Adonis Diaries

Archive for May 2022

The Palestinian Information Center 

Zakaria al-Zubaidi, Palestinian detainee and one of 6 prisoners who were recaptured after escaping Gilboa Prison last September, talks in his latest letter from prison.

Zakaria never got the chance to say goodbye to any of 4 family members he’s lost throughout the years. He was in prison when his father died in the 1980s. His mother and brother Taha were murdered by Israeli occupation forces in Jenin Invasion in 2002 and he couldn’t see them or hold funeral rituals.

Last week he lost another brother, Daoud, who was shot dead by Israeli forces in Jenin.

(Image via Eye on Palestine)

May be an image of 2 people and text that says 'EYE ON PALESTINE W ZAKARIA AL-ZUBAIDI "ALL THOSE I LOST, I DID NOT SAY GOODBYE TO THEM AND DID NOT BURY THEM"'

Adonis

May be an image of 2 people and text that says 'Palestine Online Petition details Comments Updates Support Scholars, Activists, and Journalists Facing Censorsh and Surveillance in Germany Letter in support of Dr. Anna- Esther Younes Nearly 500 500 prominent scholars, artists, activists and organizations support German-Palestinian scholar Dr. Anna Younes against censorship and anti-Palestinian racism in Germany'
500 prominent scholars, artists, activists and organizations have slammed the censorship and anti-Palestinian racism in Germany targeting Dr. Anna Younes, a German-Palestinian critical race and post-colonial scholar, stressing their solidarity with her.

Adonis

May be an image of 1 person and text that says 'Palestine Remembering Tom Hurndall On 11 April 2003, Israeli sniper shot Tom in the head while trying to rescue children from Israeli gunfire ine line in Gaza.'
On this day in 2003, an Israeli sniper shot British activist and journalist Tom Hurndall while attempting to rescue a child who had been pinned down by gunfire in Gaza Strip.
He died nine months later in hospital in London. He was 22.

Israel has a long history of sniping-dead Palestinians and foreign journalists, and Nisrine Abu Akilat will Not be the last one.

During the weekly demonstrations in Gaza on the border under the “Rights of Return”, scores of Palestinians and journalist were sniped-dead, and many were targeted to be handicapped for life, especially in the legs to prevent them from walking in massive marches again…

Adonis

May be an image of one or more people and text that says 'Palestine くぐ PHOTO ODAYDAIBES PHOTO:ODAYDAIBES DAY In a matter of hours, occupied West Bank bids farewell to 4 Palestinians murdered by Israeli gunfire'
In a matter of hours, 4 Palestinians, including 2 women, got murdered in cold blood by Israeli forces’ bullets in the occupied West Bank.

Because they NOT just Numbers,
Say Their Names:

1. Ghada Sabatin, 47
2. Maha Za’atari, 24
3. Muhammad Ghneim, 21
4. Muhammad Zakarneh, 17

Adonis

May be an image of standing, outdoors and text that says 'IMEU Chaque année à l'automne, juste quand les fermiers palestiniens se préparent a récolter leurs olives, des colons işraéliens attaquent violemment les oliviers et les fermiers palestiniens.'
Israel made it a strategy to cut down as many Olive tree as possible, on account this tree is a Symbol for survival of the Palestinian people.

Adonis

May be an image of 1 person, outdoors and text that says 'IMEU Les assauts sur es oliveraies palestiniennes par les colons israéliens un acte de guerre environnemental continuent de s'intensifier. ce jour, au moins 800 000 oliviers ont été déracinés à la tois par les autorités israéliennes et les colons.'
Israel settlers have uprooted more than 800,000 olive trees.

Adonis

May be an image of ‎one or more people, book and ‎text that says '‎HABIBI ليلة 3000NIGHTS 3000 NIGHTS Vitro ية الهد PRESENT salt سفتك sea HISTOIRES PALESTINIENNES Une sélection de 32 films palestiniens sur Netflix إجرين مارادونا MARADONA'LEGS GIRAFFADA DIVNE INTERVENTION LAVE‎'‎‎
Retrouvez la collection sur les “Histoires Palestiniennes” de Netflix dans cet article 👉 https://bit.ly/3aLS5RJ
May be an image of text that says '1. Le sel de la mer 2 A drowning man 3. Rêves d'exil 4. A man returned 5. When I saw you 6. Les enfants de Shatila 7. Intervention divine 8. The Crossing 9. Paradise now 10. Chronique d'une disparition 11. Maradona's legs 12 3000 nuits 13. In vitro 14. Bonboné 15. 15 Three Logical Exists 16 La chasse aux fantômes 17. Ave Maria'

Note: When we talk of ancient Syria, it is meant the entire Near-East region of current States of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Iraq, the southern region of Turkey (Hittite), and Cyprus). Syria was once united under the Seleucid empire and most empires in the Near East (Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, Assyria, Canaan, Nabatanean…) traded freely with Egypt and many City-States prospered as self autonomous “democratic” kingdom)

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حكمة أشورية Assyrian idiom

لا يجب ان اخشى أعدائي فأقصى ما يمكنهم فعله هو مهاجمتي
و لا يجب ان اخشى اصدقائي فأقصى ما يمكنهم فعله هو خيانتي
لكن لدي الكثير لاخشى من الناس المبهمين
— with ‎نسيب عريضه

Adonis

No photo description available.
Ugarit tablet

في نصوص مملكة اوغاريت السورية القديمة و التي تم الكشف عن اثارها و الواحها امدونة باول ابجدية في التاريخ و تعود للالف الثاني قبل الميلاد يوجد قصيدة-حكاية مطولة تحما اسم السيد/البعل /والسيدة عنات/ و

تقص الحكاية صراع /عنات/ مع اعداء البعل لبعثه من الموت الى الحياة من جديد باعتباره سيد الخصوبة نعثر على هذه العبارة الهامة / اكلت عنات جسد البعل بلا سكين و شربت دمه بلا كأس /

و هي تذكرنا على الفور بعبارة المسيح السوري قبل موته حين قال لتلامذته في العشاء الاخير هذه العبارة / كلو الخبزفهو جسدي .و اشربوا النبيذ فهو دمي /
عبارة المسيح تشابه الى حد بعيد عبارة النص الاوغاريتي السوري التي تسبق عبارة المسيح بالفي سنة على الاقل.

و فيها مبدأ تضحية / الرب / بنفسه في سبيل تأمين حياة افضل للبشر و كما قبل البعل الموت من اجل الناس فالمسيح تبعه في ذلك مما يدل على رسوخ الروحانية السورية في المسيحية كما علمها المسيح السوري و ليس كما
بدلت فيها الكنيسة فيما بعد لارضاء اليهود .

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Petra. Capital of Nabatenian kingdom

تدور اليوم العديد من المحاولات الباطلة لتحويل تاريخ البلاد السورية الى عربية الاصل و المن
وهذا الامر لهو تزوير و هذيان ممجوج ، كمحاولة مملكة الرمال التسويق لفكرة عربيّة الانباط و البتراء .
بحث كامل ودقيق للدكتور مقدسي عن تاريخ الانباط و فيه تحقيق شخصي بعد ان زار البتراء .

الاصول السورية للانباط واللغة النبطية…

يأتي ذكر الانباط في الوثائق التاريخية في بلاد الشام قبل الميلاد بعدة قرون . كما انهم ذكروا في الوثائق الاشورية و في بعض الاسفار التوراتية.
اصل الاسم /نبط/ يأتي من فعل/ نبت/ اي انه لا يدل على بدو رحل بل على مجموعة بشرية مستقرة و تعمل في الزراعة!!
اذن على قوم اصحاب حضارة و يجيدون الكتابة وفن و هندسة العمارة و البناء وبقايا عاصمتهم /البتراء /اليوم في الاردن تبين ذلك في صورة مدهشة.
و اسم البتراء هو ترجمة يونانية لاسم /الصخرة /او /الحجر/ لبراعة الانباط في البناء الحجري كما تقدم .
و لا شك ان الاسم الاصلي كان /الصخرة/ اما اسم البتراء فقد جاء من الاسم اليوناني للصخر و هو /بترس/ الذي جاء منه اسم/ بطرس/تلميذ المسيح و الذي كان اسمه السوري / صخر/ و لقد بدأت الترجمات الحديثة للاناجيل تستخدم اسم / صخر / بدلا من اسم / بطرس/.

و اسم بطرس دخل الى اللغات الاوروبية بصيغة /بيير/ اي الحجرة بالفرنسية.
اما اسم البتراء في الوثائق القديمة و بالنبطية فقد كان /رقمو / او / ركمو/ و يعني الحجر او تراكم الحجارة اثناء البناء (و الى اليوم نقول رجم حجار)
كما ان اسم نبت/ يدل على المزروعات و كان الاسم يأتي احيانا في صيغة/ نبت-ايل/ او /نبت-عل/ اي مزروعات الله او مخلوقات الله او الحدائق الالهية .
اما اصل الانباط الاولي فيعود الى زمن بعيد ، و الى اكثر من الالف الاول قبل الميلاد من حيث انهم يتحدرون من المجموعة السورية /الادوميون/ الذين سكنوا المناطق نفسها قرب البتراء و دخلوا في حروب مع بني اسرائيل مثلهم في

ذلك مثل اخوتهم /العمونيين / التي اتى منها اسم/ عمان /و الربة /عمون/ و / المؤابيين /و كل الكنعانيين الذين اختلطوا بالحثيين و الاراميين في ممالك -مدن في كل فلسطين و الاردن .
و لقد امتدت المملكة النبطية في عزها القرن الرابع ق.م حتى وصلت الى بصرى و وحوران في سوريا الحالية

من اشهر الملوك الانباط نذكر
الحارث الاول القرن الثاني
الحارث الثاني القرن الاول
الحارث الثالث القرن الاول
ملكوم الاول اواخر القرن الاول
عبيدة الاول الذي وصل حكمه الى الجولان في سوريا
ثم الحارث الثالث الملقب باللغات الاوروبية ب ( ارتياس) يعني الحارث( حارتياس ).
و هو صار ملكا على دمشق على ايام بولس الرسول و دخوله دمشق بداية القرن الاول للميلاد.

(و عندما زرت البتراء في الاردن قبل سنوات من اليوم اصابني الذهول من عظمة هندسة ما رأيته من مبان و اضرحة و بيوت و معابد ُشيدت في ذلك الزمن و لا تزال الى اليوم )

كان العمل الرئيسي للانباط هو التجارة كما انهم مثل كل الفلسطينين الكنعانيين عرفوا العمل في المعادن و البناء و

كانوا على علاقة جيدة و سلمية مع المملكة الاشورية على عهد /اشور باني بعل /مما يدل على قدم تواجدهم في البتراء و الاردن منذ عهد بعيد.كما ان بعض الوثائق تبين انهم استعملوا اللغة السريانية في الكتابة كما تدل رسالة موجهة من ملك الانباط الى ملك سوريا انذاك/انطوخيوس الثاني .
و لقد توسعت المملكة النبطية من دمشق الى البحر الاحمر و ذلك حتى اصبحت المملكة النبطية السورية جزءاً من

الامبروطورية الرومانية ككل انحاء بلاد الشام بعد دخول الرومان الى كل سوريا.

و كان الانباط قد اكتشفوا طرقا جديد لقوافلهم التجارية التي كانت تحمل و بشكل خاص البخور و التوابل حتى مصر و اليمن .

و تبين النقوش القديمة المدونة باللغة النبطية ان هذه اللغة كانت هي نفسها تقريبا اللغة السريانية و ليست العربية ، بل ان التجار العرب الاتين من جزيرة العرب هم الذين اقتبسوا اللغة النبطية السورية التي نرى الكثير من مفرداتها في اللغة التي نسميها اليوم العربية الفصحى .
بالاضافة الى التجارة و الزراعة فقد شكل الملوك الانباط جيشاً قوياً ذكر المؤرخ (ديدروس الصقيلي من جزيرة صقيلة) ان عدد افراد الجيش النبطي لم يكن اقل من حوالي 10 الاف مقاتل من الفرسان و المشاة .
كانت ديانة الانباط نفسها الديانة السورية : الله الخالق و ابنه البعل و السيدة عشتروت او الالوهة المؤنثة / اللات او بعلات/

و ذلك كما تبين النقوش و الوثائق و الاسماء الالهية.
اما حكاية هجرة الانباط من جزيرة العرب الى الاردن فهي تلفيق .
فالانباط عاشوا في وطنهم الام في الاردن و سوريا و لم يأتوا اليه من مكان اخر .

و مما يدل على كونهم من اصل سوري هو اسماء ملوكهم الذين و في اكثر الاحيان حملوا لقب /الحارث/ و الحارث في السورية الكنعانية -الفينيقية هو /البعل / الذي كان في المعتقد السوري الديني هو المسؤول عن حراثة الحقول و سقيها بالمطر .
و الحارث دخل الى اليونانية في صيغة /خورخيوس/ ثم عاد الينا في صيغة/جرجس/ ثم دخل الى اللغات الاوروبية في صيغة / جورج/ و هو اليوم اسم شائع و معروف.
اما الابجدية النبطية فهي منقولة عن الارامية السورية مع بعض الاختلاف في رسم الحروف
و نذكر من الحروف النطية ( ك-ل-م-ب-ن-و-ش-ق -ياء/تاء) اما صور الحروف فقد دخلت العربية تقريبا كما هي.
و جدير بالذكر ان القديس /بولس/ عندما دخل /دمشق/بعد الرؤيا الشهيرة التي تراءى له فيها المسيح ان دمشق انذاك كانت تحت حكم نائب الملك الحارث النبطي.
و في احد النقوش النبطية نقرأ و بالنبطية

:
(ح ر ت /م ل ك /ن ب ت و /)
اي الحارث ملك الانباط .

و من الاسماء المعروفة في الكتابات النبطية نذكر الاسماء و الالقاب التالية
ذو الشرى / و هو يعني صاحب الشريعة و الملك /.
لقب مثل /رب- سيد / بصرى و درعا و حوران /اليوم في سوريا/ يعني حاكم تلك المدن و نائب الملك.
نبو/ او /نبي /و كان يطلق على الكاتب الاكبر. و /نبو/ او/نبي/ يدل في كل اللغات السورية القديمة على الكاتب او الذي يعرف الكتابة و القراءة ،

يعني الذي ينبئ الناس بالامور عن طريق الكتابة او القراءة و هو عكس الجاهل.
وهب اللات – يعني هبة او هدية الربة علات /العالية . و من هذا التركيب جاء اسم /وهيبة / او / هبة / و /وهيب/ و/ و عبد الوهاب و الواهب.
ذو العزى/ اسم الهي او لقب و يعني الله صاحب العزة .
علات /مؤنث بعل . اليوم اصبح /عالية/ و / علياء/ و /علاء/ و /علي / .

العزت /مؤنث العزى / يعني صاحبة العزة، و هي تماثل ايزيس المصرية و عشتار السورية و اننانا السومرية
و افروديت اليونانية و فينوس الرومانية و العذراء مريم المسيحية و فاطمة الزهراء في العهد الاسلامي

اول من اهتم بحماية المستهلك من الاستغلال الاقتصادي هو سين كاشد ملك اوروك من السلالة الامورية 1860 ق.م
حيث قام بتحديد اسعار السلع و البضائع التجارية وذلك لحماية افراد الشعب من جشع التجار و كهنة المعبد

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Bethlehem

ليس من حق جمعية الأمم المتحده كلها أن تفرض على الأمه السوريه مقررات تنزع سيادة الأمه السوريه عن وطنه أوحقها في ارضها
سعاده 2_11 _ 1947
بيت لحم (مدينة الاله لأخاما الكنعاني )
تشير رسائل تل العمارنه 1350 قبل الميلاد الى أن بيت لحم كانت محطه مهمه للمسافرين المتنقلين بين الجنوب السوري ومصر والى ان اسم بيت لحم يرجع الى مدينة جنوب القدس بيت أيلو لاهاما اي بيت الاله لاخاما او لاهاما
وهو اله القوت والطعام عند الكنعانيين

والارجح ان اسم المدينه بيت لحم مشتق من اسم هذا الاله وكانت تعني عند الارامين بيت الخبز وليست لحم ايضا اسم قديم هو أفرات او أفراته وهي كلمه اراميه تعني الخصب والثمار 

— with ‎نسيب عريضه

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Yafa, Jafa

ان عدم اعتبار السورين قضية فلسطين قضيه سوريه محض بالمعنى القومي وعدم تناديهم الى عقد مؤتمر فيما بين الدول السوريه للبت في قضية فلسطين للدفاع عنها أخرج القضيه من حقوق السورين الى نطاق مشاع بين عدة دول ضمن العالم العربي
سعاده
25 / 1/1948
افا جميلة الكنعانيين )
تعتبر يافا من أقدم المدن الفلسطينيه ويعود تاريخ نشوئها الى حوالي 4000سنه قبل الميلاد وقد بناها الكنعانيون وأسموها يافي ومعناه الجميله كشفت الحفريات الأثريه بقايا اسوار كانت مبنيه حول المدينه تعود الى القرن الخامس قبل … 

 الميلاد ذكرت في رسائل تل العمارنه باسم (يابو) يعتبر ميناؤها أحد أقدم الموانئ في العالم حيث كان يخدم السفن منذ أكثر من 4000 عام تميزت يافا بمهارة عمالها وبغنى أهلها وجمال حدائقها وجودة ثمارها 

— with ‎نسيب عريضه

Adonis

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More than 80,000 years ago, humans inhabited Syria

لعصر الحجري
ما سبق سنة 3500 قبل الميلاد (تقريباً)

منذ العصر الحجري القديم توجد آثار للإنسان في سورية على مدى حوالي مليون سنة . أما آثار الإنسان الحديث (الإنسان العاقل) فتوجد منذ 80.000 سنة . وكان الإنسان في ذلك الحين يعيش حياة الصيادين وجامعي الثمار دون مسكن ثابت ، فحينما ينضب الطعام ينتقل إلى مكان آخر .

وكانت سورية خلال العصر الحجري الحديث واحدة من أولى المناطق التي بدأ فيها الإنسان بزراعة المحاصيل . ومن خلال مساهمة الانسان في الزراعة فقد حدث تغيير في نوعية الحبوب بحيث أصبحت أكبر حجماً ولا تسقط من تلقاء ذاتها من السنابل كما كان الحال في سابقاتها البرية .

وأصبح المحصول أكثر وفرة . وفي ذات الوقت أجريت تجارب في تدجين الحيوانات . وأدت هذه التغييرات بالإنسان إلى الاستقرار في مسكن وذلك حوالي سنة 9.500 قبل الميلاد .أقدم آثار للإنسان في المنطقة التي أصبحت اليوم هي سورية .

Adonis

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Table that gives angles and length sides of triangle calculation used by Babylon empire, 1700 BC. More than 1200 years before Pythagoras.

لوح بليمبتون332
هو لوح بابلي يعود إلى 1700ق.م

وهو عبارة عن جدول يصف اشكال المثلثات قائمة الزاوية باستخدام نوع مبتكر من الرياضيات يعتمد على النسبة وليس الدوائر أو الزوايا كما أنه يظهر قائمة المعادلات ما يعرف بفيثاغورس
وبذلك تكون بابل قد سبقت اليونان في معرفة علم المثلثات بالف عام

Adonis

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Zaim Antoun Saadi.
ورثتنا مبادئاً وعقيدةً تعلّمُ الاجيال معنى الحرية والنظام

Note: Up to you to believe these information. I conjecture that there were many kinds of human species before the conventional narratives. The regular cycles of climate change have annihilated many species and many powerful and prosperous empires disappeared due to climate change

Tara Macisaac

Sept. 8, 2022

According to the conventional view of history, humans have only walked the Earth in our present form for some 200,000 years. (With new archeological technologies, the walking humans have been roaming and settling earth far beyond 200,000 years)

Advanced civilizations appeared several thousand years ago, (more than 10,000 years ago,) but much of the mechanical ingenuity we know in modern times began to develop only around the Industrial Revolution a couple hundred years ago.

Oopart (out-of-place artifact) is a term applied to dozens of prehistoric objects found in various places around the world that seem to show a level of technological advancement incongruous with the times in which they were made.

Many scientists attempt to explain them using natural phenomena. Others say such explanations ignore the mounting evidence that prehistoric civilizations possessed advanced technological knowledge that was lost throughout the ages only to be redeveloped in modern times.  (I agree with that conjecture)

We will look at a variety of ooparts here ranging in purported origin from millions of years ago to merely hundreds of years ago, but all said to show advancement well ahead of their time.

We do not claim that all or any of the ooparts are definitive evidence of advanced prehistoric civilizations, but rather attempt to provide a brief glimpse at what’s known or hypothesized about these artifacts.

This is not a comprehensive list of all ooparts, but it is a substantial sampling.

17 ooparts. 2,000-Year-Old Batteries?

Right: An illustration of a Baghdad battery from museum artifact pictures.

Right: An illustration of a Baghdad battery from museum artifact pictures. (Ironie/Wikimedia Commons)

Clay jars with asphalt stoppers and iron rods made some 2,000 years ago have been proven capable of generating more than a volt of electricity. These ancient “batteries” were found by German archaeologist Wilhelm Konig in 1938 just outside of Baghdad, Iraq.

“The batteries have always attracted interest as curios,” Dr. Paul Craddock, a metallurgy expert at the British Museum, told the BBC in 2003.

“They are a one-off. As far as we know, nobody else has found anything like these. They are odd things; they are one of life’s enigmas.”

16. Ancient Egyptian Light Bulb?

The light-bulb-like object engraved in a crypt under the Temple of Hathor in Egypt.

The light-bulb-like object engraved in a crypt under the Temple of Hathor in Egypt. (Lasse Jensen/Wikimedia Commons)

A relief beneath the Temple of Hathor at Dendera, Egypt, depicts figures standing around a large light-bulb-like object. 

Erich Von Däniken who wrote “Chariot of the Gods,”created a model of the bulb which works when connected to a power source, emitting an eerie, purplish light.

15. Great Wall of Texas

A historic photo of the “wall” found in Rockwall, Texas.

A historic photo of the “wall” found in Rockwall, Texas. (Public Domain)

In 1852, in what is now known as Rockwall Co., Texas, farmers digging a well discovered what appeared to be an ancient rock wall. Estimated to be some 200,000 to 400,000 years old, some say it’s a natural formation while others say it’s clearly man-made.

Dr. John Geissman at the University of Texas in Dallas tested the rocks as part of a History Channel documentary. He found they were all magnetized the same way, suggesting they formed where they are and were not moved to that site from elsewhere. But some remain unconvinced by this single TV-show test and ask for further studies.

Geologist James Shelton and Harvard-trained architect John Lindsey have noted elements that seem to be of architectural design, including archways, linteled portals, and square openings that resemble windows.

14. 1.8-Billion-Year-Old Nuclear Reactor?

Nuclear reactor site, Oklo, Gabon Republic.

Nuclear reactor site, Oklo, Gabon Republic. (NASA)

In 1972, a French factory imported uranium ore from Oklo, in Africa’s Gabon Republic. The uranium had already been extracted. 

They found the site of origin to have apparently functioned as a large-scale nuclear reactor that came into being 1.8 billion years ago and was in operation for some 500,000 years.

Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, former head of the United States Atomic Energy Commission and Nobel Prize winner for his work in the synthesis of heavy elements, explained why he believes it wasn’t a natural phenomenon, and thus must be a man-made nuclear reactor. 

For uranium to “burn” in a reaction, very precise conditions are needed.

The water must be extremely pure, for one. Much purer than exists naturally.

The material U-235 is necessary for nuclear fission to occur. It is one of the isotopes found naturally in uranium. Several specialists in reactor engineering have said they believe the uranium in Oklo could not have been rich enough in U-235 for a reaction to take place naturally.

13. Sea-Faring Map Makers Before Antarctica Was Covered in Ice?

A portion of the Piri Reis map of 1513.

A portion of the Piri Reis map of 1513. (Public Domain)

A map created by Turkish admiral and cartographer Piri Reis in 1513, but sourced from various earlier maps, is thought by some to depict Antarctica as it was in a very remote age before it was covered with ice.

A landmass is shown to jut out from the southern coastline of South America. Captain Lorenzo W. Burroughs, a U.S. Air Force captain in the cartographic section,  wrote a letter  to Dr. Charles Hapgood in 1961 saying that this landmass seems to accurately show Antarctica’s coast as it is under the ice.

Dr. Hapgood (1904–1982) was one of the first to publicly suggest that the Piri Reis map depicts Antarctica during a prehistoric time. He was a Harvard-educated historian whose theories about geological shifts earned the admiration of Albert Einstein. He hypothesized that the land masses shifted, explaining why Antarctica is shown as connected to South America.

Modern studies refute Hapgood’s theory that such a shift could have taken place within thousands of years, but they show that it could have happened within millions of years.

12. 2,000-Year-Old Earthquake Detector

A replica of an ancient Chinese seismoscope from the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 A.D.), and its inventor, Zhang Heng.

A replica of an ancient Chinese seismoscope from the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 A.D.), and its inventor, Zhang Heng. (Wikimedia Commons)

In 132 A.D., Zhang Heng created the world’s first seismoscope. How exactly it works remains a mystery, but replicas have worked with a precision comparable to modern instruments.

In 138 A.D., it correctly indicated that an earthquake occurred about 300 miles west of Luoyang, the capital city. No one had felt the quake in Luoyang and dismissed the warning until a messenger arrived days later requesting aid.

11. 150,000-Year-Old Pipes?

Baigong Cave, with photo of pipe in the bottom left

Baigong Cave, with photo of pipe in the bottom left

Caves near Mount Baigong in China contain pipes leading to a nearby lake. They were dated by the Beijing Institute of Geology to about 150,000 years ago, according to Brian Dunning of Skeptoid.com.

State-run media Xinhua reported that the pipes were analyzed at a local smeltery and 8% of the material could not be identified.

Zheng Jiandong, a geology research fellow from the China Earthquake Administration told state-run newspaper People’s Daily in 2007 that some of the pipes were found to be highly radioactive.

Jiandong said iron-rich magma may have risen from deep in the Earth, bringing the iron into fissures where it may have solidified into tubes. Though he admitted, “There is indeed something mysterious about these pipes.” He cited the radioactivity as an example of the strange qualities of the pipes.

10. Antikythera Mechanism

The Antikythera Mechanism is a 2000-year-old mechanical device used to calculate the positions of the sun, moon, planets, and even the dates of the ancient Olympic Games.

The Antikythera Mechanism is a 2000-year-old mechanical device used to calculate the positions of the sun, moon, planets, and even the dates of the ancient Olympic Games. (Wikimedia Commons)

A mechanism, often referred to as an ancient “computer,” that was built by Greeks around 150 B.C. was able to calculate astronomical changes with great precision.

“If it hadn’t been discovered … no one would possibly believe that it could exist because it’s so sophisticated,” said Mathematician Tony Freeth in a NOVA documentary.

Mathias Buttet, director of research and development for watch-maker Hublot, said in a video released by the Hellenic Republic Ministry of Culture and Tourism, “This Antikythera Mechanism includes ingenious features which are not found in modern watch-making.”

9. Drill Bit in Coal

John Buchanan, Esq.,  presented a mysterious object to a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland on Dec. 13, 1852.

A drill bit had been found encapsulated in coal about 22 inches thick, buried in a bed of clay mixed with boulders about 7 feet thick.

The Earth’s coal is said to have formed hundreds of millions of years ago. The Society decided that the instrument was of a modern level of advancement. But, it concluded that “the iron instrument might have been part of a borer broken during some former search for coal.”

Buchanan’s detailed report did not include any signs that the coal surrounding the instrument had been punctured by drilling. 

8. 2.8-Billion-Year-Old Spheres?

Top left, bottom right: Spheres, known as Klerksdorp spheres, found in the pyrophyllite (wonderstone) deposits near Ottosdal, South Africa. (Robert Huggett) Top right, bottom left: Similar objects known as Moqui marbles from the Navajo Sandstone of southeast Utah.

Top left, bottom right: Spheres, known as Klerksdorp spheres, found in the pyrophyllite (wonderstone) deposits near Ottosdal, South Africa. (Robert Huggett)

Top right, bottom left: Similar objects known as Moqui marbles from the Navajo Sandstone of southeast Utah. (Paul Heinrich)

Spheres with fine grooves around them found in mines in South Africa have been said by some to be naturally formed masses of mineral matter. Others have said they were precisely shaped by a prehistoric human hand.

“The globes, which have a fibrous structure on the inside with a shell around it, are very hard and cannot be scratched, even by steel,” said Roelf Marx, curator of the museum of Klerksdorp, South Africa, according to Michael Cremo’s book “Forbidden Archaeology: The Hidden History of the Human Race.” Marx said the spheres are about 2.8 billion years old.

If they are mineral masses, it is unclear how exactly they formed.

7. Iron Pillar of Delhi

An inscription from about 400 A.D. by King Candragupta II on the Iron Pillar of Delhi.

An inscription from about 400 A.D. by King Candragupta II on the Iron Pillar of Delhi. (Venus Upadhayaya/Epoch Times)

This pillar is at least 1,500 years old, but could be older. It remains rust-free and is of an astounding purity.

It is 99.72% t iron, according to professor A.P. Gupta, head of the Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities at the Institute of Technology and Management in India.

In modern times, wrought iron has been made with a purity of 99.8 percent, but it contains manganese and sulfur, two ingredients absent in the pillar.

It was made at least “400 years before the largest known foundry of the world could have produced it,” wrote John Rowlett in “A Study of the Craftsmen of Ancient and Medieval Civilizations to Show the Influence of their Training on our Present Day Method of Trade Education.”

6. Viking Sword Ulfbehrt

An Ulfberht sword displayed at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, Germany.

An Ulfberht sword displayed at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, Germany. (Martin Kraft/Wikimedia Commons)

When archaeologists found the Viking sword Ulfbert, dating from 800 to 1000 A.D., they were stunned. They couldn’t see how the technology to make such a sword would have been available until the Industrial Revolution 800 years later. (Damascus produced highly sophisticated swords hundred of years BC)

Its carbon content is three times higher than other swords of its time and impurities were removed to such a degree that the iron ore must have been heated to at least 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

With great effort and precision, modern  blacksmith Richard Furrer of Wisconsin forged a sword  of Ulfberht quality using technology that would have been available in the Middle Ages. He said it was the most complicated thing he’d ever made, and he used methods not known to have been used by people of that time.

5. 100-Million-Year-Old Hammer?

A hammer was found in London, Texas, in 1934 encased in stone that had formed around it. The rock surrounding the hammer is said to be more than 100 million years old.

Glen J. Kuban, a vocal skeptic of claims the hammer was made millions of years ago, said the stone may contain materials that are more than 100 million years old, but that doesn’t mean the rock formed around the hammer so long ago.

Some limestone has formed around artifacts known to be from the 20th century, so concretions can form fairly quickly around objects, he said. Concretions are masses of hardened mineral matter.

Carl Baugh, who is in possession of the artifact, has said the wooden handle has turned to coal (evidence of its great age) and that the metal it is made of has a strange composition. Critics have called for more, independent testing to verify these claims, but thus far no such testing has been conducted.

4. Prehistoric Work Site?

Workers at a stone quarry near Aix-en-Provence, France, in the 18th century came across tools stuck in a layer of limestone 50 feet underground.

The find  was recorded  in the American Journal of Science and Arts in 1820 by T. D. Porter, who was translating Count Bournon work, “Mineralogy.”

The wooden instruments had turned into agate, a hard stone. 

Porter wrote: “Everything tended to prove that this work had been executed upon the spot where the traces existed. The presence of man had then preceded the formation of this stone, and that very considerably since he was already arrived at such a degree of civilization that the arts were known to him, and that he wrought the stone and formed columns out of it.”

As stated in the case of the hammer above, limestone has been known to form relatively quickly around modern tools. 

3. Million-Year-Old Bridge?

Adam’s Bridge, also known as Rama’s Bridge, or Ram Setu, between India and Sri Lanka.

Adam’s Bridge, also known as Rama’s Bridge, or Ram Setu, between India and Sri Lanka. (NASA)

According to ancient Indian legend, King Rama built a bridge between India and Sri Lanka more than a million years ago. What appears to be remnants of such a bridge have been seen from satellite images, but many say it is a natural formation.

Dr. Badrinarayanan, former director of the Geological Survey of India, studied core samples from the bridge. He was puzzled by the appearance of boulders on top of a marine sand layer, and surmised that the boulders must have been artificially placed there.

No single natural explanation has been agreed upon by geologists. Dating has been controversial, as some say any given part of the bridge (such as coral samples) cannot give a true picture of how old the entire bridge is.

2. 500,000-Year-Old Spark Plug?

In 1961, three people were out searching for geodes for their gem and gift shop in Olancha, Calif., when they found what appeared to be a spark plug encased in a geode.

Virginia Maxey, one of the three discoverers, said at the time that a geologist examined the fossils around the device and dated the device at 500,000 years or older.

The geologist was never named, and the current whereabouts of the artifact are unknown.

Critics of the claim, Pierre Stromberg and Paul V. Heinrich, only have x-rays and an artist’s sketch of the artifact to analyze. They think it was a modern spark plug encased in a quick-forming concretion rather than a geode.

But, Stromberg and Heinrich have said, “There is little hard evidence that the original discoverers intended to deceive anyone.”

1. Prehistoric Wall Near Bahamas?

A wall of rock in large, thick block shapes was found off the coast of the Bahamas in 1968. Archaeologist William Donato has conducted multiple dives to investigate the wall and hypothesizes it is a man-made structure some 12,000 to 19,000 years old built to protect a prehistoric settlement from waves.

He’s found it to be a multi-tiered structure including prop stones that appear to be placed there by human hands. He’s also found what he believes to be anchor stones with rope holes in them.

Dr. Eugene Shinn, a retired geologist who worked for the U.S. Geological Survey, has said core rock samples he took show a dip toward deep water. If all the cores show a dip toward deep water, this would prove the rock formed where it is and did not form elsewhere later to be transported by humans to its present location.

His later writings said that all of his samples showed this dip, seeming to prove it is a natural formation. But his earlier study stated that only 25% of his samples showed a dip.

Dr. Greg Little, a psychologist who has taken an interest in this structure, confronted Shinn about this discrepancy and Shinn admitted he didn’t really take his study seriously and, “I got a little carried away to make a good story.”

The article ‘ 17 Out-of-Place Artifacts Said to Suggest High-Tech Prehistoric Civilizations Existed ’ was originally published on The Epoch Times and has been republished with permission.

The daughter of Cleopatra, Cleopatra Selene, was married to the future king Juba II of Mauretania, who allowed his wife to cultivate the memory of her great mother.

Note: there are a few repeat paragraphs from the previous article. Sort of the more recent author copied many ideas.

Natalia Klimczak

July 14, 2016

Cleopatra VII is the icon of a rich and powerful culture.  She was usually depicted as a lover of great men, but the truth was different.

More important than her love life was her educational pursuits. Cleopatra VII could be called one of the greatest intellectuals of her times.

If someone were to believe that a woman could only achieve such a great position in the ancient world based only on her beauty, they could not be more wrong.

Since the beginning of the oldest civilizations, women were able to become independent rulers, but the ones who stayed on the throne the longest, had to learn specific skills to achieve it.

Since the beginning, the life of Cleopatra was not easy. She was born in 69 BC, as a daughter of pharaoh Ptolemy XII, during a very difficult period in the history of Egypt.

Her father was perhaps an intelligent dreamer, but he did not have the skills to be a successful king. Those times in Egypt were already dominated by the Romans (Not yet on ground), and it seemed that there would be no more great Egyptian rulers. However, Cleopatra changed history.

The powerful reign of Cleopatra

Many short-time female rulers took the throne due to the death of father, husband or brother. However, these women usually ruled for a very short time and frequently faced a tragic end.

In the case of Cleopatra, she was elevated to the status of divine goddess, and remained at the level of the pharaohs for many years.

Her co-regents, brothers and a son, did not have great power outside Egypt. Cleopatra had taken the responsibility of foreign relations since the beginning of her reign. She came to expand her power to even greater levels.

Most of the knowledge about Cleopatra comes from Roman writers, who followed the expectations of the Emperor and did not write too much about her positive side.

She was usually described as a woman who forged her career in the beds of powerful men. In the famous book The Decameron by Italian master of medieval literature Giovanni Boccaccio, she was presented as an allegory of sin.

The story of Cleopatra using her eroticism and sexual talents to improve the political situation of Egypt stayed strong over the centuries. However, if it would be true, she would be killed or dethroned faster than she became a lover of Julius Caesar.

How did it happen that Cleopatra became the last great ruler of Egypt? What was her strength?

According to the Plutarch (Life of Antony, XXVII.2-3)”For her beauty, as we are told, was in itself not altogether incomparable, nor such as to strike those who saw her; but converse with her had an irresistible charm, and her presence, combined with the persuasiveness of her discourse and the character which was somehow diffused about her behavior towards others, had something stimulating about it. There was sweetness also in the tones of her voice; and her tongue, like an instrument of many strings, she could readily turn to whatever language she pleased…”.

The bright mind of the Egyptian Queen

Cleopatra, at the beginning of her political career, did not speak Latin. However, it is possible that with time she started to learn it.

Cleopatra knew the ancient Egyptian language, she learned how to read hieroglyphs, which was unique to her dynasty. Apart from this, she knew Greek and the languages of the Parthians, Jews, Medes, Trogodyatae, Syrians, Ethiopians and Arabs.

With this knowledge, all the books of her world were opened to her. Apart from languages, she studied geography, history, astronomy, international diplomacy, mathematics, alchemy, medicine, zoology, economics and more. She tried to gain all the knowledge of the world.

Ancient Roman sculptures in the Antikensammlung Berlin

Ancient Roman sculptures in the Antikensammlung Berlin ( CC BY 3.0 )

It is known that Cleopatra VII spent a lot of time in a type of ancient laboratory. She wrote at least a few works related to herbs and cosmetology. Unfortunately, all the books by her were lost in the fire of 391 AD, when the great Library of Alexandria was destroyed.

Famous physician Galen studied her works and was able to rewrite a few recipes created by her.

One of the medicines which he also suggested to his patients was a special cream, which helped men to gain back their hair. Her books also contained beauty tips, but none of them survived.

Cleopatra was interested in healing with herbs, due to her linguistic skills she could read papyri, which are now lost. Her impact on the sciences and medicine was well known even during the first centuries of Christianity.

Cleopatra Testing Poisons on Condemned Prisoners by Alexandre Cabanel (1887).

Cleopatra Testing Poisons on Condemned Prisoners by Alexandre Cabanel (1887). ( Public Domain )

The testimony of wisdom

When Cleopatra died in 30 BC, she left her greatest legacy in the intellect of her daughter – Cleopatra Selene.

This young girl was well prepared for her future life. Her mother gave her lessons and coaching, which provided her with a strong position in the heart of Octavian August.

He took care to arrange a good marriage for her, so she became a wife of perhaps the greatest intellectuals between the crown princes of the Mediterranean in the 1st century BC. She got married to the future king Juba II of Mauretania, who allowed his wife to cultivate the memory of her great mother.

The tomb of Juba II and his wife Cleopatra Selene II in Tipaza, Algeria

The tomb of Juba II and his wife Cleopatra Selene II in Tipaza, Algeria ( CC0 1.0 )

The wisdom of Cleopatra VII has been forgotten for centuries. However, it seems logical that if she had not been well educated, she would have been killed by the Romans. In a world full of powerful people that were out to see her dead, Cleopatra was able to outsmart them all.

By Natalia Klimczak

Finding the Lost Mother of Cleopatra VII – Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt
Unraveling History: The Final Fates of the Children of Cleopatra VII?
What if Cleopatra and Octavian Had Been Friends?

Was the Battle of Actium Lost for Cleopatra and Mark Antony Before It Even Started?
Polish Archaeologists Discover Rare Gift from Father of Cleopatra
Has the Hidden Location of the Tomb of Cleopatra Finally Been Found?

During March only, Israeli occupation detained 539 Palestinians, including 62 minors and 19 women. Most of them were from Jerusalem, and issued 195 administrative detention orders against Palestinians

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Ahmed Manasra, a Palestinian prisoner from occupied #Jerusalem, has been in prison since he was only 14 years old.
Since 2015, he’s experienced inhumane treatment and torture by the Israeli prison officers, resulting in severe psychological disorders.
#SaveAhmedManasra

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During March only, Israeli occupation detained 539 Palestinians, including 62 minors and 19 women: most of them were from Jerusalem, and issued 195 administrative detention orders against Palestinians

The Telegraph has apologised and paid £40,000 in damages for accusing Jeremy Corbyn’s former aide, Laura Murray, of anti-semitism

The allegations about Murra were contained in an opinion piece by the former Labour MP and current independent peer Ian Austin, who has also apologised

Israeli occupation forces shot dead 40-year-old Palestinian work Abdullah Srour in Asqalan city in the 1948-occupied territories.

Srour, from Hebron, was stopped by an Israeli soldier and asked to show his identity card. When he refused, the soldier immediately opened fire and killed him.

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4 Palestine Action activists were arrested for blockading the London headquarters of Israel’s largest arms company, Elbit System.
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Administratively detaining Palestinian children
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Dire que 6 organisations Palestiniennes sont “terroristes” est une tentative d’Israël d’éviter toute responsabilité et d’isoler la société civile palestinienne.
La communauté internationale doit condamner ! #StandWithThe6
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ألكسندر سولجينيتسين والعقلية اليهودية

“يشكل كتاب سولجينيتسين “مئتا عام معاً عن العقلية اليهودية” دورة عميقة في علم معرفة “الشخصية اليهودية

م يكن الحائز على جائزة “نوبل”، الأديب الروسي ألكسندر سولجينيتسن، أول من تناول “المسألة اليهودية” في روسيا في مؤلفه الأضخم “مئتا عام معاً: عن العقلية اليهودية” (1795-1995) الصادر في موسكو عام 2001، (نقلته إلى العربية دار الفرقد في دمشق عام 2022)،

عن الدور الخطير الذي لعبه اليهود في تاريخ روسيا، بل أن الغالبية الساحقة من أدباء روسيا ورجالاتها قد تناولوا بعضاً من هذا التاريخ، وفي مقدمتهم ألكسندر بوشكين وأنطون تشيخوف وفيودور دوستويفسكي وإيفان تورجينيف ونقولا غوغول. 

وقد سبق ذلك، الأساطير والأمثال الشعبية التي تحدثت عن طبيعة “اليهودي” كبخيل وشغوف بجمع المال والذهب وإدمان الخيانة.

فاليهودي في الأدب الغربي يوصف إما بالمرابي وإما القواد وإما العميل الخائن.

ويكفينا ما ذكره وليم شكسبير الأديب الإنجليزي في مسرحيته ” تاجر البندقية ” التي تحدثت عن شخصية المُرابي اليهودي “شيلوك” الذي يقرض تاجراً مبلغاً من المال على أن يعيده في موعد محدد، وإذا لم يؤده في الموعد المحدد فيكون من حق “شيلوك” أن يقطع من فخذ المدين مقدار رطل من اللحم.

يقول سولجينيتسين في بداية كتابه إن “المسألة اليهودية” عولجت من وجهات نظر متعددة، لكن بطريقة تثير الاستغراب، إذ يغلب عليها الخداع الذاتي في أحيان كثيرة.

ويبيّن أن “تاريخ المسألة اليهودية في روسيا غني، الكتابة فيه تعني أن تسمع بأذنيك أصواتاً جديدة وتنقلها إلى القارىء. ستتعالى الأصوات اليهودية في هذا الكتاب أكثر بكثير من الأصوات الروسية”. 

تاريخ “المسألة اليهودية” في أوروبا

ظهرت “المسألة اليهودية” في أوروبا في العقد الخامس من القرن 19، وقد شاع هذا التعبير في ألمانيا وفرنسا للحديث عن أهلية اليهود للاندماج والتحرر في المجتمعات الغربية، ونشرت كتب وأبحاث عديدة حول هذه المسألة،

فكان أول من ناقش هذا الموضوع هو الفيلسوف الألماني برونو باور في كتابه “المسألة اليهودية” عام 1843، ورد عليه الفيلسوف كارل ماركس في عام 1844  من خلال كتيبه “المسألة اليهودية”.

تلاهما الفيلسوف الاشتراكي اليهودي الألماني موشي هيس الذي ألف كتابه “روما وأورشليم” عام 1862.

بدوره،أوجز الروائي الروسي الشهير فيدور دوستويفسكي  أسباب كراهية الروس لليهود في كتابه “المسألة اليهودية” الذي نشره في عام 1877، وترجمه الدكتور أحمد الخميسي إلى العربية. 

يذكر سولجينيتسين في كتابه “مئتا عام معاً عن العقلية اليهودية” أن الطبيب الروسي والكاتب الاجتماعي الشهير ليف بينسكر أعلن بعد أحداث العنف ضد اليهود الروس في العامين 1881 – 1882 دعوته اليهود الروس والألمان  إلى التحرير الذاتي، والتي حولها إلى كتاب عام 1882 أصدره باللغة الألمانية بعنوان “التحرير الذاتي: تحذير من يهودي روسي لإخوته”.

وقد ظهر في تلك الاَونة بين يهود روسيا “نمط من المثقفين النادمين الذين أخذوا يسعون للعودة إلى اليهودية التقليدية”. 

غرباء في كل مكان

وينقل سولجينيتسين في كتابه عن بينسكر قوله:” إن اليقين بالتحرير انهار، وينبغي أن يطفأ فينا بصيص الإيمان بإخوة الشعوب. لا يشكل اليهود أمة حية، إنهم غرباء في كل مكان.. لا يستطيع اليهود أن يندمجوا بأية أمة، لذلك لا يمكن لأية أمة أن تطيقهم..لم يبلغوا في مكان اعتراف شركائهم في الوطن بمساواتهم بالسكان الأصليين”.

بعدها، ينتقل بينسكر إلى حصر الحل بدولة على أرض خاصة، يقول: “إن مصير اليهودية يجب ألا يكون متعلقاً بعطف الشعوب الأخرى وإحسانها. أما المخرج العملي من هذا المأزق، فيتمثل بتشكيل شعب على أرض خاصة به. وعليه، يجب امتلاك أي أرض ملائمة وإسكان اليهود فيها، لا فرق في أي بقعة من بقاع الأرض تكون”.

هرتزل

 يذكر محمد حسنين هيكل في كتابه “المفاوضات السرية بين العرب وإسرائيل” أن تيودور هرتزل كان الأكثر  ديناميكية بين الكتاب الذين تطرقوا إلى “المسألة اليهودية”،إذ توجّه “نحو صميم الهدف” وحوّل الصهيونية إلى برنامج عملي.

يحدثنا سولجينيتسين نقلاً عن الأديب النمساوي اليهودي ستيفان سفييغ قوله إنه قبل أن يصدر هرتزل كتابه “الدولة اليهودية” كان يرى في سعي مختلف شعوب إمبراطورية النمسا/ المجر لتقرير مصيرها، مسعى رجعياً ينبغي أن يُقمع.. و”لم يكتفِ هرتزل بذلك، بل وضع خطة لقيادة يهود فيينا إلى الكنيسة لمعمودية جماعية، ووضع حداً نهائياً للمعضلة اليهودية

بتذويب اليهودية في المسيحية”.

لكن قضية اعتقال النقيب اليهودي في الجيش الفرنسي ألفريد دريفوس، ضابط أركان الجيش، في 13 تشرين الأول/ أكتوبر 1894، بعد اتهامه في عام 1904 بكشف أسرار عسكرية للإمبراطورية الألمانية ومحاكمته عام 1905، أحدثت تحولاً فكرياً عند هرتزل وكان يقيم في تلك الفترة في باريس.

وقُيّض له أن يشهد علانية تجريد دريفوس من رتبته. وكان هرتزل على يقين من براءة دريفوس. فهزه الحدث بعنف ودفعه إلى أن يرتد عن قناعاته، وقال في نفسه: “إذا كان الإقصاء حتمياً، فليكن كلياً وإذا كنا نعاني من فقدان الوطن، إذن ينبغي أن نخلق وطناً لأنفسنا”.

ويقول سولجينيتسن: “في لحظة صحو صاعقة، امتلكت كيان هرتزل فكرة إنشاء دولة يهودية.. والحل الممكن للمسألة اليهودية هو الدولة اليهودية القائمة بذاتها”.

وأثار هرتزل بكتيبه “الدولة اليهودية” الصادر عام 1896 الإرباك والغضب في أوساط البرجوازية اليهودية.. لأنه “يعطي أعداءنا اللدودين ذرائع ضدنا”.

ويذكر سولجينيتسين أنه بعد ذلك حدث حماس عاطفي كبير لفكرة هرتزل حتى كاد  هو نفسه يخاف من جبروت الحركة التي طوّرها في كتيبه الصغير.

ألهب هرتزل بكتيبه يهود أوروبا وكرّس لفكرته ما تبقى من سني عمره. فأنشأ حركة سياسية وعمل على بناء كادر جيش المستقبل الجرار وحوّل المؤتمر الصهيوني الأول، الذي عقد عام 1897 في بازل والذي شكّل فيه اليهود الروس ثلث المشاركين، إلى برلمان حقيقي للشعب اليهودي. وفي أثناء خطبته الأولى، أعلنه الحاضرون بحماس قائد الحركة الصهيونية وزعيمها الأوحد.

تحليل الشخصيتين اليهودية والروسية

يشكل كتاب سولجينيتسين دورة معرفية عميقة (ابستمولوجيا) في علم معرفة “الشخصية اليهودية”.

وتأتي أهميته من أمرين: الأول أنه يحلِّل الشخصيتين الروسيّة واليهوديّة تحليلاً سيكولوجيا وسوسيولوجياً في ظل الإمبراطورية الروسية على مدى قرنين من الزمن، بعيداً عن التعصب والانفعاليّة والتوتر والعداء الغالب عليهما.

والثاني من كون كاتبه هو ألكسندر إيسايفيتش سولجينيتسين الروسي المعروف الحائز على جائزة نوبل في الآداب عام 1970.

 ساعد على انتشار كتاب “مئتا عام معاً عن العقلية اليهودية” وعلو صيته، الحملات الإعلامية المُكثّفة ضده، إلى درجة دفعت “ف. ن. أفاناسيف“، وقد يكون اسماً مستعاراً، أن يؤلف كتاباً بعنوان “الأدباء الروس يتحدّثون عن اليهود” ويقول فيه إن ما دفعه إلى الاهتمام بهذه القضية يعود إلى الحملات الإعلامية المكثفة التي روّجت بشكل غير مباشر لكتاب سولجينتسين حين راحت تحاول إدانته بعد أن سيطر اليهود على كل مفاتيح الإعلام والصحافة في روسيا المعاصرة.

ويوضح أن “المسألة اليهودية” لم تكن تشغله في السابق، بل لم يكن ليلتفت إليها حتى بعد أن نشر سولجينتسين رائعته التاريخية “مئتا عام معاً” في جزأين كبيرين، جمعتهما دار الفرقد في دمشق بكتاب ضخم يضم 622 صفحة بعد أن نقله للعربية الدكتور إحسان أسحق.

ويكشف سولجينتسين أنه أنجز الأبحاث المطلوبة لهذا الكتاب في ثمانينيات القرن الماضي، مضيفاً أنه اكتشف حينذاك أن اليهود لعبوا دوراً كبيراً في حركة الانشقاق التي ظهرت في السنوات الأخيرة من العهد السوفياتي السابق فنشر الجزء الأول منه عام 2001.

وأنهى عام 2002 الجزء الثاني الذي يتحدث عن تاريخ اليهود الروس من الثورة البلشفية عام 1917 إلى مرحلة ما بعد العهد السوفياتي السابق، وقد حظي بإقبال كبير حال نزوله إلى المكتبات الروسية.

كان باستطاعة سولجينتسين أن يضع اسماً مستعاراً على كتابه ويخفي اسمه الحقيقي مخافة أن يلقى مصير أربعة من زملائه لقوا حتفهم يوم أفصحوا عن موقف مناهض للصهيونية، في ظروف يكتنف الغموض الكثير من جوانبها، ومنهم الكاتب الشيوعي يوري إيفانوف الذي وجد مقتولاً على سريره في موسكو بسبب أبحاثه في الصهيونية وأهمها تلك الواردة في كتابه الذائع الصيت “الصهيونية.. حذار”، الصادر في موسكو في أعقاب نكسة حزيران / يونيو 1967.

لكنه يرد على ذلك بقوله: “حياتي شارفت على نهايتها، ولم أعترف يوماً بحق أي كان في إخفاء ما كان أو طمسه”. إلا أنه يعود ويؤكد أنه لو كان يعرف المصاعب التي واجهته أثناء إنجاز هذا الكتاب لما كان بدأ به أصلاً. 

يوضح سولجينيتسين أن عنوان كتابه “مئتا عام معاً عن العقلية اليهودية” يعكس الهدف الذي كان يسعى إلى تحقيقه من ورائه، وهو ضرورة فهم الروس لبعضهم البعض بصورة أفضل.

ويشير إلى أنه أراد من خلال إنجاز هذا الكتاب أن يمد يده إلى الآخرين، مشدداً على أن ذلك مشروط بمد الآخرين يدهم إليه أيضاً.

حاول اليهود الروس تأسيس “الاتحاد الاشتراكي الثوري بين يهود روسيا” في بداية عام 1876، ودعوا إلى أن يكون العمل الدعائي باللغة اليهودية، إلا أن هذا الاتحاد لم يلقَ قبولاً في البيئة اليهودية، حتى وقوع أحداث عامي 1881 – 1882 التي عكست وعي الثوريين اليهود في روسيا، والذين كانوا ابتعدوا عن اليهودية في بادئ الأمر. 

ففي 13 آذار/ مارس عام 1881، أقدم أحد أعضاء الجماعات الراديكالية على اغتيال القيصر الكسندر الثاني واستخلفه في الحكم نجله الكسندر الثالث، فسنّ تشريعات وقوانين شديدة لمكافحة الإرهاب ومقاومته.

ورافق ذلك تقييد للحقوق المدنية وحرية الصحافة. وفي عام 1882، وقعت في روسيا مذابح ضد اليهود، ما أسهم في هجرة الجماعات اليهودية من البلاد.

ينقل سولجينيتسين عن إحدى الشخصيات اليهودية قوله “إن  أحداث 1881 – 1882  أثارت موجة سخط عارمة، وأيقظت أعمال العنف المشاعر التي كانت  خامدة.. فليكن هذا منطلقاً لمبادرة جماهيرية يهودية ذاتية.. سوف نعمل من غير كلل على تحطيم نظام الحكم المعاصر”. 

ويقول، نقلاً عن إحدى الشخصيات الفكرية الروسية غ. ب. فيدوتوف،  إن المثقفين اليهود الذين تحرروا روحياً منذ ثمانينيات القرن 19 ، مثلهم مثل المثقفين الروس في عصر بطرس، كانوا يفتقرون إلى الحد الأقصى من المرتكزات.

لعب اليهود الروس دوراً مهماً  داخل حزب الاشتراكيين الثوريين في روسيا، واعتبروا أن مشاركتهم في هذا الحزب كيهود تساعد على إدماجهم في المجتمع كفئة “مُحاربة”.

شكّل تأسيس حزب البوند ( الحزب الاشتراكي الديمقراطي الروسي) عام 1898 مفصلاً مهماً في تاريخ يهود روسيا. فقد شنّ لينين والبلاشفة هجوماً على برنامجهم المسمى “استقلال الثقافة القومية الذاتي” لليهود. واعتبر لينين أن شعارهم هذا من شأنه أن يؤدي إلى انعزال البروليتاريا اليهودية التي أراد الصهاينة أن تعمل بمعزل عن عمال شعوب روسيا.

وبعد ثورة تشرين الأول / أكتوبر الشيوعية عام 1917، حصلت جميع الأقليات القومية في روسيا على حريتها. وفي عام 1918، سنّ أول قانون في العالم يجرّم العداء للسامية.

وأصبح الاتحاد السوفياتي أول دولة في العالم تعتبر العداء لليهود شأنه شأن العداء لأي شعب اَخر جريمة عظمى.

يؤكد كتاب “الجوهر الرجعي للصهيونية” مدى الحقد الحاد الذي يكنّه الصهاينة للحزب الشيوعي، إذ أعلنوا أن الكثير من الثوريين ذوي الأصل اليهودي الذين شاركوا بشكل فعال في إعداد  ثورة أكتوبر وتحقيقها هم “أعداء ألداء” ومناهضون للسامية.

وأصبح الصهاينة ينظرون إلى الماركسية اللينينية بجوهرها على أنها “العدو رقم واحد”. ويذكر الكتاب أن أرشيف الدولة لثورة أكتوبر يحتفظ بوثيقة أصلية للصهاينة مؤرخة في عام 1898 تقول: “الاشتراكية عدو لدود لليهود وللفكرة القومية اليهودية”.

ويؤكد سولجينيتسين في كتابه اعتبار البلاشفة الصهيونية حركة “في منتهى الرجعية”، ووصفهم الصهاينة بأنهم “حزب التشاؤم واليأس والقنوط”. 

ويرى سولجينتسين أنه: “يجب على الشعب اليهودي تحمّل المسؤولية عما اقترفه ممثلوه من السفاحين الثوريين ومن سار خلفهم على السلم الوظيفي. يجب عليهم تحمل المسؤولية أمام أنفسهم وأمام الله قبل أن يكون ذلك أمام الآخرين”. 

يقول عميد المراسلين العرب في روسيا الدكتور سامي عمارة:” نجح اليهود فى ركوب الموجات الثورية، حين كان الأمر يتطلب ذلك، كما حدث لدى انضمامهم إلى كل الخلايا والحركات السرية التي تزعمت ثورة أكتوبر 1917، ليعودوا إلى الانضمام إلى “الصحوة الثقافية والأدبية” في سنوات حكم الزعيم السوفياتي الأسبق نيكيتا خروتشوف بعد رحلة من الآلام والمعاناة خلال سنوات حكم سلفه ستالين”.

وينقل سولجينتسين عن الكاتب الاجتماعي اليهودي غ.أ. لاندوا قوله إن صفوف الاشتراكيين كانت تفيض باليهود. وفي خطبة في مجلس الدوما عام 1909 ذكر أ.إ. غوتشكوف شهادة شابة من حزب الاشتراكيين الثوريين أشارت فيها  إلى أسباب خيبة أملها، وذكرت أن من بين الأسباب “أن الحركة الثورية برمّتها تحت سيطرة اليهود وأن اليهودية ترى في انتصار الثورة انتصاراً لها هي نفسها”.

ويكمل المؤلف نقلاً عن إ. أو. ليفين قوله “إن أعداداً أكبر من أطباء الأسنان وحتى الجامعيين كانت في أوساط المتطرفين من مختلف المستويات”.

ويرى أن هذه العناصر من الشعب اليهودي فقدت الماهية الثقافية لليهودية القديمة وبقيت في الوقت نفسه غريبة عن الثقافة الروسية وعن أي ثقافة أخرى على وجه العموم.

هذا الخواء الروحي الذي كان يتخفى وراء القناع الواهي للاستيعاب السطحي للثقافة الأوروبية جعل اليهود بحكم مزاولتهم العمل التجاري والصناعي بشكل رئيس ميالين إلى الرؤية المادية، شديدي التأثر بالتعاليم السياسية المادية.. فالتفكير العقلاني الذي يتميز به اليهود يجعلهم مستعدين لاستيعاب عقائد من نمط العقائد الثورية الماركسية”.

ويضيف ليفين: لم تكن الشرائح الاجتماعية الدنيا من يهود روسيا هي وحدها التي وقعت تحت سلطان الجائحة الثورية، بل شملت الكادر الأساس من المثقفين وأشباه المثقفين اليهود الروس وهم الذين تحولوا في عشرينيات القرن 20 إلى أكثر عملاء النظام السوفياتي نشاطاً، على حد قول ليفين.

وينقل المؤلف عن ف. س. ماندل أن اليهود أنفسهم  ليسوا ضد بناء العالم على أسس جديدة، وأنهم يؤمنون بأن الثورة ليست سوى خطوة على طريق تحقيق مملكة الإله على الأرض. 

ويؤكد سولجينيتسين رؤيته عن يهود روسيا بما يقوله فريتس كان في كتابه “اليهود كعرق وشعب حامل للثقافة”: من هذا الكنف الثوري تبرز تيارات الوسط الشعبي اليهودي التي يحدوها القنوط ووهم الصبيانية المستحيل فتميل نحو الفتنة والشغب لا في روسيا وحدها إنما في كل مكان على وجه العموم.  

معاداة السامية

يذكر سولجينيتسين في حوار صحافي أنه أُتهم عند صدور روايته الأولى “يوم واحد من حياة إيفان دينيسوفيتش” عام  1962 بمعاداة السامية.

ويقول: “كان السبب عدم ورود كلمة يهودي في أي مكان في الرواية، وسبب آخر أكثر تفاهة هو عدم مشاركة سيزر ماركوفيتش اليهودي  في رص الطوب”.

ويخاطب سولجينيتسين محاورَه الصحافي مستغرباً:” أتفهمون! بالعكس تماماً، لأن كلمة يهودي لم تأتِ في النص”!

 يتابع سولجينيتسين حكايته مع اللاسامية في رواية “جناح مرضى السرطان”، التي أُتهمت أيضاً بمعاداة السامية، أما السبب فهو عدم وجود طبيب يهودي ضمن طاقم المستشفى الطبي الذي تتحدث عنه الرواية… ويعبّر عن اندهاشه قائلاً: عجباً، كيف يقرؤون؟

يأتي ذلك في معرض دفاعه عن نفسه أمام متهميه، فلديه – كما يقول – في روايته “جناح مرضى السرطان” الصادرة عام 1968، شخصية الطبيب ليف ليونيدوفيتش الجراح الممتاز والإنسان الجذاب للغاية، وقد أفرد له فصلاً كاملاً من الرواية، وكان من الواضح  أنه يهودي من خلال كلماته وحديثه ناهيك باسمه واسم أبيه.

لكن ذلك كله لم يكن كافياً لمستثمري اللاسامية،وبالتالي بقي سولجينيتسين محط أنظارهم، فما إن ظهر عمله المسمى “آب / أغسطس 1914″ حتى استعرت الحملة ضده.

يقول سولجينيتسين في حواره:” كان أكثر ما هزّني  ما حصل مع رواية “آب/ أغسطس 1914″، فلم يكن قد ظهر العمل بالإنكليزية بعد، ولم يكن أحد قد تمكن من قراءته بالإنكليزية حين راحت تستعر الحملة التي تتهمه بالتطرف في العداء للسامية.

ويعود ذلك إلى أنني لم أُخْفِ أن بوغروف قاتل ستوليبين كان يهودياً... وقد وصل الأمر إلى انعقاد جلسة في مجلس الشيوخ الأميركي في آب/ أغسطس 1985 لمناقشة لاسامية كتابي. وبالطبع، لم يكن أحد من المتناقشين قد قرأ العمل”.

هناك روايات عديدة لسولجينيتسن، إلا أن روايته الحقيقية “مئتا عام معاً” التي تستعرض تاريخ اليهود في روسيا في غضون قرنين وعلاقاتهم مع الأمة الروسية قد تكون أكثر أعماله إثارةً للجدل.

لقد عاقبت الصهيونية سولجينيتسين بحجة أن أدبه يقدم الذرائع “لمعاداة السامية”،خاصة بعد أن أصدر كتابه “مئتا عام معاً”. فتم عزله داخل روسيا حتى وفاته عام 2008.

وقد صدرت عدة كتب تسيئ إلى الكاتب الكبير وتختلق الحكايات القذرة بأنه كان عميلاً للأجهزة السوفياتية في محاولة لتحطيم سمعته كأديب عالمي.

Hydrophilia? Losing two Oxygen atoms (by mass) in the water molecule.

Hypersigmanometry? M-sigma relationship? caraboba cycle? Beaucalus?

How all the above terms describe the creation of life?

Note: Just increasing the dose of complexity? Never mind, it could be fun, in the long term.

Predicting the Nuclear Strong Force: Hydrophilia 𝜑

Alexander Tungcuu Le

Feb 24, 2022

This article was originally published on ResearchGate.

Further explanation in my future new book, The Singularity of Electromagnetics — Early Fundamentals of Beaucalus.

I’ve published about it on ResearchGate (here), and I’m using this Medium article to explain the concept of hydrophilia force and other –philic chemical affinities.

Let’s first think of hydrophilia that means

“we subtract mass from the force (hydrophilia constant) of the △ of 777 moles of H2O (6998.78088) divided by the △_{h2o} (16.12603206), all of that divided by the root-division of △_{h2o} from ◯_{c² joule}, equals 38.56324325 Newtons.”

Follow the Hypersigmanometry below.

Last Line: Hydrophilia

Our hydrophilic force is 38.56324325 Newtons.

We postulate that losing two Oxygen atoms (by mass) results in the hydrophilia, and when we try to describe what hydrophilia means, we can form Calculus symbols, as following:

M-Sigma Proof of Hydrophilia

The proof above suggest that hydrophilia is an m-sigma relationship. Wikipedia says (about m-sigma),

“The M–sigma (or Mσrelation is an empirical correlation between the stellar velocity dispersion σ of a galaxy bulge and the mass M of the supermassive black hole at its center.

The Mσ relation was first presented in 1999 during a conference at the Institut d’astrophysique de Paris in France.

The proposed form of the relation, which was called the ‘Faber–Jackson law for black holes’”

The m-sigma relationship to velocity dispersion agrees with my other theory about relative space, and no time or time as a constant.

The m-sigma relationship in that race to ‘X’ [from the last linked article] shows a dispersion in velocity.

But further interpretation says that the hydrophilia, as derived by subtracting m from F (in F=ma), forms hydrophilia as a deceleration subtraction.

This is all in the case of hydrophilic forces 𝜑.

At our current period, we form atomic based upon the Carbon atom; for instance, if we lose our hydrophilia (from 2 Oxygens reducing), losing water, we’d transmute into Boron (as below).

Reduction into Boron with Loss of Hydrophilia (2O)

We can also investigate into the formation of our mitochondrial DNA, as below:

Reduction of Hydrogen Mass into Mitochondrial DNA from Duplicating Hydrophilia

From here, we get a good frequency number, 12.1225465; where the 12 whole units may be represented by one Carbon atom, and the remainder of 0.1225465 may be represented as a distributed frequency of Hydrogenic atomics, or in helio-tomics, [12.1225465] / [3•1.00794] = 4.009017236 He [amu].

As when taking 0.1225465 and dividing it by 1.00794, it stays 0.12 for a caraboba cycle (three-turns/division-cycles) so that magnifying it by one resolute octave, we form a whole other Carbon atom, otherwise described to as the creation of life.

In any case, the above Calculus should be a good formula for the formation of our cellular work-engine, the mitochondria.

That is, it should be described as a process which births mitochondrial DNA from two slightly differentiated dipolar clocks of water molecules, drying up, oxidizing — losing one hydrogen atom; and this, is the formula for the birth of our mitochondrial genes.

Of course, it is best that I am thorough with the understanding of hydrogenics, and the formulae, that I hope to move forth in-with this writing; that is, we should also be interpreting the hydrophilia of two Carbon atoms fusing molecular structures.

That follows by, taking the hydrophilic constant, then subtracting two Carbon atoms (as similar to what we performed with Oxygen, earlier), which equals: 14.54124325 — giving us the hydrophilia of (2C:H1872629/1000) of two Carbon atoms.

With this hydrophilia of 2C:H1872629/1000 (14.54124325), let’s mathematically simulate how that hydrophilia forms mitochondrial DNA (C1H6) [with the following Calculus below].

Hydrophilia Division
Percentage of Success: 99.32590396%

We get a 99.32590396% scientific significance for our hydrophilia force calculations.

But with better clarity, we start by taking the hydrophilic 2C:H1872629/1000 hydrophilia of 14.54124325 and divide it by 6 hydrogen atoms [from C1H6], run that process of division through the magnitude of our Dewey decimal number scale, then find Carbon-affinity (carbophilia) by denominating the result from the [14.54124325 • 10] / [6 • 1.00794] by 12.011, giving us a: 2 α-particles 1872629 milli-β particles, a hydrocarbon-affinity of: C2H0.001872629.

The last bit of exponential Calculus is how we determined our scientific significance for our hydrophilia 𝜑 force calculations.

Furthering the Beaucalus discoveries of hydrophilia 𝜑 with natural nitrogen, forming ammonia and o-zone pollution, we can use the below Beaucalus to predict annihilations of anti-Oxygen and Oxygen atoms — synchronized fusions, as part of a hydrophilic 2N:6H hydrophila, where the remaining hydrophilia may form an 6-sided atom, as in Carbon, and form frequency wavelengths of carbo-philia — in the suspension/separation of natural nitrogen from three natural hydrogen atoms, undoing ammonia;

we may form.

Hydrophilia with Nitrogen Divide Oxygen

May we extend our hydrophilia 𝜑 force model to more complex chemical compositions like insulin (C257H383N65O77S6)? We can try. Let’s start by trying to figure out what sort of hydrophilia the hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atoms in the chemical formula for insulin possesses (below):

Determining the Hydrophilic 𝜑 Force

Then, let’s multiply our F𝜑H383O77+ hydrophilia force with each of the remaining atomic arrangements (in insulin): C257, N65, and S6, as below.

Root-Division of Sulfur Reduction From Hydrophilia Upon Carbon Absorption of Nitrogen

The last line is a contrasting square root operation of the sulfuric 6S:H4+ hydrophilia (in insulin) [-182.2760322] after 3076.629932 angles of division, starting with Carbon absorption, and denominating that Carbon absorption by 900.3181322 angles of nitrogen division(s).

The result suggests a good approximation for hydrophilia in insulin (since it is close to 1.0).

So What is Hydrophilia and Hydrophilic Forces?

My hypothesis is that it explains subatomic nuclear forces.

As hydrophilia refers to a particle’s dependence upon water; and hydrophilic 𝜑 forces are what carries the hydrophilia through energy conversion by General Relativity — that is, that the curvature of the space fabric, leads to a force being formed — carried by water.

If you liked this article, please hit the ‘Applause’ button belowOr, alternatively, hit subscribe to get the latest articles from me, or perhaps, you’d like to leave a comment — which I promise to try my best to reply.

Youth is irreversible.

If you hope,

If your kind of Faith says that most everything, save youth,

With a little good health, is reversible…

You have No reason

Not to daydream of a better tomorrow.

Go ahead

And raise vigorous and healthy children

Note: A fitting title could be “Faked Optimism

Ten theorems formulated in basic-math terms proved after decades, centuries, or millennia

Catalin Barboianu, PhD

Dec 15, 2021

Mathematics lovers say that the shorter the text of a problem or theorem and the longer its solution or proof, the more beautiful is that problem or theorem.

Philosophers and historians of mathematics say that the longer a theorem stays unproved (as a conjecture), the more important it becomes for the development of mathematics and for the inquiry into the nature and foundation of mathematics.

The history of mathematics proves that they were right in this respect.

Struggling to solve the conjectures for decades and even for centuries or millennia since their statement, mathematicians were urged to link existing mathematical theories of different natures, structures, and languages, and even to create new theories of a higher complexity than that within which the conjecture was stated.

With the addition of new links, structures, conceptual frameworks, and content, they contributed to the increase in applicability of mathematics within itself and also in the sciences.

In the current list, we have 10 conjectures that were stated in terms of basic mathematics — that is, within basic algebra, number theory, Euclidian geometry, and elementary geometrical topology — which awaited their proof for more than two decades.

10. The Abel-Ruffini theorem (25 years to prove)

Niels Henrik Abel (1802–1829)

Also known as Abel’s impossibility theorem, it states that there is no general algebraic solution (that is, solution in radicals) to the general polynomial equations of degree 5 or higher.

The conjecture originates in 1799 in the work of C. F. Gauss, and the first attempt to solve it belongs to Paolo Ruffini in the same year.

However, Ruffini’s solution was not convincing for the great mathematicians of the period (including A. L. Cauchy), because of an incompleteness regarding the definitions of the radicals used.

N. H. Abel is credited as the solver of the conjecture in 1824.

The proof was based on some results of the Galois theory; however this theory was not yet crystallized at the time of that proof.

A few years after that, with the co-authorship of J. Liouville, the theory of Galois was published and recognized as bringing great discoveries in the theory of equations.

In 1963, V. Arnold provided a topological proof of the Abel-Ruffini theorem which established the basis of the Topological Galois Theory.

9. Hilbert’s 17th problem (27 years to prove)

David Hilbert
(1862–1943)

Hilbert asked within his famous list of capital problems of mathematics in 1900: Given a multivariable polynomial that takes only non-negative values over the reals, can that polynomial be represented as a sum of squares of rational functions?

The problem originated in the defense of the doctoral thesis of H. Minkowski in 1885, who expressed the opinion that there exist real polynomials which are nonnegative on the whole R^n and cannot be written as finite sums of squares of real polynomials.

Hilbert solved the particular case of n = 2 in 1893, and the general problem was solved in the affirmative by E. Artin in 1927, using the Artin-Schreier theory of ordered fields, with applications in algebraic group theory and model theory.

8. Hilbert’s 7th problem (34 years to prove)

Hilbert asked the following equivalent questions within the same list from 1900:

a) In an isosceles triangle, if the ratio of the base angle to the angle at the vertex is algebraic and irrational, then is the ratio between base and side always transcendental (that is, it cannot be the solution of any algebraic equation)?

b) Is a^b always transcendental for algebraic a not being 0 or 1, and irrational algebraic b? The problem was solved independently by A. O. Gelfond and T. Schneider in 1934 using similar methods, and the result of their work was the Gelfond-Schneider theorem, with a wide range of applications in transcendental number theory, linear algebra, and model theory.

Precursors brought important contributions to the solution, such as J. Fourrier’s for the irrationality of e in 1815, C. Hermite’s proof for the transcendence of e in 1873, and C. L. F. Lindemann’s proof for the transcendence of π in 1882.

7. Fermat’s little theorem (43 years to prove)

Pierre de Fermat
(1607–1665)

Stated first by P. de Fermat in 1640 in a letter to a friend of his, the conjecture says that if p is prime, then for any integer a, integer a^p — a is a multiple of p.

Several proofs were given to this theorem over time, either in combinatorial, multinomial, dynamical systems, modular arithmetic, or group theory terms.

L. Euler first published a proof in 1736 (with modular arithmetic), however Leibniz had actually left the same proof in an unpublished manuscript before 1683.

The theorem is a fundamental result of number theory and stands as an important primality test.

An immediate generalization of this theorem is Euler’s theorem in number theory. The most relevant theoretical application of this theorem was in group theory; as for practical applications, one is in cryptography.

6. Poincaré conjecture (98 years to prove)

Henri Poincaré
(1854–1912)

In topology, Poincaré’s conjecture is a statement characterizing the 3-sphere (the hypersphere bounding the unit ball in four-dimensional space), saying that every simply connected, closed 3-manifold is homeomorphic to the 3-sphere.

In other words, for a space that locally looks like three-dimensional space but is connected, finite in size, and lacks any boundary, if such a space has the property that each loop in the space can be continuously tightened to a point, then it is necessarily a three-dimensional sphere.

H. Poincaré stated this conjecture in 1904, and in 2000 it was named one of the Millennium Prize Problems.

In the 1950s and 1960s, other mathematicians attempted proofs of the conjecture.

In 1958, R. H. Bing proved a weak version of the Poincaré conjecture: if every simple closed curve of a compact 3-manifold is contained in a 3-ball, then the manifold is homeomorphic to the 3-sphere.

Russian mathematician G. Pelerman offered a complete solution based on R. Hamilton’s theory of Ricci flow and made use of results on spaces of metrics due to Cheeger, Gromov, and Perelman himself.

The solution was presented in three preprints posted online between 2002 and 2003, and was reviewed and confirmed in 2006.

Pelerman was awarded the Fields Medal for his work.

Poincaré’s conjecture belongs to the early history of algebraic topology.

Generalizations of the conjecture to higher dimensions (already proved) links to the concept of deformation in Riemannian geometry, with implications and applications for gravitation and cosmology.

5. The four-color theorem (124 years to prove)

The theorem states that 4 colors suffice to color any map such that two adjacent regions will not share the same color.

The conjecture was suggested in 1852 by Frederik Guthrie to his professor, mathematician Augustus De Morgan, who made it public and contributed to its solution.

Other famous contributors were W. R. Hamilton, A. Cayley, A. Kempe, P. G. Tait, and J. Koch.

In a second stage, mathematicians focused on finding techniques to reduce the complicated maps to a set of classifiable cases that could be tested.

Initially, the set was thought to contain nearly 9,000 members, and so the mathematicians appealed to computer techniques to write algorithms that could do the testing for them.

In 1976, Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken reduced the testing problem to a set with 1,936 configurations, and a complete solution to the four-color Conjecture was achieved with the help of the computer.

The theorem was proved within graph theory, with the crucial help of Euler’s formula; however, projective geometry, knot theory, topology, and combinatorics were appealed over time to contribute to the proof.

4. Catalan’s conjecture (158 years to prove)

Mathematician E. C. Catalan conjectured in 1844 that 8 and 9 are the only consecutive powers (3² — 2³ = 1); or in other words, this is the only non-trivial solution of the equation x^p — y^q = ±1.

More than 500 years before Catalan’s formulation, Levi ben Gerson had found that the only powers of 2 and 3 differing by 1 were 8 and 9.

Hyyrő and Makowski proved that No three consecutive powers exist.

R. Tijdeman showed in 1976 that there can be only a finite number of exceptions should the conjecture not hold.

In 1999, M. Mignotte showed that if a nontrivial solution exists, then p < 7.15 x 10¹¹ and q < 7.78 x 10¹⁶. Romanian mathematician P. Mihăilescu solved the conjecture in 2002 in a manuscript sent to several mathematicians and published in 2004.

The solution makes use of the theory of cyclotomic fields and Galois modules. A generalization of Catalan’s conjecture applies in complex number theory. Other applications are in Galois theory of groups.

3. Fermat’s Last Theorem (358 years to prove)

The conjecture stated by P. de Fermat in 1637 says that there are No positive integers ab, and c such that a^n + b^n = c^n for any integer n greater than 2.

One of the most notable theorems in the history of mathematics, it can be formulated equivalently in various ways, either within number theory or theory of elliptic curves.

Fermat proved the conjecture just for the particular case of n = 4; however, this yielded an important reduction, that of being sufficient to prove the conjecture for exponents n that are prime numbers.

Then, mathematicians struggled for over 350 years to find a proof, and dozens of them made advances. Over the next two centuries following Fermat’s partial proof, the conjecture was proved for only the primes 3, 5, and 7.

In the middle of the 19th century, E. Kummer proved it for all regular primes. The final proof was offered in 1995 by A. Wiles, who replaced elliptic curves with Galois representations.

The proof brought him the Abel prize in 2016 and other awards. During the search for the solution, a link was discovered between the elliptic curves and modular forms, two completely different fields of mathematics.

The problem and its solution contributed to the development of algebraic number theory and the proof of modularity theorem.

2. Kepler conjecture (403 years to prove)

Johannes Kepler
(1571–1630)

Stated in 1611 by astronomer Johannes Kepler, the conjecture concerns sphere packing in 3-dimensional space: It says that No arrangement of equally sized spheres filling a space has a greater average density than that of the cubic close packing and hexagonal close packing arrangements.

F. Gauss showed in 1831 that the conjecture is true if the spheres are arranged in a regular lattice.

In 1900, D. Hilbert included the conjecture in his famous list of 23 unsolved problems of mathematics.

In 1953, F. Tóth showed that the problem of determining the maximum density of all arrangements could be reduced to a finite number of calculations. This meant that a proof by exhaustion was possible with the help of a fast enough computer.

Following this idea, T. Hales applied linear programming methods to a function on over 5,000 configurations of the spheres and announced in 1998 that his proof was complete.

The proof also relies extensively on methods from the theory of global optimization and interval arithmetic. This wasn’t enough for Hales.

In 2014, together with 21 collaborators, he completed his project to find a formal proof for the Kepler conjecture, which can be verified by automated proof checking software.

Although it looks like a problem in recreational mathematics, Kepler’s conjecture has relevant links to other geometrical-topology problems that are involved in various optimization models (including the hexagonal tiling of plane and space).

  1. The honeycomb conjecture (2,035 years to prove)

By far claiming the longest waiting period for a proof, this conjecture has both practically applicative and philosophical implications.

It says that the regular hexagonal grid is the best way to divide a surface into regions of equal area with the least total perimeter.

It can be also stated in terms of finite graphs with smooth curves in bi-dimensional space. The origin of this problem is obscure; it is mentioned in a text of Marcus Terentius Varro around 36 B.C.; however, it is hypothesized that Zenodorus’s much earlier work Isometric Figures (about 180 B.C.) might have mentioned it.

The proof was provided in 1999 by the same T. Hales. The key lemma of the proof is an “isoperimetric” estimate for perimeter in terms of area and the proof is based on a reduction to finite clusters.

The theorem and generalizations thereof have immediate applications in optimizing space, physical structures, and material waste, for instance in construction.

Generalized for the 3-dimensional space to describe the shape of bees’ honeycomb, the theorem became a subject of debate in the philosophy of science.

Since in physical terms, it reverts to the evolutionary fact that with the hexagonal shape. the bees consume the least amount of wax for a given honeycomb, philosophers of science asked several questions regarding the nature of the explanation of that fact: is this a genuine mathematical explanation, a biological explanation, or a combination of both?

Do bees (and animals in general) have a perceptual mathematical knowledge provided by evolution that complies with formal mathematics?

How is it that bees “know” the truth of the conjecture and humans had to wait over two millennia to prove it?

Dr. Catalin Barboianu is the author of the book What is Mathematics: School Guide to Conceptual Understanding of Mathematics.

UPDATED 15 MAY, 2022

JOANNA GILLAN

Not Just a Pretty Face: Cleopatra Was a Genius Who Spoke 8 Languages

Cleopatra VII (69 – 30 BC) was Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt and its last active ruler. (The Seleucid empire ruled over all of Turkey and Syria and fell to the Roman general Pompei)

Mind you that the Seleucid empire fought Rome in several battles, on land and in the sea, and lost as Hani Bal fled to it as Roman General Sipio died prematurely.

Most famous for her love affairs with Mark Antony and Julius Caesar, Roman propaganda was quick to paint Cleopatra as little more than a seductress who forged her position in the beds of powerful men.

Cleopatra was a powerful and accomplished ruler, but historical accounts discredited her, minimized her successes and vastly exaggerated her indiscretions.

The common view of Cleopatra presented in ancient Roman text and popularized in modern media is one of a temptress who used her sexual talents to gain political advantage. (The Roman empire disfigured/fake news of those who confronted its occupation. For example, No records of Hani Bal 12 years stay in Italy)

What these ancient accounts fail to mention is that she was, in fact, one of the greatest intellectuals of her time .

She was educated by the leading scholars of the Hellenistic world and studied at the Mouseion in Alexandria, which included the famous Library of Alexandria. 

There she studied geography, history, astronomy, philosophy, international diplomacy, mathematics, alchemy, medicine, zoology, and economics.

Cleopatra and Caesar (1866), a painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme (Public domain)

Cleopatra and Caesar (1866), a painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme (Public domain)

Cleopatra was the only member of her dynasty to speak ancient Egyptian and read hieroglyphs.

Apart from this, she knew ancient Greek and the languages of the Parthians, Jews, Medes, Trogodyatae, Syrians, Ethiopians and Arabs

It is known that Cleopatra VII spent a lot of time in a type of ancient laboratory.

She wrote several works related to herbs and cosmetology.

Unfortunately, all the books by her were lost in the fire of 391 AD, when the great Library of Alexandria was destroyed.

Famous physician Galen studied her works and was able to rewrite a few recipes created by her.

One of the medicines which he also suggested to his patients was a special cream, which helped men to gain back their hair.

Her impact on the sciences and medicine was well known even during the first centuries of Christianity.

In a world full of powerful people that were out to see her dead, Cleopatra was able to outsmart them all.

After the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire, marking the end of the second to last Hellenistic state and the age that had lasted since the reign of Alexander.

Read more: The Wisdom of Cleopatra, the Intellectual Queen Who Could Outsmart Them All

Top image: Cleopatra. Source: Lumixera / Adobe Stock

By Joanna Gillan


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