على أراضي أميرية أو حتى ما تسمى بالوقف.

يقول أبو علاء من منطقة ريف دمشق يعمل في تعقيب المعاملات: “مازال العمل في انجاز الترخيص للمعاملات جاريًا وفق العقارات الموجودة ضمن أملاك أراضٍ أميرية والبعض منها يقع ضمن أملاك وزارة الأوقاف. ولاتزال تحمل إشارة السلطان، حيث ما زال معمولاً بموجب هذه الإشارة.

مثلا من يريد ترقين الإشارة عن عقاره يتوجب عليه دفع مبلغ تحت اسم (هبة) أواسم تبرع لوزارة الأوقاف مقابل الغاء الإشارة. إلا أن معاملات الترخيص في ظل هذه الظروف، تبقى على وضعها الحالي دون ترقين الإشارة.”

هذا ما يؤكده كتاب موجه من مديرية المصالح العقارية بتاريخ 16/10/2019 إلى وزارة الأوقاف يقول: “بغية عدم إيقاف الخدمة العقارية للمواطنين بالنسبة للعقارات التي ورد عليها إشارة وقف لأحد السلاطين العثمانيين، نرى أن تتضمن عقود الانتقال إلى الورثة وعقود التصرف (بيع، هبة، رهن، تأمين) تصريحًا من طالب التسجيل العيني يتعهد ما قد يترتب لقاء استبدال الحق الوقفي أو ترقين الإشارة وذلك ريثما تصدر التعليمات المتعلقة بهذا الشأن.”

عقارات أيضًا

الأمر المفاجيء أن هناك بعض العقارات تعود لأفراد أتراك، وحسب تصريح لمدير التشريع في مديرية المصالح العقارية عصام خولي، أكد أن عدد العقارات العائدة لأفراد أتراك، تصل نحو 1037 عقارًا ما زالت موجودة ومحفوظة في صحائف العقارات، يوضع عليها إشارة تجميد، حيث لا يجوز إجراء أي معاملات إلا بعد اقترانها بموافقة لجنة شؤون الأتراك في وزارة الداخلية.

كما أن هناك عقارات بملكية سورية أيضًا في تركيا والتجميد يسري على الطرفين مقابل تجميدنا للملكية يجب عليهم أن يلتزموا بموجب اتفاقية بين الطرفين.”

مشروع قانون عقاري موحد

يوضح مدير التشريع في المصالح العقارية عصام خولي، أن العمل يتم حاليًا مع وزارة العدل على التشريع العقاري الموحد الذي يضم حوالي تسعة قوانين تتعلق بالشأن العقاري ومن ضمنها الأميري. وفي حال كُتب لهذه القوانين أن ترى النور، فهي تتطرق إلى صنف العقارات الأميرية وسيتم إلغاؤها أسوة ببعض الدول العربية. وتاليًا يتم تخفيف إجراءات تحويل الأراضي الأميرية، وتكون المرجعية واحدة. كما أن التوارث بالإرث تحكمه المرجعية الطائفية للشخص وليس الصنف العقاري.”

تاريخ أسود

دخل العثمانيون دمشق عام 1516بالبطش، واتبعوا سياسة “الخوازيق” في التعذيب، بقصد نشر الرعب والخوف لكل من تراوده نفسه انتقاد السلطة. يقول المؤرخ الدمشقي شمس الدين بن طولون المتوفى عام 1546 وهو المعاصر للمآسي التي عاشها أهل الشام في كتابه “مفاكهة الخلان في حوادث الزمان”:

“لم تقف معاناة دمشق على التهديد بالقتل، فقد طردوا من بيوتهم ونهبت مكتباتهم، وفرض العثمانيون ضرائب على السكان، ومكثوا أربعة قرون قائمة على النهب والضرائب والأتاوات، ولم يبرعوا في تجارة أو صناعة حتى تم طردهم عام 1918.”

يؤكد الدكتور عبد المنعم الأحمد أستاذ العثمانيات في قسم التاريخ بجامعة دمشق قائلاً: “لم يعرف التاريخ مثيلاً لوحشية العثمانيين، فهي دولة استبدادية قائمة على البطش والقتل والنهب حيث يتم قتل الناس دون محاكمة، وتم سلب الأراضي من أصحابها بالقوة ورميهم في الشارع. لم يتركوا للفلاح إلا الرمق الأخير بما يبقيه حيًا. لقد قسموا البلاد إلى نيمارات توزع على الزعامات وللقادة وللجنود ليتم الاستيلاء على الأراضي بالقتل والنهب.

إن العثمانيين ألغوا ما يسمى بملكية الأراضي الزراعية، وتم ضمها بأساليب وحشية إلى ملكية السلاطين رغم احتجاج الناس وتقديم صكوك الملكية.”

يجب أن تزول كل آثاره

إن هذه الإشارة وكل رمز من رموز الاحتلال يجب أن يزول. تقول الدكتورة أشواق عباس النائب السابق في مجلس الشعب: “إن هذه الإشارة لا تؤثر على الملكية. لاسيما أنها وجدت بالقوة خلال حقبة تاريخية حكمها احتلال من دولة أخرى. ومع زوال الاحتلال يجب أن تزول آثاره أو أية رمزية له. كان هناك حراك في هذا الشأن واليوم يعود إلى الواجهة. إنها أراضينا.”

تضيف عباس: “إذا استولت “قسد” أو ما يسمى بالقوات “الديمقراطية الكردية”، على أراض سورية تعود ملكيتها للعشائر السورية، فهل هذا يعني أنها أصبحت من أملاكها وتحمل أسماءها؟ ما تم الاستيلاء عليه بحكم بالاحتلال والقوة والقتل والنهب، يجب أن تزول آثاره التي وضعت بطرق غير شرعية. وهذا يكون من خلال فريق قانوني للانتهاء من كل ما يمت لتلك الحقبة بصلة.”

إشارات غير منتجة

الدكتور عمار يوسف، باحث عقاري وأحد أعضاء اللجنة التي تشكلت عام 2012 لوضع تشريع موحد تصل فيه القوانين إلى360 قانون عقاري منها منذ أيام العثمانيين بين 1870-1880، بيّن أن الهدف من القوانين الموحدة تحديد النوع الشرعي في سورية بحيث يتحول إلى نوع واحد وملك. يقول: “يوجد كم هائل من القوانين التي تحكم العقارات، ويعد هذا أحد معوقات الاستثمار في سورية. مثلاً يوجد عقارات عليها إشارات منذ عام 1800-1700 ميلادية منها إشارات “وقف” تعود للسلطان سليم وسنان باشا. إنها إشارات غير منتجة، ولا تمنع عملية البيع والشراء، لكنها إشارات موضوعة على العقار، وعندما يجد المستثمرون هذه الإشارة يمتنعون في بعض الأحيان عن الاستثمار بها.”

26.01.2018

Christopher Pisarenko

During the nineteenth century there came into being two quintessentially American religious movements: Mormonism and Seventh Day Adventism (aka Millerism).

What stands out about Mormonism, especially within the context of Judeocentric prophecy interpretation, is that the first Mormons (Joseph Smith, Orson Hyde, et al.) strongly believed that there were two “Chosen People”: the Jews and the Americans (or the “Second Israelites”).

Likewise, according to Mormonism’s founder and life-long freemason Joseph Smith (1805-1844), there are two Jerusalem as well: the original biblical Jerusalem located in Palestine, and a New Jerusalem which would someday be established in North America.

According to Smith, each city would house one of God’s two Chosen Peoples; the Jews would receive the old Jerusalem and the Americans would inherit the new. The Jews would be granted the earthly kingdom of God in Palestine, and the Christians (i.e. Protestants, and more specifically Mormons) would inherit the spiritual kingdom.

Thus it was with the Mormons and their distinct brand of Protestant theology that there really began to evolve a well-articulated theological division between Jews and Americans, in contradistinction to the prior millennialist division between Jews and Christians.

As mentioned above, the other quintessentially “American” religious movement is Seventh Day Adventism founded by William Miller (1782-1849).

Miller was someone who was incredibly interested in Judeocentric prophecy interpretation, and he actually “borrowed” the work of a number of English writers – and even the calendar system of the Karaite Jews – in order to advance his religious views and, specifically, to determine the precise date of the Second Coming which would then usher in the millennial reign of Christ on earth.

He especially incorporated many of the writings of the renowned “Father of Classical Physics” Sir Isaac Newton, who himself expended a prodigious amount of intellectual energy into examining and interpreting biblical prophecies so as to determine the exact date of the “end of the world.” (Just another proof that you maybe a mathematician, and be an idiot)

According to Miller, the return of Christ would occur sometime between March 21, 1843 and March 21, 1844 – sometime in that one year period between the spring equinoxes.

When the cut-off date came and went, as it inevitably did, Miller gave the excuse that he had made a mistake in his “calculations.” And so, he recalculated and came up with a new date: October 22, 1844.

Of course, that date came and went and nothing happened – but it was really quite sad for his loyal followers, because, in preparation for the “big event,” they had sold off all of their earthly possessions and properties to the point where they had become penniless.

This naturally caused Miller’s followers to go into a deep depression, which came to be known historically as the Great Disappointment.

In any event, it is important to note that the way in which William Miller differs from nearly all other Protestant religious leaders is that he was Not Judeocentric at all.

Instead he was a “supersessionist,” meaning he believed that the covenant which the Jews had once held with God was now held by Christians, i.e. the true Christian Church.

Therefore, according to supersessionist belief, God no longer owed the Jews anything. As Miller himself once stated, “the Jew has had his day.” So again, Miller was not at all Judeocentric. And because he held a more negative opinion about Jews, Miller was harshly criticized and even condemned by many of America’s leading Protestant figures.

Now we come to the person who is regarded as the father of Evangelicalism: John Nelson Darby (1800-1882).

Originally, Darby was an Anglican priest in Ireland who was staunchly against the Catholic Church and very interested in eschatology and prophecy interpretation. Eventually Darby came to repudiate the Anglican Church of Ireland and all churches everywhere.

Darby then began advising his followers to cut themselves off from the world (or “worldly affairs”) – to neither participate in politics nor church life, and to fully prepare themselves for the return of Christ.

Like the Mormons, Darby drew a sharp distinction between true Christians (i.e. Protestants), whom he collectively considered to be the “spiritual bride of Christ,” and Jews who comprised the “earthly bride.” Darby promoted the idea that Jews would receive an earthly inheritance (Israel) and Christians would be raptured up into heaven to be with Christ.

All those who remained on earth would have to suffer greatly under the Antichrist due to all of the chaos and destruction generated through him.

Of course the most famous idea in all of Darby’s work is this idea of the “rapture” – a theological concept which is certainly very popular today among evangelicals in the United States. However, unlike many of his contemporaries and predecessors, Darby did not believe that the Jews would have to be converted to Protestantism in order to usher in the apocalypse.

In other words, Darby was a convinced premillennialist; he believed that when the appointed time came, Christ would simply return. Then, upon his return, Christ would rapture up the elect (the spiritual bride) and they would disappear from the face of the earth.

The Jews (the earthly bride) would then return to Palestine to exterminate all the Muslims and thus inherit the Holy Land. Then the Antichrist would emerge to usher in the Tribulation – a time of great terror and destruction, where all of the people remaining on earth would be greatly punished.

According to Darby, this punishment would be meted out by God to non-Christians in general, but more specifically to Jews for their responsibility, as he saw it, for the crucifixion of Christ.

Thus Darby is often described as an anti-supersessionist (unlike the Seventh Day Adventists) because he, in some sense, does believe that the Jews are still the people of God. Even so, this is only a kind of ornamental anti-supersessionism, as Darby still believed that Jews would have to suffer during the Tribulation (like everyone else who remained on earth) and that only true Christians would escape the sheer horror of the apocalypse.

It should further be known that Darby was actually quite harsh in his remarks on Jews and, indeed, he taught his followers to have this same contemptible attitude toward them (in striking contrast to modern-day Christian Zionists). In Darby’s view the Jewish people were nothing more than elements in the fulfillment of biblical prophecy; Jews were not people in themselves but only chess pieces in the fulfillment of a grand cosmic drama.

As already mentioned, John Nelson Darby was strongly anti-political. He quite openly stated (referring to himself and his followers), “We do not mix in politics; we are not of the world: we do not vote.”

This is yet another way in which Darby’s evangelicals differ from their modern politically mobilized counterparts in America. And speaking of America, Darby did visit the country a number of times, and he had quite a lot of influence on various American preachers, especially one by the name of Dwight L. Moody (1837-1899).

It was essentially Moody that began spreading Darby’s doctrine throughout the United States – a unique strain of biblical interpretation called “dispensationalism,” because both Darby and Moody believed that the Word of God comes forth and is revealed to humanity in special installments or “dispensations.”

And although John Nelson Darby’s anti-political message did resonate to an extent among some nineteenth century American evangelicals, ultimately it was a message that failed. This is because Americans have a long tradition of civil millenarianism (of mixing their religion in politics), which is fundamentally rooted in the New England Puritan idea that Americans are the New Chosen People and America is the New Israel.

So, as one can discern from a number of his comments on America, Darby was quite dismayed at what he observed among those Americans who claimed to follow his ideas. It is important to point this out because, again, modern Christian Zionism is extremely political or “worldly.”

Darbyite theology, on the other hand, advocated for a complete withdrawal from the world, not only from politics but from organized churches as well – and of course this latter position of Darby’s earned him a great deal of contempt and criticism from many of his contemporaries.

Perhaps the most important historical figure who laid the groundwork for modern Christian Zionism, which is to say the one person who was instrumental in adding a powerful political dimension to Christian Zionism, was William E. Blackstone (1841-1935).

Blackstone was a businessman who found success early in life. Sometime after making his fortune, Blackstone decided to remove himself from the business world and dedicated himself to religious matters, specifically to Judeocentric prophecy interpretation.

He believed (unlike Darby) in active political involvement with the explicit mission of assisting Jews (yes Jews, not Christians) as much as possible.

Blackstone published his first book on this subject in 1878 entitled Jesus Is Coming. In it he highlighted various “signs” which, he thought, conclusively demonstrated that the end of the age was near. It is important to note that, at this time in world history, the publishing of Blackstone’s work roughly coincided with the emergence of political Zionism among Jews in Europe.

As far as prophetic “signs” go, William Blackstone viewed Zionism as a sign which was very encouraging, and he did everything he possibly could to assist the likes of Theodor Herzl and other influential members of the World Zionist Congress.

And indeed, Blackstone was a major friend to the Zionists. So much so that from the late nineteenth century into the early twentieth, Blackstone would write to one U.S. president after another, petitioning them to bring as many eastern European Jews into the country as possible and to assist in helping Zionist leaders create a Jewish state in Palestine.

This was largely due to the news stories Blackstone read of the various anti-Jewish pogroms which were allegedly occurring in Russia at the time. And so, Blackstone wrote first to President Harrison on this issue, advocating for millions of eastern European Jews to come to America.

His appeals were Not successful immediately. But Blackstone was a dogged political activist. He would continue writing to other presidents and politicians on the Jewish issue and was especially successful in getting through to Woodrow Wilson.

His letters to President Wilson were quite interesting because he would repeatedly drive home the point that if Wilson would assist the Jews and the Zionist effort to establish a Jewish state in Palestine, then Wilson would himself go down in history as one of the greatest world leaders of all time, along the lines of Cyrus the Great.

It is very well known to historians that over the course of his political career Wilson had developed a deep-seated messiah complex, so Blackstone’s “tact” in dealing with Wilson (i.e. in comparing him to one of history’s great kings) was very shrewd indeed, and it yielded great results.

It should be mentioned that there is quite a bit of irony in William Blackstone’s career as a political activist, because despite the fact that he was someone who wanted to evict millions of Arabs from their ancestral lands in the Middle East, and despite the fact that he is considered a “founding father” of extreme right-wing Christian Zionism, Blackstone really was a progressive/left-wing “social gospel” Christian.

For example, one of the institutions he was responsible for helping to establish was the International Court of Justice. And without question this is one of many “humanitarian” world bodies which today’s Christian Zionists regularly deride due to the fact that the ICJ happens also to condemn Israel on a regular basis.

So it is certainly ironic that this man (Blackstone), whom Christian Zionists can trace their philosophical lineage to, was a strong supporter of the International Court of Justice.

When, during the early years of the twentieth century, the United States was witnessing the political formation of the burgeoning Jewish state via the Balfour Declaration of 1917, there again sprouted a distinct millenarian ethos.

Evangelical leaders became more and more vocal in their support for the Jewish people to conquer Palestine and to dispossess and even exterminate all Muslims because, they maintained, the Jews are God’s “Chosen People.”

Comparisons were easily made (as more and more Jewish “settlers” immigrated to Palestine) between what the Jews were doing to the Arabs and what the American settlers had already done to North America’s indigenous population.

This is to say that there was a conscious effort – among religious, cultural and political elites – to associate the ongoing Jewish conquest of Palestine with the “heroic” idea of American Manifest Destiny.

The utter extermination of Palestinians was viewed in a positive light, not only by Christian Zionist leaders but by major American media outlets as well. Americans and Jews were portrayed as having come together, as God’s People, in order to carry out their God-given mission to expand Judeo-Christian civilization as far afield as possible.

One must also understand that as Zionism was gaining influence politically, during the late nineteenth century, the imperialist mentality was also emerging in America. The cataclysmic War Between the States (1861-1865), in which nearly 1 million Americans lost their lives, was still a recent memory for most, and the vast majority wanted to somehow forget all the many pains which were caused by that especially cruel internecine war. Both Northerners and Southerners desperately craved some semblance of patriotic unity. The Spanish-American War would provide such a display of patriotism and national unity.

The 20 year period between the Spanish-American War (1898) and the end of World War I (1918) witnessed a profound resurgence of American patriotism which galvanized the nation like never before.

It just so happens that these two pivotal decades also witnessed the influx of millions of Jewish immigrants (the largest influx of Jews in American history). In addition, the Federal Reserve System was also established during this era (via the passage of the Federal Reserve Act in 1913), and for the first time in history Jewish political and economic power really began to consolidate itself in North America.

All of these factors began to coalesce. It is by no means accidental that the Puritanical belief that Americans are God’s Chosen People was then projected on to the Zionists. Indeed, more and more Americans came to consider the Jews as a special kindred people – as being like themselves.

It is therefore easy to see how it is an integral part of American culture to be pro-Jewish – this has been true, historically, since the earliest days of colonial settlement, long before the official establishment of the state of Israel in 1948.

Today, it is even highly doubtful whether a genuine American identity could exist without there being a firm pro-Jewish ethos in place, despite what the ever-dwindling numbers of paleoconservatives have to say.

It all goes back to the civil millenarian tradition which arose out of a Puritanical religious source in the 17th century and then mixed with a late 19th century imperialist worldview.

Hence the fanatical support for Israel among evangelicals (aka Christian Zionists) in the United States. The evangelical belief in the rapture and Judeocentric prophecy interpretation, in addition to the central role which the Jews and the state of Israel play in the evangelicals’ overall belief system – all these fundamental pillars of the Christian Zionist worldview translate to mean that evangelicals (and Christian Zionists in general) have to support Israel and the Jewish lobby in America. It is quite literally a part of their religion – and I dare say the number one tenet of their entire Weltanschauung – to be pro-Israel. Their support for Israel is so important, in fact, that if Israel ever ceased to exist, their religion would be proven wrong. So the evangelicals/Christian Zionists must do whatever they can to support Israel in any way possible.

Now, in addition to the Christian Zionists, there is one other group of people that one can definitely say is an inheritor of the pro-Jewish/pro-Israel tradition – and that group is the neoconservative faction.

If neocons are not modern-day millenarians, then I (the author) don’t know who is! Just take a look at Francis Fukuyama’s book, The End of History (1992). In this (his most famous) work, Fukuyama states that, with the fall of the Soviet Union, liberal democracy has essentially triumphed over all other political systems worldwide.

And like many other neocons, Fukuyama believes that America has the right and the moral duty to go forth and spread its special brand of “freedom and democracy” throughout the world.

So again, one sees this Puritanical idea of America being a Second Israel favored by God – the same great “bastion of freedom” which the Puritans believed in from the time of their initial landing at Plymouth Rock all the way to the Revolutionary era. And of course this ties into the millenarian aspect as well – the idea of the democratic millennium, that democracy has conquered the world and dictatorship is gone forever.

If Fukuyama’s book is not an overtly millenarian work, then (again, in the author’s opinion) nothing is! Then there are groups of neocons like the one which rabidly pushed for the Iraq War – the Project for the New American Century.

I have a feeling that the only reason they did not call themselves the “Project for a New American Millennium” was because that title would sound too grandiose, and perhaps also blow their cover!

What is ironic about neoconservative historians is that they tend to downplay the effect of religion on American culture and on the founding of the United States.

They claim that the founders were all secularists and that the religious nationalism of the Puritans was not an influential force in the country’s founding. This premise is of course 100 percent wrong.

Nevertheless, the neocons are definitely a group which has inherited the millenarian tradition, and this fact explains quite well why neocons tend to agree on so many points with Christian evangelicals, especially with regard to their shared support for the state of Israel and the American Jewish lobby.

Indeed, the pro-Israel lobby in the United States is very influential, however were it not for the long tradition of forming American identity around Judeocentric and millenarian lines, it is highly dubious to suggest that the Israel lobby would have any power in the United States whatsoever. As already mentioned, it is simply a part of American culture to be pro-Jewish.

This fact is what ultimately empowers the Israel lobby and it is the ultimate source of American support for the state of Israel, despite the fact that Israel offers No strategic benefit to the U.S. government, and despite the fact that Israel does not share any alleged “democratic values” with the United States or the broader West.

In his book Knowing Too Much (2012), American Jewish scholar Norman Finkelstein predicts that American support for Israel will eventually end as the knowledge of Israel’s atrocities spreads throughout the news media and as American Jews learn more and more about the true nature of Israeli aggression (given how cerebral and literate they tend to be).

American Jews will therefore come to the conclusion that supporting Israel conflicts with their own predominantly liberal beliefs. And so, over time, as this tension becomes stronger and stronger, American Jews will cease supporting Israel as fervently as they once had, and this will lead to the eventual end of American support for Israel in general. This is Finkelstein’s claim, and it is ultimately flawed. Because, make no mistake: American support for Israel will not end.

Even if American Jews stop supporting Israel tomorrow, there are still many tens of millions of evangelicals supporting the Jewish state. There is still an entire cultural context of pro-Jewishness being a part of American identity and the belief (dating back to the time of the Puritans) that Americans are the New Israelites. This deep-seated pro-Jewish ethos (ingrained in the psyche of tens of millions of Americans) is something that would be much more difficult to uproot and eliminate than the pro-Israel views of the American Jewish minority (who are themselves split on the issue).

If we consider the evangelicals, support for Israel is the central tenet of their religion – it is not Jesus or God or the Holy Spirit, and it is certainly not any of the teachings of Jesus’s Sermon on the Mount.

Support for Israel is the most fundamental idea behind evangelical Christianity or what could also be called Christian Zionism. And evangelicals will continue their support for Israel no matter what heinous atrocities that that illegal terrorist state continues to perpetrate against the indigenous non-Jewish peoples of the region.

Evangelicals and Christian Zionists in general simply do not care. They evaluate the righteousness or unrighteousness of someone by the degree to which that person supports Israel. That kind of fanatical support is not going to vanish any time soon.

This problem is much more serious than Finkelstein realizes, and (for that matter) it is much more serious than that despicable Jew-baiter David Duke realizes – a man who is committed to blaming Jews and Jews alone for all the many evils in this world.

Make no mistake about it: the Zionist problem does not ultimately stem from American Jewish support for Israel. Rather, it is entirely rooted in the pro-Jewish culture, history, politics, identity and religious traditions of Gentile Americans – a religious, cultural, political and national bloc which constitutes the primary support for Israel’s dastardly deeds, and without which the Zionist state of Israel would have never come into being.

The Most Beautiful Stained Glass in the World

First coming to prominence in the Middle Ages, stained glass has been enhancing buildings around the world for thousands of years.

Although traditionally used in the windows of churches, mosques, and other holy buildings, the material reached the secular world in the 19th century—today, it’s not uncommon to find it used in cultural buildings, hotels, art installations, and even shopping malls.

No matter how it’s used, whether it’s a cathedral in Paris or a museum in Bangkok, one thing’s for sure: We prefer to see the world through multi-colored glasses. 

This gallery was originally published in 2015. It has been updated with new information.

BY CAITLIN MORTON

June 20, 2017

  • Image may contain Banister Handrail Building Architecture Pillar and Column
    • Getty La Sagrada Família, Barcelona, Spain
    • The interior of Antoni Gaudí’s celebrated church is known for its lofty naves and branching, tree-like columns—all made more beautiful by the graduated tones of light shining through the windows and skylights.
  • Image may contain Architecture Building Cross Symbol Church Altar and Lighting
    • Getty Santuário Dom Bosco, Brasília, Brazil
    • From the outside, the Santuário Dom Bosco is not much more than a bland concrete box. But the interior is truly spectacular, with floor-to-ceiling windows casting heavenly light throughout the entire space.
    • These glassy facades are made up of 7,400 pieces of glass in a dozen shades of blue, giving the appearance of a starry sky.
  • Palau de la Msica Catalana barcelona spain
    • Getty. Palau de la Música Catalana, Barcelona, Spain
    • Another Barcelona staple, the Palau de la Música Catalana, is one of the finest examples of Catalan modernista style—think rich details, floral motifs, and curved lines. The concert hall is illuminated entirely by natural light during daylight hours, thanks to the stained-glass walls and inverted dome skylight.

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  • Image may contain Banister Handrail Human Person Flooring Shop Window Floor and Building
    • Getty. Wafi Mall, Dubai, UAEA trip to Dubai’s Wafi Mall is never a disappointment, even if you leave its 350 shops and indoor souk empty-handed. Inspired by ancient Egypt, the shopping center is crowned by stained glass pyramids that go perfectly with the marble floors and carved statues lining the halls.
  • Image may contain Art Corridor Flooring Human Person Lighting Art Gallery and Floor
    • Alamy National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia
    • The National Gallery of Victoria opened its Great Hall in 1968, unveiling Leonard French’s magnificent stained-glass ceiling. The soaring feature was installed over the course of five years, and museum-goers still enjoy lying on the floor to gaze up at the hundreds of cut triangles.
  • Image may contain Flooring Floor Architecture Building Dome Rug and Corridor
    • mazzzur Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque, Shiraz, Iran
    • The Nasir Al-Mulk Mosque is also known as the “Pink Mosque” due to its rose-colored tiles. The mosque is best seen in the early morning hours, when the sun shines through the stained glass windows and you feel like you’re walking into a giant kaleidoscope.
  • Image may contain Building Architecture Art Window and Stained Glass
    • Alamy Erawan Museum, Bangkok, Thailand
    • This whimsical museum is actually a five-story sculpture of Erawan, a three-headed elephant from Hindu mythology. The structure houses antiques, sculptures, and an amazing stained-glass ceiling.

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  • This image may contain Building Architecture Church Altar Apse Cathedral and Art
    • Alamy. Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, France
    • Sainte-Chapelle is a Gothic chapel in the heart of Paris, containing what is perhaps the world’s finest 13th-century stained glass. Pictures hardly do it justice: The 50-foot windows in the upper chapel are even more incredible in person.
  • Image may contain Building Architecture Window Art Skylight Lamp and Chandelier
    • Alamy. Chicago Cultural Center, Chicago, IL
    • The Chicago Cultural Center is one of the most frequently visited attractions in the city, thanks to its free exhibitions and famous domed ceiling, which the center claims is the largest Tiffany-glass dome in the world.
  • This image may contain Office Building Building Lighting City Town Metropolis Urban and Light
    • Alamy Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (Beeld en Geluid), Hilversum, Netherlands
    • The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision is home to a massive archive of Dutch television, radio, music, and film—all contained within a cubic shell of colorful glass.
  • Image may contain Building Architecture Art and Stained Glass
    • Alamy Chapel of Thanksgiving, Dallas, Texas
    • The Chapel of Thanksgiving in downtown Dallas is best known for its “Glory Window,” a nautilus-shaped display of stained glass that gets brighter the closer it spirals toward the center.
  • The Coventry Cathedral is a modern structure built after the original 14thcentury building was destroyed during WWII....
    • Alamy. Coventry Cathedral, Coventry, England
    • The Coventry Cathedral is a modern structure built after the original 14th-century building was destroyed during WWII. The new architecture includes a wall of stained glass windows that get brighter as they reach the center, right over the church’s altar.
  • Image may contain Porch and Art
    • Alamy. Cosmovitral Botanical Garden, Toluca, Mexico
    • The Cosmovitral Botanical Garden houses more than 500 species of plants, although the collection almost pales in comparison to the sprawling stained-glass ceiling, which depicts themes of duality (good and evil, night and day, etc.) and covers nearly 35,000 square feet of space.
  • This image may contain Ornament Pattern Lamp Chandelier Architecture Building Art Lighting and Fractal
    • AlamyYork Minster, York, EnglandThe Chapter House of York Minster is a striking octagonal nave, formerly used as the location for the Parliament of King Edward I in the 1200s. It’s built almost entirely out of stained-glass windows that shroud the house in soft light.
  • This image may contain Flooring Human Person Floor Banister Handrail Lighting Corridor Architecture and Building
    • GettyGran Hotel Ciudad de México, Mexico City
    • This five-star hotel is known for its French Art Nouveau style: arched balconies, wrought-iron elevators, and a breathtaking Tiffany-glass canopy.

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