Adonis Diaries

Archive for October 2022

Manchuria, this vast land in northern China, delimited by the Great Dam and Siberia, was a “private” property to the Manchu dynasty. China forbade any immigration of its peasants to this province and entering this region required a special visa.

This article is extracted from a reported article by the German traveler Richard Katz around 1930 related to the newly established city port of Dern

By 1900, Russia started extending train line to the small port of Dalni in Manchuria (renamed Dern by the Japanese) as an alternative to the port city of Vladivostok (Siberia) that was barely functional for 6 months a year.

And Russia started fortifying Port Arthur in the peninsula of Bacilli in Manchuria.

This vast land can easily accommodate 80 million, but it had barely 8 million of nomadic population before the colonization of Japan.

In 1905, Japan vanquished the Russia military by sea and by land and occupied what Tzarist Russia already occupied and then totally occupied Korea and many swath of land in China proper.

In 1915, Tzarist Russia relinquished all its acquisition and privileges in the province of Quinton as well as the southern train lines in Manchuria. China greed on the terms of the Russia/Japan treaty of Portsmouth.

Japan won vast “legal” treaties from China, like renting for 99 years swaths of land for investment and be the sole investor in China train lines…

Japan considered Manchuria the source of the minerals it needed for its development and allowed 30 million Chinese peasants to immigrate to it and develop its abandoned lands.

And after WW1, England cooperated fully with the expansion of Japan merchant ships and angered the USA who considered Japan the main competitor in China vast trade market.

Not surprisingly, the USA occupied the Philippines in 1931 in order to confront Japan in the far east.

Within 25 years, the port-city of Dern outperformed the British port cities of Portsmouth and Keel in development and modernity. And Japan laid 1,200 km of train lines that linked small towns in this vast land.

The Japanese peasants had no incentive (standard of living) of immigrate and work hard the lands in Manchuria, barely 200,000 migrated and essentially worked in the train maintenance.

Within this period, as Japan controlled Manchuria, 27 million Chinese peasants migrated to Manchuria since they were accustomed to live the harsh life under the Chinese warlords.

Note 1: Japan knew that it could Not compete with the USA trade in China in the long run, on account that the USA is independent in producing raw materials. This realization forced Japan to take wrong strategic decisions by allying with Germany Hitler and add insult by attacking Pearl harbor. The detonation of 2 atomic bombs over Japan was mainly due to angry reactions toward this island that blatantly opposed its supremacy by sea.

Note 2: This is a story I have read a long time ago: it seems “plausible” for the period. The army of Russia Stalin had occupied Manchuria, North of current Korea and was positioned to advance toward all of Korea when the USA dropped the 2 atomic bombs on Japan.

As the communists of Mao took control of China, they wanted to recapture Manchuria. The well equipped Russian army annihilated the first million of under-armed Chinese army (give and take a few thousands of killed, handicapped, seriously injured and made prisoners). Supposedly Mao sent Stalin this message “I am readying another million to the front. Is your army ready to resume the war?” Apparently, the message was lod and clear and Stalin retreated from Manchuria.

Note 3: this article was inspired by a few articles on Japan expansionist policies in the far east and Manchuria that Antoun Saadi posted in Damascus dailies in around 1931 when returned to Lebanon from Brazil and visited Damascus for a few months.


34,000 is the number Cancer-related deaths (of the colon?) each year linked to all kinds of processed/cured meats. Is it because of Sodium nitrite and other chemicals added to the cured meat? Though the risk is Not as high as smoking cigarette 2000%

1 million tons of CO2 generated from eating meat in the USA alone. Just figured out how much China is generating.

A documentary proved that the Mennonite and later the Amish sects were created in the French Alsace province as Protestantism flourished. The neighboring Lorraine province was Catholic. The male young members had to immigrate to USA as Louis 14 dislodge them from that province and Napoleon insisted on recruiting them in the army.

Mennonite or Anabaptists refuse to baptize their members before they are 21, if they still wish. They occupied several towns and cities in Germany (Munster) before the Catholic bishops ousted militarily

The main motivation for the über rich in tax hike is how to keep this social and economic separation from the poor. Reasonably Increasing the tax rate is Not the main objection as long as the minimum wage is kept low.

Is China been considered the best model for Africa’s development? Why Not if China is heavily investing in Africa and the #1 developer of Africa infrastructure?

Japan robotic artificial intelligence at work in restaurants: “May I take your order?”

🤖 Scrubber 50 Pro: Can scrub, sweep, mob, and sanitize.

🤖 Pepper: A humanoid robot that can serve as a receptionist in stores and offices.

The public square is more public than ever, but minds are rarely changed in 140 character bursts and by selfies. We should retry re-using paper and pencil for the fundamental knowledge.

When the masses only connect to the net without a keyboard, who will be left to change the world? It is possible, but unlikely, that someone will write a great novel on a tablet.

When incurred debts are invested on infrastructure health and educational systems (Investing in people and opportunities), then, internal markets are expanded and economic growth permits increases in fiscal revenues.

When the Levantine (people living in the Near-East) tells a story he is extravagant and the facts sound too far fetched simply because he wants to amuse and impress; the listener understands perfectly the intent of the fantasy and they share a good laugh.  The supposed “rational” westerner gets the impression that the Levantine is not honest because he does not stick to the bare boring facts.

It is a fact that evolution occurs. It has not only been verified in the fossil record but also been observed to occur over small time scales. Likewise, we observe flaws in the design of the body that show that it evolved in a different environment and was adapted to a new one.

A common example in the evolutionary process is the eye which works better in water than air since it mostly evolved under the sea. Clues can be found in our DNA that point to how long ago our species split off from others. Offspring with harmful traits either die off or fail to reproduce. The effect is natural selection which vastly raises the probability that beneficial traits will be retained and carried forward to the next generation. Once natural selection gets started, you can’t help but arrive at complexity.

Kawkab Maalouf  posted on Fb an article by Bassel Koss Nasrallah.

اقرأوا واحزنوا عما يحصل في سوريا ….ما يحصل في حلب سبق وحصل في الحسكة …ا

روي هنا قصة حصلت رواها امامي الامين انعام رعد أن الرئيس الراحل حافظ الأسد كان قد استشعر خطر بيع الأملاك من مسيحيي الحسكة إلى الأكراد القادمين إليها بموجب وكالات البيع ،وطالب حزبنا الموجود بكثافة في الحسكة بالانتباه والمساعدة في وعي مخاطر الأمر لما قد يكون معدا من مؤامرات تحققت .

أمس في الحسكة واليوم في حلب ولا زالت المؤامرة مستمرة على بلادنا 😢

المسيحيون المهاجرون يعودون .. لِيَبيعوا أملاكهم” بقلم المهندس باسل قس نصر الله

إنه موسم عودة المهاجرين المسيحيين إلى سورية.

أسيرُ في مدينتي .. حلب .. فأرى أحدَ من هاجر، ونتبادل التحيّة والقبلات والإطمئنان على بعضنا البعض، ويخبرني الخَبَرَ الصاعق .. إنه ينزل في الفندق وليس في بيته ..

“البيت غير جاهز .. فهناك مشكلة الكهرباء .. وغيرها” وأنه موجود لينهي بعض الأعمال، ثم يهمس لي بأنه أتى لإنهاء وكالات قانونية “لكي أبيع أملاكي”.

نعم يا سادتي، كل من هاجر من السوريين يعود الآن ليُرتِّب أموره القانونية لأجل “فض الاشتباك” بينه وبين الوطن.

يقيمون في الفنادق التي قد تبعد عن بيوتهم مسيرة دقائق.

أتخيّلهم وهم يزورون منازلهم .. هنا غرفة من كانوا أطفالاً وأصبحوا شباباً في الهجرة.

هناك غرفة الإستقبال التي شهدت أفراحنا وأحزاننا.

هل تذكرين يا زوجتي؟ هنا كان يجلس أبي وأمي ..

وفي هذه الغرف كان يمرح الصغار ويلعبون .. ويتشيطنون .. وأمك وأمي تصرخان فينا .. لا تضربوا “سامر” ولا “ميشيل” ولا “سهيل” ولا “نجوى”.

كانتا تمارسان “حق الفيتو” على قراراتنا .. بينما أبوينا يلعبان “طاولة الزهر“.

هنا المطبخ حيث كانت أطباق الطعام تُعدّ وتوزَّع على المائدة والضيوف.

ثم يغلقان الباب ويعودان إلى الفندق.

هم يعودون فقط بدون الأبناء .. “إننا نرتِّب الأمور ونبيع لأنهم لن يعودوا”.

“الحمد لله .. أمورهم جيدة .. ولكن كل واحدٍ منهم في مكان .. ووقتهم لا يسمح لهم بزيارتنا كثيراً .. وبالتأكيد فهم لم يستطيعوا القدوم معنا”.

يزورون الكنائس ويمارسون “وقار التقوى” ويسلّمون على الناس ويتبادلون القبل.

وآخر يخبرني أنه أيضاً سيستفيد بأن يعمل أسنانه، ويجري عملية جراحية لزوجته هنا .. لأن الدور للمعالجة “لدينا في كندا بطيء”.

هذه ملخص زياراتهم .. وحتى في عودتهم تحضنهم سورية الجريحة .. تحضنهم في مشافيها ومن بقي من أطبائها.

يزورون قبور أهاليهم .. ويتفقدونها .. ويضعون زهوراً من سورية.

حتى زهور موتانا نأتي بها من هذه الأرض.

بقايا زوايا منازلنا تكتب تاريخ طفولتنا وشقاوتنا ومراهقتنا وشبابنا وهجرتنا.

نزور موتانا لنطلب السماح منهم بأن لا أحد من أبنائنا سيزورهم بعد ذلك،

وأنهم نهاية سلسلة العائلة.

يزورون أطباء الأسنان والمشافي ليتعالجوا طبياً .. ولكنهم في الحقيقة يتعالجوا من هجرتهم وبعدهم.

يأكلون الفول ويزورون “قلعتنا” في حلب ويبحثون عمّن يعطيهم جرعة من “شراب السوس” ويأكلون “الهيطلية” ويشحنون أنفسهم من هواء حلب وسورية.

هم سيغادرون عندما تنتهي وكالاتهم القانونية .. ويبيعون ..

وتبقى “طاولة الزهر” لا أحد يلعب بها.

Note: These stories were too recounted to me of Syrian people I know. Families of Syrian Kurds, working the land of a landlord, assembled the money and bought the property they worked on for decades.

For millions of years, millions of living species died, became extinct,…and we have no ideas what they were and how they vanished.

Millions of living species failed to adapt to their environment (climate change…), surrounding nature…

Thousands went extinct due to human behavior, and now a few of these species are being re-created by modern sciences and technologies, a few are being considered becoming rare and need protection…

Even human species is still debatable as to its origin (One origin or many origins and continents), kinds of intelligent/adaptable species…and time span.

It is a fact that evolution occurs. It has not only been verified in the fossil record but also been observed to occur over small time scales.

Likewise, we observe flaws in the design of the body that show that it evolved in a different environment and was adapted to a new one.

A common example in the evolutionary process is the eye which works better in water than air since it mostly evolved under the sea. Clues can be found in our DNA that point to how long ago our species split off from others.

Offspring with harmful traits either die off or fail to reproduce. The effect is natural selection which vastly raises the probability that beneficial traits will be retained and carried forward to the next generation. Once natural selection gets started, you can’t help but arrive at complexity.

Imagine that each of the amino acid, a small protein, and finding the box with their number is equivalent to finding a place in a long protein chain that leads to evolutionary success, the beginnings of the natural selection process.

They don’t have to communicate to strategize, simply have to follow the strategy blindly, connecting together via peptide or hydrophobic bonds, but not randomly.

Rather, they must connect in such a way that the configuration of amino acids or small proteins leads to another configuration, via reconnection and folding, on a cycle that ultimately leads to a successful configuration.

If the process is random, then the chances of any viable configuration are almost nil.

While the chances of this happening for a large collection of amino acids or protein sections randomly is vanishingly small, if each follows a reconfiguration strategy similar to the prisoner’s problem, then they have a good chance of success.So far so good,

But how would this Non random process occur naturally?

Let’s look at our analogy.

How do the proteins “know” where to go next without having a mind to direct them there?

To answer this question, we have to grok the strategy. At its core, the strategy follows a cycle, but why is the cycle there in the first place? The cycle is there because the slips of paper represent a permutation of the drawer numbers.

A permutation can be thought of as a sequence of exchanges between an ordering of numbers.

Thus, any permutation contains a cycle representing the sequence of exchanges that occurred or would need to occur to reproduce that permutation.

You can think of it like this. If no permutation had been done, each drawer would contain a slip with its own number on it and point to itself. The cycles would have one element. If I exchange the slips of paper between two drawers, say 1 and 2, this single permutation creates a cycle of length two. Drawer 1 points to 2 and 2 back to 1.

If I then permute one of them with another drawer such as exchanging the slips in drawers 2 and 3, the cycle grows, now 1 to 2 to 3 and back to 1. Thus, there is a direct relationship between the length of the cycle and the number of exchanges.

Going back to proteins, suppose we consider that there exists a successful protein configuration, the one that represents all the prisoners finding their own numbers, i.e., starting natural selection going.

Permutations of this configuration are on average failed configurations. Randomly assembling a protein in the right configuration is unlikely to succeed.

But if that protein builds itself up with each segment following a permutation cycle, it is far more likely to succeed.

Now, suppose that the successful protein configuration is precisely that, a configuration that builds itself up according to permutation cycles. That is, we aren’t trying to find some magical, natural selection configuration but, rather, the natural selection configuration is precisely the one that satisfies the strategy! That is enough.

The reason is that a protein that follows this strategy would have a property that all life possesses: the ability to reproduce.

It has this ability because it constructs itself (copies itself) with high probability despite its structure being very complex.

Each segment finds its place by following a permutation cycle rather than encouraging random configurations.

If the property of Reproduction were to exist among proteins, even one amid trillions, it would be able to kickstart natural selection even if the protein had no other characteristics of life and there were nothing otherwise special about it.

It would be the beginnings, indeed, of the transcription ability that we see in DNA and RNA.

Proteins do not configure themselves randomly at all but connect to one another via exposed bonds. These bonds are exposed based on the way the protein folds.

Thus to construct a successful permutation cycle protein only requires that each of the segments have this special property, via how they fold and expose their bonds, so that they connect in the right way to reproduce.

Likely this would work via a sequence of proteins (rather than one self-reconfiguring protein) with each segment following a predictable pattern of where in the chain it is positioned.

Each iteration of the prisoners opening a drawer would be a new generation for the protein, but, since the cycles are all closed, the resulting proteins would all be part of a related family of proteins that would continuously reproduce in a never ending cycle that nevertheless is far from random.

These sequences, by following permutation cycles, would guarantee reproduction. This might be a simple enough way for life to be far more probable than you would think.

Note: This article was inspired by Tim Andersen, Ph.D. Sep 29, 2022. “The 100 Prisoner problem could explain the origin of life” and I had to edit many of the sections.

Why the Syria National Social Party considers Cyprus as its Star Land, intrinsic to its national identity?

Cyprus is as vast as tiny created State of Lebanon of 9,250 Square Km and is distant from Syria by 65 km, and far away from Greece 800 km.

All empires that occupied Syria had to occupy Cyprus as its first maritime defensive line that protect the maritime trade routes.

The current status of Cyprus is a divided State between Turkey and Greece (an EU part with the Euro as its currency). England, Turkey and Greece failed in their guarantee to preserve it as an Independent State

Note that England still have its biggest military base overseas in Cyprus and Israel has transformed this island into an international hub for criminal activities as in Ukraine and Georgia

#شارل الحاج

Michael Mouty posted the geologist Charles Hajj article on Fb

*هل_جزيرة_قبرص_جزء_من_الأرض_السورية #نجمة_سورية

⬛يتساءل الكثيرون حول مسألة الجزيرة القبرصية ➖ ولماذا يعتبرها السوريون القوميون الاجتماعيون أرضاً سورية؟

➖ ولماذا تُسمى نجمة سورية؟

⬛ وكثيراً ما يُطرح الأمر مصحوباً بالسخرية والاستهزاء لما يرونه طرحا غير واقعي أو ضربا من ضروب الرفاه الفكري.

⏪ تقع جزيرة قبرص في أقصى شرق البحر الأبيض المتوسط أو البحر السوري قديما، تبلغ مساحتها 9,251 كم2.

اشتهرت جزيرة قبرص بموقعها الجغرافي المميز الذي كان يشكل خط دفاعي عن حضارات الأمة السورية السابقة وخط هجومي على سورية أيضا..

⏪ بعض الأسباب التي تجعل قبرص قطعة وامتداد جغرافي لمنطقة الهلال السوري الخصيب:

◾1- تبعد جزيرة قبرص عن مدينة اللاذقية 95 كم وعن سواحل كيليكية المحتلة 65 كم وعن الكيان اللبناني 200 كم وعن اليونان 800 كم، وبالتالي فإنَّ هذه الجزيرة تكاد تكون ملتصقة بالشاطئ السوري، و“قطعة من الأرض السورية في الماء”.

◾2- تشكلت قبرص عند الدور الجيولوجي الثالث عند حدوث غور الانهدام في سورية الطبيعية، مما ادى الى حصول تسونامي هو الأضخم من نوعه في التاريخ، ادى الى غمر مناطق شاسعة من مناطق شرقي البحر السوري (وهو ما يسمى البحر الأبيض المتوسط حاليا) وبالتالي انفصلت الجزيرة بغمر تلك المنطقة الواقعة ما بينها وبين الساحل الشرقي للبحر السوري بالمياه بفعل ذلك التسونامي

وهذه الحادثة أدت الى انفصالها عن شقيقتها جبال طوروس في الشمال الغربي السوري (لبلاد الشام).

ولقد اغرق هذا التسونامي الضخم السواحل الشرقية للبحر السوري وكذلك مصر و ليبيا، حيث أعلن الباحث الأميركي المستقل روبرت سارماست بتاريخ 2004/11/14 -ليماسول (قبرص)- إنه عثر على دليل على وجود القارة المفقودة اطلانتس،

Atlantis was constituted from the Syrian land.

وهي آثار مدينة اتلانتيس الأسطورية المفقودة في قاع شرق البحر المتوسط قبالة ساحل جزيرة قبرص الشرقية، مؤكدا أن بقايا هذه المدينة التي تحدث عنها افلاطون مدفونة في أعماق البحر المتوسط بين قبرص وسوريا.

حيث ان نتائج المسح للمياه العميقة بالموجات فوق الصوتية لتلك المنطقة أظهرت أن هناك مباني من صنع البشر على تل غارق، تشمل جدارا طوله 3 كلم وقمة تل، يحيط بها سور وخنادق على عمق 1500 متر من سطح الماء.

وستكون أعجوبة، إذا عثر عليها بالتأكيد، فمواصفات الجدران تطابق مقاييس الأكروبوليس في مدينة اتلانتيس بحسب كتابات (الفيلسوف الإغريقي) أفلاطون». وأوضح البحث أن حوض البحر المتوسط شهد طوفانا في حدود عام تسعة آلاف قبل الميلاد غمر قطعة مستطيلة الشكل من اليابسة.

وقال سارماست أن فريقه تمكن من اكتشاف وجود آثار مستوطنات بشرية على عمق حوالى 1.5 كيلومتر تحت سطح البحر، على بعد ثمانين كيلومترا عن الساحل الجنوبي الشرقي لقبرص.

وبدأ سارماست بحثه عن القارة المفقودة منذ عشرة أعوام وهو واثق من انه وصل الى هدفه.

ونشر سارماست في العام 2013 كتابا بعنوان “اكتشاف اطلانتس: مفاجآت جزيرة قبرص” أكد فيه أن قبرص هى الجزء الذى مازال ظاهرا من أطلانتس، والتي كانت ترتفع فوق سطح الماء الحالي بحوالي 1600 متر.

تم ان اكتشافاته هذه تعتمد في كل النقاط على المعلومات التي أوردها أفلاطون في حوار “تيميوس” و”كريتياس”، وهما أول نصين مكتوبين يشيران إلى وجود اطلانطس التي يصفانها بأنها مقر حضارة مزدهرة غرقت في النصف الثاني من الألف الثاني قبل الميلاد.

◾3 – وما يؤكد الترابط ما بين الجزيرة والساحل السوري بعد هذا الغمر المائي الضخم بفعل التسونامي، هو تشابه المواد العضوية والصخور والتربة إلى اعتبار جبال ترودوس في السلسلة الجنوبية الغربية في قبرص امتدادا لجبل الأقرع في الشام،

وبعد انفصال الجزيرة عن جبال طوروس تشكل خليج الإسكندرون.

فالتكوين الجيولوجي هو من تكوين أرضِ سوريا، وقربها إلى سواحل سورية الطبيعة كلها عوامل تؤكد أن قبرص جزيرة سورية.

الأمين الجيولوجي


“Music is the pleasure the human mind experiences from counting without being aware that it is counting.

— Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646–1716) (co-discoverer of calculus)

Harlan Brothers. Mar 29, 2022

The connections between mathematics and música run deep. The subjects can be thought of as cosmic twins, born out of a tantalizing mixture of order and disorder.

They both grow from foundations that are built on patterns: patterns made up of repetitions, ratios, number sequences, geometrical transformations, symmetries, combinations, variations, and more.

Music is, at its core, based on numbers and mathematical relaciones.

By the same measure, numbers and mathematical relationships can be transformed into music. To explore the many connections in detail, we would need to explain the core terminology of each field — far more información than would fit in this brief article.

We will therefore touch on a few important relaciones that will establish a foundation if you’re inclined to dig deeper.

Musical Sound

On the most basic level, musical sounds are not just “any ol’ sounds.” The screeching of auto brakes, the rustling of leaves, or the thud of an Amazon caja at the front door are not what we en general think of as being musical. So, what makes a sound musical?

It turns out that melodic instruments, like the guitarra or flute, make the surrounding air vibrate in a very orderly pattern (apologies to my drummer friends— no percussion discussion here).

Each note is actually a whole familia of vibrations with a primary vibration that we call the “pitch.” The frecuencia of the primary vibration is called the fundamental. We’ll abbreviate it with the letter f.

Looking at Figure 1, the note A below middle C on the piano has a fundamental of 220 hertz (abbreviated “Hz”). That is, when you play the note, it makes the air vibrate 220 times per second. It also makes weaker vibrations at 440 Hz (2 f), 660 Hz (3 f), 880 Hz (4 f) , 1100 Hz (5 f), and higher.

As we see from the formulas in parentheses, these additional frequencies are all multiples of f. They are called harmonics and their relative strengths are one of the main reasons we don’t confuse a bagpipe with a banjo.

For reference, youthful human ears can hear frequencies up to about 20,000 Hz.

Figure 1: A section of the piano keyboard with middle C in red.

Together, the set of harmonics form what musicians call the harmonic series. It turns out, mathematicians have their own, related harmonic series. For them, it is one of the building blocks of calculus and higher mathematics.

Here is the mathematical harmonic series which is written as the sum of the reciprocal of the natural numbers:

The “…” at the end of the series above is called an ellipsis and signifies that the series continues to infinity.

Looking at the denominators of this series we see they are the same as our multiples of f . The two harmonic series are related in that the pitch of a vibrating string is directly related to its length.

If you hold a string down at its midpoint on the neck of the instrument, you are dividing the length in half.

Plucking it, you’ll find the pitch has doubled in frequency (f becomes 2 f). Divide it down to 1/3 of its original length and f becomes 3 f.

The “1/2” in the mathematical harmonic series therefore corresponds to the “2 f ” in the musical harmonic series, the “1/3” to “3 f ,” and so on. It represents, in effect, the fraction 1/n of the starting length that is allowed to vibrate and which results in a frequency of n f.

The musical harmonic series, of course, cannot continue to infinity — the physical properties of air along with those of the wood, nylon, metal, and plastic that form instruments are limiting factors — no physical object can vibrate infinitely fast. Nonetheless, the harmonic series is a pattern that is fundamental in both music and math.

Now, to answer our question, unlike melodic musical sounds, random sounds and noises lack the orderly frequency structure corresponding to the harmonic series. We see that the very fact of being a musical sound corresponds to an underlying mathematical pattern: {1 f, 2 f, 3 f, 4 f, 5 f, …}.

Notes and Scales

So, what can we do with the math-based, musical sounds we call “notes”?

We can build musical scales. Every scale is defined by numbers. In Figure 1, a section of the white keys on the piano is numbered 1 through 8. These correspond to the C major scale: C, D, E, F, G, A, B, followed by C again (where the scale repeats).

The distance between any two of the same note, like from C to C, is called an octave. Musicians often refer to notes using their numbers. For instance, the note E is the “third degree” of the C major scale.

There is a simple rule that lets us build a major scale starting on any note. The rule is based on the division of the octave into 12 equal parts called semitones. A semitone is the distance between any two adjacent notes on the piano.

Mathematically, a major scale can be represented by the pattern of semitones {2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1}. Start on any note and count up according to this rule and you will produce a major scale.

For comparison, the “harmonic minor” scale is defined by the rule {2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 3, 1} and the “pentatonic” scale is defined by the 5-note rule {2, 2, 3, 2, 3}.

There are a surprising number of scales we can construct using such mathematical rules.

Nicolas Slonimsky 1947 book the Thesaurus of Melodic Scales and Patterns lists more than 1,600 different patterns, many of them mind-boggling even for accomplished musicians.

An excerpt from Nicolas Slonimsky’s Thesaurus of Melodic Scales and Patterns.

Knowing how scales are made, we can take the next step and construct chords (three or more notes played at the same time). Three-note chords, called “triads,” are built by using every other note in a scale.

Looking back at Figure 1, the chord built on the first note of the C major scale is made up of notes 1, 3, and 5 (C, E, and G) and is called a “C major chord.”

The chord built on the second note of the C major scale is made up of notes 2, 4, and 6 (D, F, and A) and is called a “D minor chord.” For every scale, an incredible variety of chords can be constructed by using patterns of note numbers.

It’s important to point out that the semitone-based scales we are talking about belong to the tradition of what we refer to as Western music.

Other cultures divide the octave differently. For example, much of Middle Eastern music uses an octave that is divided into 24 parts.

We’ve touched on the mathematics of notes, how scales are constructed from notes, and how chords can be constructed from scales.

There are many other important aspects of music such as rhythm, meter, harmony, counterpoint, and song structure that are deeply rooted in mathematics.

It is also worth mentioning that if you use a software audio player that has a song visualization module, the animation you see is generally based on mathematical analysis that measures the frequency content and the changing volume in a song.

Music from Math

How about creating music from math? Countless books, articles, and research papers have been written on the subject. In fact, for centuries, mathematical techniques have been used by famous composers like Bach and Mozart (and many not so famous composers) to help develop their ideas or establish the structure of their compositions.

The dawn of the computer age opened a new era of composing based on mathematical rules, assigning pitch values, note duration values, and volumes to numbers generated by specialized programs.

This type of music covers an extraordinary range of styles and is generally referred to as algorithmic compositionHere is an example of an algorithm that produces fractal music.

Even without a computer, you can convert numbers directly into music.

For instance, we can extend our C major scale in Figure 1 up two more white keys and assign the numbers 0 through 9 to those ten notes. We can then read the digits of any number and simultaneously play the note corresponding to each digit.

If we use first eight digits of the never-ending constant pi=3.1415926…, we would obtain the melody {E, C, F, C, G, D, D, A} (notice that the two appearances of the note D are an octave apart). Here is a fun example of this approach:

More sophisticated techniques are also possible. For ejemplo, below is an animation of a composition of mine called “100 Seconds of Pi.” In it, all pitches, durations, and dynamics in each of the six voices are derived from pi.

In this case, a visualizer is using sophisticated mathematics to analyze the number-derived music and translate it into graphics.

Here we can witness the dance of the cosmic twins — math is transformed into music for our listening pleasure and from music into math-based animation for our visual enjoyment. the YouTube description for details about how this music was composed.

Hanna Farhat posted on Fb what Amira Houmani published in 1974

Two children Lullabies are posted for the time being: 3al Houwara and طاق طاق طاقية

بدي أعرفكم اليوم على أديبة أميرة إسمها “أميرة الحوماني”جنوبية من “حاروف“.

التقينا عام 1974 في مكتبة “راس بيروت”.تعارفنا,تصادقنا,وتبادلنا المؤلفات..وكانت هديتها الثمينة الرائعة “هيك غنينا“.

مؤلفين صغار يحتويان على كلمات أغاني الأطفال ونوتاتها الموسيقية,ومعظمها كانت أمهاتنا وجداتنا تردده لنا أثناء النوم..ولقد غنت فيروز بعضها بينها”يللا تنام ريما..”

يقول الأديب الكبير سعيد عقل في مقدمة الكتاب: “أميرة الحوماني ما هي على الفن بدخيلة..وما أبوها بالشاعر الكبير وكفى.انه أحد من غنى له الجمال,ومن أجله حفزوا الكلمة الى تبرّج.

أما الاميرة في أغاني الطفولة,ليست أميرة إلا كإسمها..أذنها ساحت في كل مخابىء الذوق في لبنان,ومن كل القرى المعلّقة عند الغمام”لقوطت”أغاني كقطع السكر,

عليها عاش الفرح الطفولي وماد سهل وجبل…”

:أغنية “عالهوارة”كما كانت تغنى في الماضي:

عالهوارة الهوارة بيي جبلي إسوارة

وجبلي قبقاب محصّص خبّيتو بالكوارة

عالهوارة يا ذلّي نزلنا نحوّش ونملّي

حملت المنشل والسلّي كسرت المنشل يا خسارة

عالهوارة يا نورا مشّي نرعى القرقورة

عم بتقلّي العصفورة رعوها ب هيك الحارة

عالهوارة يا خيّي بدّي أهديك هديّي

كعكة عملتا بإيديّي وعملتلّك طيارة

ملاحظة من أميرة: كان هذا النوع من الفولكلور يردد هكذا:

عالهوارة الهوارة محرمتين وطيارة

ثم نُقِّح ووسع وطور الى هكذا…

من “اميرة الحوماني” ..هيك غنينا..!

The second lullaby is طاق طاق طاقية

“طاق طاقية”:عبارة كانت وما تزال تردد مع لعبة تلخَّص في ان ينتظم الأطفال دائرة يدور حولها طفل يحمل منديلاً ليردد : “طاق طاق طاقية” ثم ليجيبه الآخرون : “رن رن يا جرس”,وه

كذا حتى يتمكن من إستغفال أحدهم ورمي المنديل خلفه ,ثم متابعة دورته الى نهايتها,

فإن أحسّ بذلك إختطف المنديل وبدأ نفس الدور وإلا فهو مخطىْ ومغفّل..

طاق طاق طاقية رن رن يا جرس

رن وقوّي كتير وفيِّق ناس كتير


عبكرة بكير

فيّق بابا وقلّو تا ينزل ع شغلو

يجيب مصاري كتير

والمصروف كبير


عبكره بكير

فيّق ماما وقلا تا تصحى لشغلا

عندا شغل كتير

تنظيف وتحضير


عبكرة بكير

ولأخواتي قلّن ولرفقاتي قلن

عبكرة بكير

الدرس حلو كتير


عبكرة بكير…

صباح الطفولة البريئة !

حنا حبيب فرحة


صباح الخير

What of the Amish, Mennonite, Mormon, Extremist traditional Jews, Extremist traditional Moslems, extremist traditional Hindu and every kind of religious sect?

The veil was used in all cultures and religious sects, Christian, Hindu, Islam, Jewish….except women working outside, mostly in the fields of agriculture.

No woman can call herself Free who does Not control her body (Margaret Sanger)

Elias Khoury article posted on Fb.

عالم خلف حجاب

الياس خوري

عام 2010، وكنت يومها أستاذاً زائراً في جامعة نيويورك،

اقترح أحد الأصدقاء قضاء عطلة منتصف العام الدراسي في بنسيلفانيا، من أجل أن يعرفني على الوجه الآخر المحجوب من أمريكا.

اعتقدت يومها أن صديقي يقترح عليّ زيارة أحد معازل سكان أمريكا الأصليين، الذين يطلق عليهم اسم الهنود الحمر. رفضت العرض،

إذ سبق لي أن زرت أحد هذه المعازل، وشعرت بالرعب من الانقراض. الإبادة الوحشية التي تعرض لها ملايين الأمريكيين الأصلانيين لم تترك سوى شواهد مثيرة للأسى. هذه الشواهد هي علامة على توحش المستعمرين الأوروبيين، وكيف أن ما نطلق عليه اسم الحضارة خرج من رحم الوحشية والبريرية.

قال صديقي إن المشروع لا علاقة له بالهنود الحمر، فهو يريدني أن أرى القرون الوسطى، التي تعيش اليوم في إحدى الزوايا المهملة للحداثة الأمريكية.

قال إننا سنزور إحدى المناطق حيث يعيش الأيميش، وهم جماعة بروتستانتية هربت من الاضطهاد الديني في أوروبا، ويعيشون كأنهم لم يغادروا القرن الثامن عشر.

لم يكن بإمكاننا الإقامة في المكان الذي يعيش فيه الأيميش، إذ لا توجد لديهم فنادق،

فأقمنا في فندق في قرية مجاورة. وهي قرية ينتمي سكانها إلى طائفة دينية أخرى تسمى المينونيين، وهي انشقاق عن الجماعة الأيميشية الأصلية، وأعضاؤها يعيشون حياة حديثة من دون التخلي عن بعض ثوابت الطائفة الأصلية.

وكانت المفاجأة.

كان علينا أن ندخل المكان الذي يشبه قرية كبيرة مشياً على الأقدام، فالسيارات ممنوعة هنا، وسيلة التنقل الوحيدة هي العربات التي تجرها الأحصنة.

مشينا في شوارع وسط الحقول، نساء يلبسن أثواباً رمادية طويلة حتى الكاحلين، ويغطين رؤوسهن بمناديل بيضاء للمتزوجات وسوداء للعازبات.

لا أثر لأي مظهر حديث، لا كهرباء ولا سيارات ولا هواتف ولا مستشفيات. والناس يتكلمون لغة قديمة هي مزيج من الألمانية والهولندية.

كأننا فتحنا كتاباً قديماً، وبدل أن نقرأ مشينا في صفحاته، وعشنا مع أبطاله وبطلاته الذين يسكنون في أزمنة غابرة.

النساء غير متبرجات، لا أثر لأحمر الشفاه أو لأي مستحضرات تجميل. الأنوثة تختفي خلف رداء طويل فضفاض لا يظهر أي تقاسيم للجسم. والرجال منصرفون إلى عملهم في الزراعة. يزرعون كما كانوا يزرعون منذ مئات السنين، ويأكلون كما أكل أجدادهم من قبلهم. الأطفال يدرسون حتى سن الرابعة عشرة ثم يتعلمون مهنة آبائهم، والخمرة محرمة.

مشيت بينهم، وبدوت كمن هبط من كوكب آخر، لكن لا أحد كان فضولياً كي يسألني من أين أتيت.

دور المرأة الأساسي هو الإنجاب، لكنها تشارك في العمل أيضاً. المرأة الأيميشية تنجب حوالي عشرة أطفال، والحياة تستمر بطيئة ورتيبة.

العقاب الأكبر هو الطرد من الجماعة، والمتعة هي التسليم بالقضاء والقدر.

لا وجود لتعدد الزوجات كما في طائفة المورمون، لكن الرجل هو رأس المرأة، فالمرأة تغطي رأسها كعلامة للخضوع لله وللرجل.

لا أدوات كهربائية، ولا راديو أو تلفزيون، يضيئون منازلهم المتواضعة بالقناديل والشموع، ولا مظاهر ثراء. الكل متساوون، يصلّون بشكل جماعي في البيوت، يعمدون الأولاد بين التاسعة عشرة والثالثة والعشرين، وحين تتم معمودية الشاب أوالصبية يصير صالحاً للزواج.

«أين نحن، هل هذه قرية حقيقية أم نحن في ديكور فيلم سينمائي»؟

«غداً سوف تفهم»، قال صديقي.

في صباح اليوم التالي، وبينما كنا نتناول الإفطار، لاحظت أن صاحبة الفندق تغطي جزءاً من شعرها بمنديل رفيع أبيض.

شرحت لي أن طائفتها من المينونيين وهم يختلفون عن الأيميش لأنهم يتبنون وسائل العالم الحديث، لكنهم يشبهونهم في كونهم يعتبرون أنفسهم في العالم لكنهم ليسوا من العالم.

لم أفهم ماذا أرادت المرأة قوله إلا حين قبلت دعوتها للمشاركة في صلاة الأحد، التي أقيمت في كنيسة القرية.

انقسم الحضور في الكنيسة إلى نصفين، على يمين المنصة، حيث يقف القس ممسكاً بالإنجيل، يجلس الرجال، وعلى يسارها تجلس النساء.

وبعد مجموعة من التراتيل وشهادات دينية من ثلاثة من الحاضرين، بدأ القس في قراءة مقاطع من رسالة بولس الرسول الأولى إلى أهل كورنثوس الإصحاح الحادي عشر، التي تقول:

«أريد أن تعلموا أن رأس كل رجل هو المسيح، وأما رأس المرأة فهو الرجل، ورأس المسيح هو الله». ويتابع بولس تنظيره الذكوري فيشير إلى ضرورة أن تغطي المرأة رأسها، ويقول: «فالمرأة إن كانت لا تتغطى فليقص شعرها. فإن الرجل لا ينبغي أن يغطي رأسه لكونه صورة الله؛ لأن الرجل ليس من المرأة بل المرأة من الرجل…».

وتمحورت عظة القس حول ضرورة أن تلبس المرأة حجاباً. وكلما ازدادت قسوة القس على النساء ازدادت التهاليل التي كانت تخرج من صفوف المصليات والمصلين.

حتى هنا، أي خارج عالمنا الحديث برمته، يبنى ما يسمى بالتماسك الاجتماعي على الخضوع، وحجر الزاوية فيه هو خضوع المرأة للرجل.

«ماذا لو تمردت المرأة»، سألت صاحبة الفندق التي دعتني إلى غداء الأحد الجماعي.

«تُقتل»، قالت، «من يتمرد سواء أكان رجلاً أو امرأة يُقتل»

«يعني تطلقون عليه النار»؟

«لا»، قالت، «يطرد من الجماعة، وهذا قتل رمزي، لأن الأيميشي لا يستطيع أن يتأقلم في مجتمع الخطيئة، فيموت روحياً وربما جسدياً».

صورة صاحبة الفندق وهي تروي لي عن القتل أصابتني بالرعب. لا أدري كيف قفزت صورة تلك المرأة بكامل وحشيتها وأنا أتابع مقتل الفتاة الإيرانية مهسا أميني، وثورة الحرية التي أعلنتها نساء إيران وهن يشعلن النار في الحجاب ويقصصن شعرهن، ويُقتلن في الشوارع.

الحرية هي الموضوع الوحيد الذي يستحق أن نموت من أجله،

حرية المرأة في أن تلبس الحجاب وحريتها في خلعه. كل تحجيب للمسألة خلف شعارات دينية أو حداثية هو مجرد تلفيق سلطوي.

تركت الأيميش لمصيرهم الذي اختاروه، وعدت إلى مصائرنا المليئة بالأسى، ورويت لكم حكاية.

It has been repeated that it was the oil-rich Arabic States (Saudi Kingdom, Iraq, Kuwait… that pressured Lebanon since the 50’s Not to attempt extracting any of its oil/gas potentials.

And it has been repeated that the USA and Israel were behind those indirect pressures on the successive Lebanese governments….

All these “conjectures” are highly believable.

And the fact is that Lebanon financial/political Monsters were the staunch opposers for extracting our mineral resources. This did Not prevent Lebanon to be highly polluted in air quality, water quality and everyday “dirty” habits.

Raffi Idriss posted on Fb

على غرار المتخصصين في العلاقات الدولية و القانونين الدوليين و الدبلوماسي ، كنت دائماً أقرأ و أسمع عن “منع” الدول العربية الشقيقة لنا من استخراج النفط أو محاولة التنقيب عنه ،

و يقال أن أشقاءنا العرب منعونا من ذلك منذ خمسينات القرن الفائت .

و الحال أنّي كنت في كل مرة أقرأ عن ذلك أو أسمعه ، و غالباً ما كنت أسمعه من أساتذة كبار في الإختصاص ، كنت أشكك بصحّة هذه المقولة ،

ما الذي يجعل دول نفطية مهولة الثراء تمنع دولة صغيرة من إستثمار ثرواتها الباطنية ؟

فلا لبنان قادرٌ في مطلق الأحوال على منافسة دول الأوپك ، هذا في حال استخرج نفطه حينها ،

و لا تلك الدول كانت لتحسد لبنان إذا اغتنى ، فلبنان لم يكن فقيراً في تلك الحقبة ،

و البترودولار الخليجي و الرساميل العربية كانت دفّاقة إلى مصارف بيروت و أسواق مالها .

كنت أشكك في نظرية منع الأشقاء لنا من استثمار ثرواتنا ، لكن من الذي كان يمنعنا ؟؟

اليوم أدرك كثيرون أن من كان يحول دون استخراج ثروتنا هم أشقاءنا المواطنين في الداخل !

لبنانيون هم من حال دون انتفاعنا بنفطنا . و هم ذاتهم اليوم سيحولون دون انتفاع الدولة من الثروة ،

ببساطة سيسعون لحيازة حصص منها لصالحهم وحدهم .

مخطئ من يظن أن سبب أزماتنا هو الخارج ، أصل البَلا منا و فينا .

إصرار و عزم الجنرال الرئيس أوصلنا إلى مرحلة التهيّؤ لنكون دولة نفطية ، لكن من الرئيس الذي نضمن أن يحافظ على الثروة المنتظرة لتبقى ملكاً لجيلنا و للأجيال الآتية ؟

The Situation in the Ukraine Is an Historical Event of Immense Magnitude


Recently, some readers have complained to me that we are covering the Ukraine situation too closely, saying they are bored with the topic.

In fact, I’m not really covering it that closely. I’m really just giving the broad strokes, and giving people a basis upon which they can do further investigation into what is going on if they are so inclined.

I am covering the Ukraine the exact right amount. I am obligated to do this because so few outlets are covering the war with any truth or honesty.

In the English language, the pro-Russia perspective is very difficult to find, with most conservatives who are against the war simply saying that they don’t care either way.

“I do care and I actively support those fighting against the Washington and Brussels elite” is an important perspective that must be in the public conversation.

Mitch McConnell was right when he said the most important thing happening in the world is the Ukraine conflict. He was right for the wrong reasons, but he was right.

Someone is going to win this conflict, and someone is going to lose. (Usually, No win, No lose negotiation)

The stakes could not be any higher. The future of the entire world now hinges on the outcome of this conflict. This is the single most consequential military conflict in all of human history.

If Russia loses, the Putin government will collapse, and the US will be able to steamroll the country, break it apart into several pieces.

From there, the US will have China isolated, and then eventually break them. This will result in the final establishment of a singular world order run by the Jewish power centers in the United States, Europe, and Israel.

If the US loses the war (it cannot lose as long as the $ is king), we are looking at a freefall collapse of the Western economic and military order, a rising China, and a reshuffling of the entire order of power on the planet earth.

The reason I support Russia is that I want the US empire to collapse. (Freeing the world of frequent pre-emptive wars with No legal basis)

The reason I want the US empire to collapse is that I do not believe that the US empire is compatible with freedom in the US, and believe that we can only reestablish freedom in this country when the empire falls.

If the dollar goes down and the US can no longer export debt to the world through the dollar reserve system, the US government will no longer have the ability to micromanage the lives of American citizens. (The USA sovereign debt is $31 trillion and increasing yearly)

They will not have the resources (you have to have a lot of excess money to inflict your will on the entire population, which is one reason why people are so much freer in third world countries). Actually, the USA has No real Production money: they just print paper)

We will be free, and we will then be able to return to the natural order in our society, without Jews controlling everything, without tyrannies, without deadly fake vaccines, without mass immigration…

Those are the stakes.

I do like Russia as a country. I like that they are Christian, that they have a masculine leader, that they allow their population to have freedom. (Not accurate or valid reasons)

However, that is more or less incidental. I would support Russia fighting against the NATO machine even if I did not like Russia’s politics.

In the end, I don’t really care about Russia or China – I care about myself, my own friends and family, my own country.

I view the world in terms of what is best for me, as is the natural way for anyone to view world events.

Responding to Pro-Ukraine Neo-Nazi Posters

We have all seen posters on 4chan and various other places where right-wingers post attacking Russia and even going so far as to support the Ukraine.

I tend to just assume most of these posters are employees of the federal government, but some of them are probably real people who picked up on narratives from the shill posters.

These people will say “Russia is not based.” They will go on to claim that people should support the Ukraine because it is a “white country” fighting for independence.

You can get down into the weeds with all that, and explain that the Ukraine has a Jewish occupation government. You can point out the ridiculousness of a right-winger supporting the narrative of the Jewish US State Department. But it is unnecessary to go into all of that.

Here is something these allegedly right-wing anti-Russia people will never explain: how is it good for Americans or Westerners generally for the Ukraine to win this conflict?

They do not have any answer and so they will pretend it is not even a question.

They will just go on and on about how Putin insulted Adolf Hitler, and how great the Ukraine is because they have neo-Nazi fighters in skull masks. They will cite the ideology of Ukraine nationalists as good. And that’s all they’re talking about: ideology.

These ultra-suspicious neo-Nazi people on forums are supporting the ideology of neo-Nazism, explaining that they stand with the Ukraine because of this ideology, while people on CNN – and Fox News, for that matter – are standing with the Ukraine because of the ideology of “democracy values” (gay sex, feminism, Jewish dominion).

Ideology is not real, and it is not useful for human beings.

When it comes down to it, there is only one thing that matters, and that is what happens in your life, and what will happen in the lives of your children and grandchildren after you’re gone.

You are not obligated to support foreign peoples against your own interests. All you are expected to do in this life is take care of yourself, your friends and family, and your homeland. That’s all.

As a rule, your interests are likely to overlap with foreigners who are also putting their own interests first, as all nations of the world are fighting against a Jewish world order that seeks to undermine every state and implement a single global government system.

But if your interests do not align with foreigners, you’re under zero obligation to support foreigners, in any situation.

It is a self-evident fact that a collapse of the US as the dominant military power in the world will lead to a severe decline in the ability of the US government to inflict its will on the domestic population.

This is very straightforward, and it is not reasonable for anyone to try to muddle this issue with nonsense about ideology.

Events and their effects are the only things that have any relevance to humans. Ideology is a way for people to bypass the real world effects of events, and instead focus on the perceived deeper meaning of events.

In reality, there is no deeper meaning to events beyond what you yourself project onto them. The only thing that is real are real world outcomes.

The fact that both Jewish democracy people and internet neo-Nazis can project meaning onto the events in the Ukraine and come to the same conclusion proves that the perceived meaning is not intrinsic, but rather projected.

People do things for all kinds of different reasons, and you can’t figure out what they mean when they do something. Probably, they do not “mean” anything by their actions.

Typically, people do things that they believe will be beneficial to themselves and their interests, and that is definitely the way institutions do things.

These pro-Ukraine ZOG shills will also project things onto me and others who support Russia and China.

They will claim that I believe “Putin is the savior of the white race.” Although I do think it is fun to lionize Putin as a White Christian warrior of historical significance, the basic fact is that it does not matter to me how Putin views himself.

What matters to me is that Putin’s interests align with my own, because he has the same enemies as I have: the Western colonial establishment.

The same people in the government and the media who tried to force-vaccinate me and my family, the people who are pushing homosexuality and genital mutilation on little kids in my community, are at war with Russia.

If someone is able to do ideology-based mental gymnastics and come up with “here’s why I’m siding with the people trying to vax me and cut my son’s dick off,” they’ve lost the plot.

The immediate and correct response is to support absolutely anyone who is standing in opposition to the people trying to sexually mutilate your kids – regardless of who it is or what they believe, someone who is going to fight against people trying to hurt your kids is a friend.

Frankly, even responding to people who are “standing with Ukraine” is something that is below me, but I am seeing an increase in these posts in various places, clearly because the feds are putting more money into it.

I know that some of my readers are not totally informed on the details of everything, and sometimes these arguments on how “Putin is not based” can be compelling to people who do not have all the details.

I do think Putin is based, but the bottom line is that it simply does not matter. What matters for you is how things affect you and your life, and you should make decisions on where to put your moral support based on a logical assessment of how events will affect your life.

“We Can’t Do Anything”

Another reason that people find the news about the Ukraine conflict tiresome is that it feels like something we don’t have any influence on, and therefore whether or not you support Russia is irrelevant.

My response to that would be that the same is true for events happening in the United States. We are largely completely powerless to do anything about anything that is happening anywhere.

Polls show that more people than ever are dropping out of following the news because they don’t have any ability to affect anything.

So why should we care about anything?

Well, there is probably an intrinsic human need to know what is going on around us, even if we can’t do anything to affect it. At the very least, it helps us plan for the future.

However, I would also argue that having the correct understanding of the world leads to people being able to exercise more influence on events.

We could go through specific examples, but we can see plainly that the most impotent people are those with a distorted understanding of what is happening.

We have “conservatives” watching Sean Hannity and then supporting the wars. Whether or not one person supports the war is irrelevant, but in order for this system to work, these people do still need some amount of public support. There are a lot more of us than there are of them.

As has been said: if the situation were truly hopeless, their propaganda would not be necessary.

I do understand people who are tired of reading about the Ukraine, and you are more than welcome to skip over my writings about that situation.

I write about a lot of different topics, and there is much non-Ukraine material on here every day. But I feel I have a duty to cover this topic, regardless of how many people are reading it.




October 2022

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