Adonis Diaries

Archive for the ‘Islam/Moslem/Islamic world’ Category

My brother passed away

A poem by a poet of before Islam

Jamil Berry shared this translated poem

( Al MOHALHAL . Oraison Funèbre de son frère KULAYB)

Le poète Al Mohalhal pleurant son frère , tué dans un duel chevaleresque.

Le tableau, est celui d’une silhouette d’un homme seul , prosterné sur une plage, par une nuit étoilée .

Les yeux remplis de larmes, pensant fort à son frère.

DEUIL DANS LA NUIT

Tu es mort mon frère
Mes poèmes seront prières
Me prosternant à genoux
Implorant la mort cynique
Implorant un Dieu jaloux
Qui n’eut qu’un fils unique (Jesus?)

Tu es mort mon frère
Et en souvenir de nous deux
Désormais tu seras poussière
Poussière qui fait larmoyer mes yeux

Et ces mille et mille étoiles
Des badauds bien curieux
Détournées par mon horrible mal
de l’immensité des cieux

Elles délaissent l’étendue des océans
Et lui préfèrent mon absurde néant
Faisant fi de mes pleurs et leur vacarme
Elles viennent se mirer dans mes larmes .

Tu es mort mon frère
Mes poèmes ne seront que prières
Me prosternant sur mes deux genoux
Implorant la mort cynique
Implorant ce puissant jaloux
Qui n’eut lui, qu’un fils unique

Note 1: This poem is from the period of before Islam, which was labelled Jahiliyya or period before recognizing that there is One God, and monotheistic religions like Christianity and Judaism…

The last sentence point to the fact that Al Mohalhal might have been a Christian and referring to Jesus.

Mecca had a large Christian community (Ebonite sect), a sect that orthodox Byzantium called heretic.

Note 2: The uncle of Muhammad was the bishop of this Christian sect, more inclined to the daily routine of Judaism and adopting its myths and stories. The Sourat of the first 13 years in Islam borrowed heavily of the dogma of this sect, before Muhammad founded his City-State in Yathreb. (Medina)

 

The religions of the people of the desertic regions

The peoples living the nomadic lifestyle in the desertic regions could Not appreciate abstract concepts, especially with religions that insist on including abstract dogma in their “belief systems

If my current idol does Not satisfy my desires, I destroy it and replace it by another more convenient idol.

“J’étais toujours frappé’ quand je voyais les cheikhs tomber a genoux au milieu du désert, se tournant vers l’Orient et toucher le sable du front. Qu’était ce que cette chose inconnue qu’ils adoraient vers l’Orient?’ (Napoleon Bonaparte).

En fait, Mohammad avait ordonné’ de se tourner vers Jerusaleme les 13 premiere annes de son prosélytisme, avant de changer d’avis quand il a fondé’ son City-State in Yathreb.

Et  Mohamed ordonna de se tourner vers la Mecque. Mohammad ne voulait plus une religion de “continuit锑 mais une religion à Soi. Une religion pour les peuple des déserts. Les peuples qui n’avaient cure des dogmes abstraits.

Le Judaïsme aussi est une religion du désert: Ces bédouins du désert du sud de la Palestine et du Sinaï ne voulaient pas faire parti des peuple civilisé de la “Syrie”, avec une culture écrite très élevé et développe’.

Chateaubriand a été’ invité en 1802 par Julien, le frère de Napoléon, a un gala.

Bonaparte fit son chemin directement vers Chateaubriand qui essayait de se faire invisible derrière des invités

Napoléon éleva la voix “Mr chateaubriand”. La foule se retira et se reforma en cercle autour des interlocuteurs

Napoléon qui avait peut être lu “Le génie du Christianisme” souflat:

“Les idéologues du Christianisme n’ont-ils pas voulu en faire un système d’astronomie? Si le christianisme est l’allégorie des mouvements celeste… les esprits forts ont beau faire, malgré eux ils ont laissé assez de grandeur a l’infâme (Les Voltairiens?)”

En fait, tous les religions antiques relève d’astronomie, même en ce jour des religions des peuple isolés.

Note: Mohamad Christian sect (Ebonite)  borrowed more from Judaism (daily rules) than from Christianity. Though Mohamad had a devotion for the “Virgin” Marie who raised the prophet Jesus (Issa). That was natural since  the 3 most powerful idols in the Arabian peninsula were women, each one with special tasks.

Allah was an all general idol that could not generate profit to the monopoli of the Umayyad tribe. This tribe made its wealth from caravane trade that extended from Yemen to Damascus, and Bassora (Iraq) and Palestine through the Nabataean Kingdom toward Egypt

As he took control of the City-State of Yathreb , Mohammad changed his mind and ordered to direct prayers toward Mecca instead of Jerusalem. And this Islam became the religion of the desertic regions.

ISIS female and children refugee camp: AL HOL CAMP, Syria

Waiting in limbo? Anyone cares?

By March 29, 2019

AL HOL CAMP, Syria — She left the Netherlands to join the Islamic State in Syria, and married a fighter here. He was killed, so she married another, who got her pregnant before he was killed, too.

This month, as the Islamic State collapsed, she surrendered with her son to United States-backed forces and landed in the sprawling Al Hol tent camp, which has swollen to the breaking point with the human remnants of the so-called caliphate.

“I just want to go back to a normal life,” said Jeanetta Yahani, 34, as her son Ahmed, 3, clung to her leg and shook with a violent cough.

The announcement a week ago that the Islamic State had lost its final patch of territory in Syria was a milestone in the battle against the world’s most fearsome terrorist network.

It also raised urgent questions about what to do with the tens of thousands of people who had flocked to join the jihadists from around the world and now have nowhere else to go.

Al Hol, a sprawling, isolated conglomeration of tents on rocky soil surrounded by a chain-link fence and armed guards, held about 9,000 people in December. As the Islamic State’s final territories fell, its population swelled to more than 72,000.

The population explosion has taxed the camp’s resources, leading to crowding and long lines for food, fuel and drinking water.

On a rare visit to the foreigners’ section of the camp on Thursday, a team of New York Times journalists found a miserable international tableau of lost women and children.

Along muddy, trash-strewn lanes between rows of white tents, we heard groups of women chatting in English, Russian, French, Dutch and Chinese. We saw blond- and black-haired children playing together in the mud.

A German woman told me she had come to Syria with her husband, a doctor. Now she had no idea where he was, and she was stuck in the camp with a baby in her arms and a curly-haired toddler gripping her leg.

But she did not want to return to Germany, which she considered an infidel country.

“I don’t want to raise my kids in a society that’s totally corrupt, where every sin is promoted,” she said, declining to give her name.

It was better to tough it out in Syria, she said. “This is temporary. The afterlife is forever.”

Although the Islamic State no longer controls the vast territory that that once stretched across Iraq and Syria, the women in the camp still followed its rules, wearing black gowns and face veils with slits for their eyes.

ImageMore than 9,000 camp residents are foreigners who are kept in a special section.
Credit…Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Image

The camp’s Kurdish-led administration worries that the paucity of international support could help ISIS reconstitute itself.
Credit…Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Image

Camp officials say they are too busy scrambling to provide tents and food to offer schooling or other activities for children.
Credit…Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Their clothes were dirty, the hems and shoes caked with mud. Many toted toddlers with hacking coughs and runny noses. Other children sold cookies and soda their relatives had managed to bring in, or stood in long lines for food, drinking water and gas for generators.

Al Hol is the largest of three detention camps run by the Kurdish-led administration in northeastern Syria. Other camps dot Iraq and Libya.

Along with tens of thousands of Syrians and Iraqis, the Syria camps hold 12,000 foreign women and children, according to Redur Xelil, a senior official with the Syrian Democratic Forces, the United States-backed militia that fought the jihadists. The force also holds more than 8,000 fighters, including 1,000 foreigners, in its prisons.

A handful of places, including France, Russia and Chechnya have taken back tiny numbers of their citizens, mostly women, children and orphans. But most of the home countries do not want the caliphate’s former residents back, so they are stuck here, in a stateless, unstable territory.

The local administration lacks the resources to deal with them and worries that the paucity of international support could help the Islamic State reconstitute itself.

“There is little support, little response,” said Mohammed Bashir, a camp administrator.

This week, local officials called for the creation of an international court to try foreign fighters, but the idea has garnered little international support and the Syrian government would probably block it.

While determining the exact backgrounds of the women and children in the camps is difficult since many lack identification and use fake names, they are generally considered less dangerous than the men. But some were also combatants. And some still endorse the extremists’ ideology, making local officials reluctant to let them leave.

Image

Women and children who fled the last area of the Islamic State’s control arriving at a screening point in the desert last month.
Credit…Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Image

Women and children leaving the last area controlled by the Islamic State by bus to reach camps run by Syrian Kurdish militias.
Credit…Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Image

An injured woman waiting last month to leave the last area controlled by the Islamic State.
Credit…Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

More than 9,000 of Al Hol’s residents are foreigners who are kept in a special section, which I visited with a photographer on Thursday.

As soon as we entered, women approached us to ask if we could help them return to their countries or find missing loved ones.

“Are you from the Swedish Red Crescent?” a woman asked, trotting away after I said no.

“I am from a country that no one knows about, so I will never get out of here,” said a woman from the Seychelles.

Spotting strangers in the camp, Lisa Smith, a former member of the Irish Defense Forces, said hello but declined to be interviewed.

Some women still clung to the jihadists’ ideology.

A 22-year-old Chechen woman who identified herself only as Um Aisha described life in the caliphate as “all very good.”

“There were brothers who believed in Shariah, an Islamic state, and it was not like this,” she said, pointing disapprovingly at two female aid workers wearing pants.

The woman’s husband was killed in an airstrike on the Islamic State’s final pocket this month, she said, but she did not think the jihadists’ project was over.

“Our brothers are everywhere, in Germany, in Russia, in America — we believe that al-Dawla al-Islamia will come back,” she said, using the group’s Arabic name.

Others expressed regrets.

Image

As the ISIS families flooded in, camp workers scrambled to put up enough tents to house them, crowding families together to protect them from an unseasonably cold and rainy winter.
Credit…Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Image

The women and children in the camps are considered less dangerous than the men, but there are still fears that Islamic State ideology will spread.
Credit…Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Image

Children make up about two-thirds of the camp’s residents.
Credit…Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Galion Su, from Trinidad, stood near the camp’s gate with her face uncovered, hoping to get out and look for her teenage son, who had been arrested by Kurdish forces in January.

Her husband brought them to Syria in 2014 and the couple divorced soon after, leaving her struggling to care for her son.

“I was like a whore in the Dawla,” said Ms. Su, 45. She had married four men, she said, each on the condition that they let her keep her son.

When the jihadists tried to force him to fight, she dressed him as a woman and fled, but Kurdish forces arrested him when they discovered the ruse, she said. Now, she had no idea where he is.

“I just want to be normal and go back to a normal society, sleep in a nice bed, eat nice food, watch TV and laugh,” she said.

Children make up about two-thirds of Al Hol’s residents. Some are orphans. Many described in detail and with little emotion how their fathers had been killed. All had witnessed violence, and some had been taught to practice it.

Camp officials say they are too busy scrambling to provide tents and food to offer schooling or other activities, much less to deal with people’s psychological problems or to re-educate children trained by the jihadists. The challenge is intensified because some parents still endorse the jihadists’ ideology.

“The mentality is the same. Nothing has changed,” said Mr. Bashir, the camp administrator. “The children are innocent, but when they end up in the camp, they will learn what their parents teach.”

As the sun set after a rare sunny day on Thursday, we found ourselves surrounded by hordes of children playing. A group of Turkish boys played a rowdy game of soccer while children from Iraq, Egypt, Russia and elsewhere pelted one another with fistfuls of gravel.

Image

Most of the home countries of the camp’s residents do not want them back, so they are stuck in a stateless, unstable swath of northern Syria.
Credit…Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Image

Determining the exact backgrounds of the women and children in the camps is difficult, since many lack identification.
Credit…Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Image

Women and children who fled the last ISIS-held area in southeast Syria waiting to be screened last month by Kurdish and coalition forces in the desert near the village of Baghuz.
Credit…Ivor Prickett for The New York Times

Standing atop a latrine, an Iraqi boy with a toy rifle shouted, “The Islamic State has invaded!” Training his sight on another child, he threatened, “I’m a sniper. I’ll shoot you in the head right away.”

Nearby, two toddlers got into a fight and fell to the ground punching each other while a 10-year-old boy who was missing his right leg looked on. He declined to give his name or say where he was from, and responded to questions with short answers.

How did you lose your leg?

“A plane. Shrapnel.”

What do you want to do now?

“Get a tent and stay in it. Or maybe a house.”

Where?

“I don’t know.”

Mustafa Ali contributed reporting.

Follow Ben Hubbard on Twitter: @NYTBen.

Egypt Al Azhar: Most ancient Religious Madrasat?

Again, I don’t care about any religious sect. Posting this article just for history buffs.

الأزهر شاهدا على عصره منذ ١٠٥٠ سنة

يسجل التاريخ أن (الأزهر) أنشئ فى أول عهد الدولة الفاطمية بمصر جامعا باسم (جامع القاهرة، الذى سمى الأزهر فيما بعد) حيث أرسى حجر أساسه فى الرابع والعشرين من جمادى الأولى 359هـ/970م ، وصلى فيه الخليفة المعز لدين الفاطمى ثانى خلفاء الدولة الفاطمية صلاة الجمعة الأولى من شهر رمضان سنة 361هـ/972م.

كان التعليم فى الأزهر قائما على الاختيار الحر ، بحيث يختار الطالب أستاذه والمادة التى يقوم بتدريسها ،

أو الكتاب الذى يقرؤه لطلابه ، ويعرض نصوصه نصًا نصًا ،

فإذا اتم الطالب حفظه من علم الأستاذ ، وأنس من نفسه التجويد تقدم لأستاذه ليمتحنه مشافهة ،

فإذا أظهر استيعابا ونبوغا منحه الأستاذ إجازة علمية مكتوبة ، وكانت هذه الإجازة كافية لصلاحه باًن يشتغل بالتدريس فى المدارس أو فى المساجد أو فى جامع الأزهر نفسه ،

وظل العمل على ذلك حتى أواخر القرن التاسع عشر ، حيث استعيض عنه بنظام التعليم الحديث.
وواكب ذلك إصدار عدة قوانين لتنظيم العمل بالأزهر.

وأول هذه القوانين قانونا القرن التاسع عشر: أولهما فى سنة 1872م ينظم طريقة الحصول على العالمية وموادها ، وثانيهما فى سنة 1885م ، وأهم ما تناوله: تحديد صفة من يتصدى لمهنة التدريس في جامع الأزهر أن يكون قد انتهى من دارسة أمهات الكتب فى أحد عشر فنا واجتاز فيها امتحانا ترضى عنه لجنة من ستة علماء يرأسهم شيخ الأزهر.

وفى بداية القرن العشرين استصدر قانون سنة 1908 فى عهد المشيخة الثانية للشيخ حسونة النواوى ، وفيه تم تأليف مجلس عال لإدارة الأزهر برئاسة شيخ الأزهر ، وعضوية كل من مفتى الديار المصرية ، وشيوخ المذهب المالكى والحنبلى والشافعى واثنين من الموظفين.

وفيه أيضا تقسيم الدراسة لثلاث مراحل: أولية وثانوية وعالية ، ومدة التعليم فى كل منها أربع سنوات ، يمنح الطالب الناجح فى كل مرحلة شهادة المرحلة.

فى عهد المشيخة الأولى للشيخ محمد مصطفى المراغى أعد مشروع القانون رقم 49 لسنة 1930م ، لكنه اصدر فى عهد مشيخة الشيخ محمد الأحمدى الظواهرى ويجمع الرأى على أن هذا القانون مثّل خطوة موفقة لإصلاح الأزهر ، ومكنه من مسايرة التقدم العلمى والثقافى والمعرفى.

وفى هذا القانون حددت مراحل التعليم أربعة مراحل:
ابتدائية لمدة أربع سنوات ، وثانوية لمدة خمس سنوات ، وثلاث كليات للشريعة الإسلامية ، وأصول الدين ، واللغة العربية ، مدة الدراسة بكل منها أربع سنوات ،

ثم تخصص مهنى مدته سنتان فى القضاء الشرعى والإفتاء ، وفى الوعظ والإرشاد ،

وفى التدريس ثم تخصص المادة لمدة خمس سنوات تؤهل الناجح للحصول على العالمية مع درجة أستاذ ويعد هذا القانون الذى أنشئته بمقتضاه الكليات الثلاث والتخصصات المدنية والعلمية هو الإرهاص لميلاد جامعة الأزهر القائمة الآن بمقتضى القانون 103 لسنة 1961 م.

بصدور القانون الأخير رقم 103 لسنة 1961م وتحول النظام التعليمى إلى النظم التعليمية الحديثة ،

وتوسع الأزهر فى نوعيات وتخصصات التعليم والبحث العلمى للبنين والبنات على السواء ،

وضم إلى الكليات الشرعية والعربية كليات للطب وطب الأسنان والصيدلة والعلوم والتربية والهندسة ، والإدارة والمعاملات ، واللغات والترجمة ويتلقى طلابها قدرا لا بأس به فى العلوم الدينية ، لتحقيق المعادلة الدراسية بينهم وبين نظرائهم فى الكليات الأخرى.

المصدر : تاريخ الأزهر عبر العصور أ.د / محمد سعدى فرهود.

في سنة ١٩٦٧ طرأ تعديل على الدراسة في كلية الشريعة والقانون بحيث أصبحت مدة الدراسة – في قسمها العام الذي تدرس فيه كافة مقررات كلية الحقوق في عين شمس والقاهرة إضافة الى مقررات كلية الشريعة – ٥ سنوات للحصول على شهادة الليسانس، فيحصل الخريج على كافة الامتيازات المعطاة لخريجي كليات الحقوق ولخريجي كلية الشريعة معاً. مع احتفاظ الأزهر بنظام الدراسة في كلية الشريعة تخصص الشريعة والتي تستغرق مدة الدراسة فيها 4 سنوات دون تعديل شهادتها بمثيلاتها من كليات الحقوق.

No photo description available.

Religious practices, Not for your state of comfort

In no period of history worship was Not associated with killing one another, creating the notion of the sacrificial lamb, the collateral damages of the destitute, the downtrodden, the ignored, the unknown.

Worshipping is the pure definition of believing in a set of illusions and myths.

We believe in a God, a cultist system, the Nation, the Money, the Army, the Banks, artificial wealth not backed by readily exchangeable goods and services…

Mankind will keep worshipping any one of these fiction realities, even if half of mankind is slaughtered or trampled.

Religious freedom is Not about “religious comfort.”

In the way you want to practice your world view.
If government should protect my right to practice my religion, it does Not follow it is society’s obligation to make that practice easy or carefree.

If your faith prevents you from sitting on an airplane next to a woman who isn’t your wife, then move to another seat.

If your faith tells you you can’t go to the same bathroom with some people, then figure out how to order your life so that you use the bathroom in a place that seems appropriate for you.

If your faith tells you that you can’t sell wedding cakes to certain people, don’t go into the business of selling wedding cakes.

You are Not a physically handicapped person and we are Not obligated to satisfy your mental handicaps.

Here is story:

“Let me guess: the passengers were Not Muslims, and I leave you to guess of what religion and sects they were.
As I found my seat in the plane going from Germany to New-York, I began to notice that almost all my fellow passengers were men, all dressed alike, obviously part of a very observant religious group.

The man sitting next to me was a member of the group. I said hello and began settling in for the flight.
But just as I’d begun buckling my seat belt, my seat partner signaled for the flight attendant and explained to him that I would need to be moved to another seat: his religious freedom, he said, was violated by my presence, as his religion does not allow him to sit next to a woman who is not his wife”.

Sans la laïcité des lois au monde occidental qui permet aux Islamist fanatiques et autre religions de vivre en leur milieux, peut être que Daesh n’aurait aucune raison de se fourvoyer la bas?

A Muslim leader was the first to catapult Al Kaaba, to kill a muslim who took refuge in Kaaba, who killed the grandson of The Prophet, who killed a Muslim while praying, and about 40,000 Muslims reneged as soon as the prophet died. The first designated Calif Abu Baker spent his 2 years fighting these renegades with savage retribution, and led by the bloodthirsty and extremist Khalid Ibn al Walid. This same war leader who massacred thousands of civilians when he entered Damascus.

Folly of follies: Worshipping illusions

Mankind learned to fear and abhor death when he invented the notion of liquid currencies or money.

Mankind began to worship killing other humans when he realized that it generated quick money.

Only taking care of our daily tasks keeps us sane for the duration.

The folly of follies is when we indulge in maniacal routine daily tasks to avert the imminence of folly.

Task like constant dusting, frequent re-arranging furniture, cataloguing and ordering what we possess…

This 21st century started Islamic, supplanted by Covid-19, and maybe China?

Note: Re-edit of “The Century of Islam, (March 11, 2009)”

The 20th century was the communist century, particularly of the Soviet Union and China, as the nemesis for the liberal and capitalist world. 

And the Afghan cataclysm that started in the 1980’s, and which is still going on, changed the geopolitical framework and pressured the Soviet Union to disintegrate.

And the change of power system in Iran in 1979 and the 8-year savaged war between Iraq and Iran. Actually, Khomeini decided before his death to declare cease fire, otherwise, his successors will feel like continuing this senseless war that profit the colonial powers. This war was meant to create a fault ridge between the Sunni and Shia sects and all other religious sects in the Middle-East. A nasty divide that the colonial powers have been foamenting and investing in it to the hilt

The 21st century was predicted to be the century of Liberal Capitalist America after the fall of the Berlin Wall: “Liberal capitalism” was advancing globalization and the free flow of capitals to national markets by international financial companies.

And the new US strategy of dismembering Yugoslavia into several weak States and this lengthy civil war in that Serbian region.

And Iraq invading Kuwait in 2003 once the US ordered Saddam to divide Iraq into 3 States. And the Bush Jr. administration irradiating the Iraqi people with toxic and nuclear munition and open pits for burning plastic materials, for a period of 5 years that contaminated generations of Iraqis.

After the September 9, 2001 Twin Towers attack, supposedly planned by al Qaeda, the Bush Jr. Administration spewed his venom for a decade on Islam, as the major enemy to democracy and for a stable World Order.

And the prediction of the End of History.

The implementation of US-type of “Police of Democracy”quickly ended with the worst financial crisis of all time (2008), and the emergence of many players in world economics and politics.

And the Barak administration encouraging and supporting extremist Islamic organizations like Al Nusra and Daesh to enter Mosul and control northern Syria.

And this created civil war in Syria that started in 2011 and is an ongoing morass to all concerned people with millions of displaced and refugees.

This century was showing the definite characteristics that it is of Islam.

The superpowers have targeted Islam to be the main nemesis for stable world order:

The superpowers need to create a focused enemy for its people.

Before I broach on current events and realities, a little history is in point.

Islam was the world civilization for over 9 centuries.  Three centuries of Eastern Arab Empire that was first located in Damascus and then in Baghdad.  The Arab/Islam Empire shifted its center of gravity in the next two centuries to the west or the Maghreb Empire, and particularly in Spain or Andalusia.  

Two centuries of Islamic domination were marshaled by the Ottoman Muslim Empire in Turkey in the 16th and 17th centuries; and another two centuries of the Muslim Mughal Empire in India, and one century of the Islamic Safavid Empire in Iran in the 18th century.

These civilizations waned after Portugal and Spain circumnavigated the Oceans to bypass Egypt for direct trade with India and Far East Asia.

In fact, the various Crusaders campaigns failed because they could not conquer Egypt, where the major trade routes intersected before reaching Europe, the main target and purpose of the crusaders financial backers.

Christian Europe owes it to the Muslim Empires to be saved from the multitudes of invasions originated in Mongolia and Central Asia by the Mogul and Tatar hordes.

After the Indonesian dictator Suharto died, his successor Bahr el Din Habibi invested over one billion dollars to develop a small civilian airplane.  The “Financial Times” mocked the new President for investing on airplanes that can be purchased with much higher quality and performance.

The West was purposely belittling what they perceived as the new challenges coming from the largest Muslim Nation in matter of knowledge and technology. Habibi meant to build new generations of Muslims that can manufacture instead of being simple consumers.  Habibi said “Money comes and goes. Human brains can be purchased but how can we secure loyalty to a nation and to citizens?”

The Ottoman Empire was later weakened by relying too heavily on its mercenaries the “Inkisharia” (soldiers raised from foreign slaves), as the Arabic Empires were destroyed from the interior by relying on foreign mercenaries.

Pakistan had to build the first Muslim Atomic Bomb in order to challenge India’s bomb.  As Zhu Fikar Ali Bhutto said “we will have to build the atomic bomb even if we end up eating grass”. Actually, Bhutto was overthrown and put to death because he challenged the West for building the bomb.

Iran is facing constant pressure from the West for manufacturing its own arms, munitions, missiles, atomic power generators, and space satellites.

India has more Muslims than Pakistan, Indonesia, and Egypt combined.

The middle classes of Indian Moslems and Chinese Muslims are nearly as large as the total US population.

Indonesia, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, Egypt, and Nigeria are almost continents of their own in size and populations and they are acting and behaving as self-sufficient nations.

The West has to start trading knowledge and technologies without any pre-conditions if it seeks peace, security, stability, and prosperity.  War is a losing option for both parties and no one can hope to emerge winner anyway

I have mentioned in several articles that the 5 nations in the UN with veto power are negotiating to partition Sudan for its huge raw materials, oil reserves, and water resources.  This adventure is doomed to fail unless they negotiate a fair deal with the people in Sudan and the most populous Muslim nations in Africa such as Egypt, Nigeria, and Kenya in Africa.

And Covid-19 pandemics spread and changed this “sustained growth” notion, cleared the air from pollutants in urban cities and megapolis, as well as improving the quality of potable water.

And oil prices fell drastically and producing nations having no idea how to stop the gushing of oil (lest the wells are totally degraded) and where to store all these humongous quantities.

Note 1: The “Arabic Spring” revolts against dictators and absolute monarchies have set the tone for democratic systems in the Arabic States.  The major underlying factor for this mass indignity is the realization that western governments encouraged dictator and absolute monarchy regimes for an entire century in order to maintaining the “Muslim” people subjugated and unable to grow and develop.

Note 2: Sudan had a referendum for partition, but it does not seem that problems will vanish any time soon in Sudan:  The exploitation of oil and mineral resources will resume unabated, and turmoil in north and south Sudan will be enhanced even further.

“Have no fear searching for truth in sciences“: Averroes, Ibn Rushd

Note: Re-edit of “Averroes (1126-1198): Civilization after Ibn Rushd of Cordoba”

Truth cannot contradict truth; sciences is in accord with God’s revelations.  God has nothing to fear when you use your rational intelligence to discover the universe and the causes of phenomenon.

How unjust is the one raising obstacles between man and science:  Science is the road to perfection.  Opposing learning and applying science is contrasting with God’s purpose, since the divine project is to realize such perfection”

That is basically what Ibn Rush (known as Averroes) tried to convey to civilization through his abundant writings in medicine, sciences, astronomy, philosophy, jurisprudence, and theology.

Ibn Rush would be known as “Al hafeed” (the grandson): his grandfather Muhammad Ibn Rushd was a well-renowned judge in Cordoba.

A brief background:

Cordoba in Andalusia, southern Spain, was the main center of culture and civilization in that century:  Muslims, Christians and Jews were living in harmony and tolerance was the rule, while Europe is battling among its various Christian schisms.

Baghdad was declining and the Mogul hordes will soon sack and destroy this famous city in about 1250.

The Western Roman Empire had vanished, and the Byzantine Empire was weakening and soon will be reduced to a vassal condition to the Ottoman expanding power in Turkey.

Papal Rome is being selected by the Germanic monarchs as well as the bishops, and in many occasions, two popes are elected and backed by various monarchs.

The political and military confrontations among the many Christian religious schisms on the nature of Jesus have taken their toll on Europe.

The crusaders are loosing their grips in the eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, and the Turks are counter attacking and recapturing lost territories.

The Catholic Prince of Castile and Aragon (Spain) had started the “reconquista” and the Andalousia was wracked by wars among the multiple small kingdoms of Islamic monarchs; these internal wars were called “wars of Tawaif“.

In 1070, the monarch of Seville conquered the tolerant republican Cordoba.

In 1112, Ibn Tumar, a literate Berber from Algeria who spent ten years in Iran, returned to proclaim that he is the awaited “hidden” Mahdi (since 874) of the Islam sect the Shias and formed the Almohades (Al Muwayidun) or united Islam.

The Spanish Catholic monarch Alphonse 7th put siege to Cordoba in 1148.

The Caliph of Cordoba Abd Mu2min calls on the Almohades for rescue and outset the Almoravids dynasty (Al murabitun) or the ones in vigilance.  The Almoravids originated from Mauritania and were a powerful tribe of traders in the western Sahara that captured Morocco.

In 1154, Ibn Rushd is presented to the heir of the Almohades monarch Abu Yaacub Yussuf by his friend Ibn Tufayl.

Abu Yaacub Yussuf asked Ibn Rushd to condense the works of Aristotle in a clear commentary so that most literate Moslems could read and understand.  Prince Abu Yaacub Yussuf had read the translated Aristotle’s works into Arabic but needed intelligent interpretations of difficult topics.

That is how Ibn Rushd ended up producing 88 volumes in 20,000 pages of Aristotle’s’ works from philosophy to zoology.

Ibn Rushd program was to decipher the Koran, discovering the means to comprehending the universe, and thus, extracting the truth.  For that end, he had to read the works of all philosophers, and first among them Aristotle. Complex concepts generated such remarks from Ibn Rushd:

If Aristotle didn’t study this topic, it would be very difficult to comprehend it.  Aristotle is such a norm in nature, a model that nature invented to seeking human perfection

Ibn Rushd is so versed in Aristotle rational thinking that he corrected many errors in translated versions.  To Ibn Rushd, rational thinking and revealed knowledge are independent and one method cannot explain the other:  the two ways lead to the same truth.

Al Farabi, a much earlier Islamic philosopher affirmed that reason should have the first and last word in matter of faith.

As Ibn Rushd commented: “Theologians distort sacred texts and interpose between the common people and men of knowledge to control the people. They are the kind of teachers who don’t teach art but the results of arts.  They don’t teach how to fabricate shoes but rather offer varieties of shoes to select from.”  They are our modern salesmen who ejaculate technical words but have no idea what they are talking about.

Dialectical and rhetorical reasoning cannot compensate for demonstrative reasoning.

Ibn Rushd wrote: “generally, common people confuse inferences with conclusions that are drawn from several premises.

For example:  common people say “this person is a thief because he was seen wandering at night” and do not evaluate all the other factors that determine a thieving behavior.  

Common people conclude that they will see God as we see the sun when they are told that God is light.  

Learned people comprehend that beatitude and grace increase knowledge.  

Truth is not intuitive and we have to accumulate knowledge; we cannot become astronomer without learning and assimilating geometry and mathematics.”

Ibn Rushd is not professing the existence of two truths:  The Koran is a guide toward acceding to truth, which is necessarily scientific.

What conforms to truth, which we receive from the Aristotelian scholars, we accept with joy and recognition. What does not conform to truth we will signal it so that to be on our guard and we excuse them for the untruth.

He stated that what counts in a method in satisfying the conditions of validity and that is sufficient in scientific methods, which he calls “sacrifice”:  Reason has the job of eliminating errors in order to re-establishing order in society.

Forbidding people from applying scientific methods on the ground that they lead to errors, abuse, and blasphemy is like forbidding someone from drinking lest he dies of thirst on the excuse that some people die from drowning.  

Scientific methods of reasoning is not meant to define God or the operations that lead to the creation of the universe:  It attests to its existence.  We cannot apply to God the categories and human concepts

Ibn Rushd believed in a collective soul “the abstract intellect” after death but not on individual basis; thus, after death individual memories and imagination power are lost for ever

Ibn Rushd dared reflect and answer all the corny questions that civilization was dealing with in order to finding order, coherence, and harmony between religious dogmas and rational thinking.

Reading, interpreting and commenting Aristotle’s works were back in fashion in Cordoba at the instigation of a new Sultan Abu Yaakub Yusuf, with Capital in Fez (Morocco).

Ibn Rushd wrote: “The future is dependent on the education of women and equality between genders.

Nations where the capabilities of women are ignored, where women are considered just good for procreation and maintaining the upkeep of the family are cancelling the other important activities of women.

As a female are not recognized human virtues they are reduced to vegetative status.  One of the main reasons that these nations are in poor economic situations is that women are terrible burden to development of the society.”

The successor of Sultan Yusuf came under heavy pressures from the salafist, very conservative Muslims to crack down on Ibn Rushd liberty of expression.

Ibn Rushd was banned from publishing books or communicating what he wrote for his own pleasure.  The pressures resulted to initiating public bonfires burning the scholars manuscripts.

Luckily, copies reached Cairo and southern France where they were read and translated in Hebrew, Latin, and local languages.

Moise ibn Maimuna (Maimonides), 12 years younger than Ibn Rushd and originally from Cordoba, was at the period settled in Cairo and was the official physician of the Caliph.  Maimonides relied on Ibn Rushd’s works to perpetuate the rational and scientific trend.  He wrote:

We may dispense of Plato’s works:  Aristotle’s works suffice since they are the foundations and roots of scientific rational methods.  Aristotle’s works cannot be comprehended without the commentaries of Ibn Rushd.”

In 1497, Papal Rome encouraged the institution of a university in Padoua (Italy) to teach Aristotle’s works and be translated directly from ancient Greek.  It was a strategy of ignoring the influence of Islamic culture that was spreading in Catholic Europe.

The Renaissance scholars dared not communicate the sources of their knowledge and learning. Since then, European scholars have continued this custom of deliberately ignoring seven centuries of Islamic civilizations when accounting for western Europe civilization.

Ibn Rushd medical textbook “Kulliyat” known as Collegiate was taught in Europe for many centuries.

Another famous scholar, Ibn Sina, known as Avicenne, wrote in the 10th century, 300 manuscripts, of which 50 are in scientific fields and 40 in medicine. His “Canon of medicine” was taught in Europe till the 18th century as a fundamental textbook.

Note:  I refused to approach the theological questions and Ibn Rushd’s responses because I am not interested in abstract concepts that lack demonstrative methods for confirming or denying veracity.

In Context: Lebanon civil war didn’t end yet

Note: Re-edit of  2012 article “Civil war didn’t End yet? This time around…Part 2”

You have this desolate second largest city in north Lebanon: Tripoli means the Three Cities where three separate quarters were governed by the kings of Byblos (Jubeil), Saida (Sidon) and Tyr (sour) in antiquity.

Tripoli is currently ignored by the government, and has been for many decades.

The inhabitants of Tripoli are practically living in the Mamluk period, when the Near-East was ruled from Egypt, 7 centuries ago, and they wear the white “Arabic” jelabiyya, as if they were part of the “Arab” Gulf Emirates, or an extension of Saudi kingdom, without the these headgears (3igal), just carrying long beards and stuff…

You may read details on Tripoli and how it fared during the 17-year civil war, https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2008/10/22/testimonials-of-a-civil-war-in-lebanon-continue-6/

The adjacent province is the Akkar on the borders with Syria.

Akkar is another part of Lebanon totally ignored by the successive governments of this pseudo-State. Most of the soldiers and lower files and ranks are from Akkar, an agricultural area and lacking all kinds of facilities.

The US, Saudi kingdom, and Qatar are pouring in war money and weapons into the northern districts by Syria borders in order to support the armed Syrian insurgents against the Assad regime.  The weapons are shipped to the port of Tripoli and sent from Libya…

And the UN German ships controlling the arrival of ships loaded with weapons, a task assigned by the UN resolution to tighten the embargo on Gaza, has failed in its mission…The latest demonstration of force showed the emergence of heavy weapons in the streets of Tripoli…

The Lebanese  army is doing its best to counter this volatile situation and to control the influx of armed Syrian infiltrators into Lebanon and the exit of armed people from Lebanon into Syria.

Mind you the government has been queasy of extending a forceful and a resolute order to the army to do its jobs.

While fighting was raging in Tripoli, a couple hundred of social platforms connected people gathered in silence on Martyr Square in Downtown Beirut

It looks as a rerun of the conditions of 1968, which resulted in the civil war of 1975.

After Israel occupied all of the West Bank, Gaza, and Jerusalem in the preemptive war of 1967, thousands of Palestinians experienced another wave of refugees into Lebanon.

In 1968, Lebanon allowed the military wing of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) to set bases in the Arcoub region (south-east of Lebanon) and as a self-autonomous area where the Lebanese army would Not venture to enter and control.

In 1970, late King Hussein of Jordan crushed the PLO and the armed Palestinians flocked to the Arcoub Safe Zone, and gradually controlled most of South Lebanon.

A year later, the Capital Beirut became the main headquarter for all Palestinian factions. Lebanon was politically reduced to a de-facto Palestinian dictate.

In 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon and entered Beirut and forced the military wings of the PLO to vacate Lebanon.

And you have the same elements who sided with the armed Palestinians supporting the armed Syrian insurgents…

And you have the same kind of confused and perturbed weak government proclaiming that its policy is Not to intervene in troubled Syria or to strictly control the influx of armed Syrian insurgents…

Interchange armed Palestinian movements with Syrian armed insurgents, and north Lebanon will become another “Arcoub” of Safe Zone for launching military attacks on Syria instead of Israel…and another civil war will befall Lebanon…

Implicitly, what the youth are saying:
1. We don’t care what the radical Islamists wants to impose on us: We want them to stay clear from our safe zone neighborhoods in part of Lebanon…
2. We don’t care of the government motto of “staying clear from the troubles in the neighboring States, such as Syria..: All that we want is potable water, electricity, and not meddling in our life-style…
3. We don’t care what regime in Syria will replace the Assad clan…
4. We are so totally apolitical…We are frankly too ignorant in world affairs…we are the vegetarian kind, the doing good for the environment and climate, the youth not meddling in our own internal political affairs, we are the worldwide connected zombies…
And that is the problem: they don’t give a fuck and leave the fuckers decide for them…as if the war will never reach them…
They prefer to wait for the calamity to struck, but they won’t wake up…They are apolitical…and so is war?

Before colonial powers took over Africa: Africa history

Note 1: Repost of 2014 of “Africa, Uncolonized: A Detailed Look at an Alternate Continent”

Note 2: Maps were drawn upside down during the Arabic Empire and they skew the current traditional eurocentric point of direction.
Africa was called before the European colonization Al-Kebulan or Alkebulan meaning ‘Garden of Life’, ‘Cradle of Life’, or simply ‘the Motherland’
Frank Jacobs, November 12, 2014
Uitsny_suid_afrika

What if the Black Plague had killed off almost all Europeans?

The Reconquista in Spain would have never happened.

If Spain and Portugal didn’t kickstart Europe’s colonization of other continents in the 16th century, this is what Africa might have looked like.

The map shows an Africa dominated by Islamic states, and native kingdoms and federations.

All have at least some basis in history, linguistics or ethnography.

None of their borders is concurrent with any of the straight lines imposed on the continent by European powers, during the 1884-85 Berlin Conference and in the subsequent Scramble for Africa.

By 1914, Europeans controlled 90% of Africa’s land mass.

Only the Abyssinian Empire (modern-day Ethiopia) and Liberia (founded in 1847 as a haven for freed African-American slaves) remained independent.

This map is the result of an entirely different course of history. The continent depicted here isn’t even called Africa [1] but Alkebu-Lan, supposedly Arabic for ‘Land of the Blacks’ [2].

That name is sometimes used by those who reject even the name ‘Africa’ as a European imposition.

It is therefore an ideal title for this thought experiment by Swedish artist Nikolaj Cyon.

Essentially, it formulates a cartographic answer to the question: What would Africa have looked like if Europe hadn’t become a colonizing power? 

To arrive at this map, Cyon constructed an alternative timeline. Its difference from our own starts in the mid-14th century.

The point of divergence: the deadliness of the Plague.

In our own timeline, over the course of the half dozen years from 1346 to 1353, the Black Death [3] wiped out between 30 and 60% of Europe’s population. It would take the continent more than a century to reach pre-Plague population levels. That was terrible enough.

But what if Europe had suffered an even more catastrophic extermination – one from which it could not recover?

Allohistorical Africa, seen from our North-up perspective. The continent’s superstates (at least size-wise): Al-Maghrib, Al-Misr, Songhai, Ethiopia, Kongo and Katanga.

European colonies in Africa in ‘our’ 1913.

Blue: France, pink: Britain, light green: Germany, dark green: Italy, light purple: Spain, dark purple: Portugal, yellow: Belgium, white: independent. Lines reflect current borders.

Cyon borrowed this counterfactual hypothesis from The Years of Rice and Salt, an alternate history novel by Kim Stanley Robinson. The book, first published in 2002, explores how the depopulation of Europe would have altered world history.

Robinson speculates that Europe would have been colonized by Muslims from the 14th century onwards, and that the 20th century would see a world war between a sprawling Muslim alliance on the one side, and the Chinese empire and the Indian and native American federations on the other.

Cyon focuses on Africa – or rather, Alkebu-Lan – which in his version of events doesn’t suffer the ignominy and injustice of the European slave trade and subsequent colonization.

In our timeline, Europe’s domination of Africa obscured the latter continent’s rich history and many cultural achievements.

On the map of Cyon’ s Africa, a many-splendored landscape of nations and empires, all native to the continent itself, gives the lie to the 19th- and 20th-century European presumption that Africa merely was a ‘dark continent’ to be enlightened, or a ‘blank page’ for someone else to write upon.

Basing himself on Unesco’s General History of Africa, Cyon built his map around historical empires, linguistic regions and natural boundaries.

His snapshot is taken in 1844 (or 1260 Anno Hegirae), also the date of a map of tribal and political units in Unesco’s multi-volume General History.

Al-Andalus, in this timeline still a dependency of Al-Maghrib; and the Emirate of Sicily to the left of the map.

Zooming in on the northern (bottom) part of the map, we see an ironic reversal of the present situation: in our timeline, Spain is still holding on to Ceuta, Melilla and other plazas de soberania in Northern Africa.

In Cyon’s world, most of the Iberian peninsula still called Al-Andalus, and is an overseas part of Al-Maghrib, a counterfactual Moroccan superstate covering a huge swathe of northwestern Africa.

Sicily, which we consider to be part of Europe, is colored in as African, and goes by the name of Siqilliyya Imārat (Emirate of Sicily).

The Arabic is no accident.

Absent the European imprint, Islam has left an even more visible mark on large swathes of North, West and East Africa than it has today.

Numerous states carry the nomenclature Sultānat, Khilāfat or Imārat. And what are the difference between a Caliphate, Sultanate and Emirate?

A Caliph claims supreme religious and political leadership as the successor (caliph) to Muhammad, ideally over all Muslims.

I spot two Caliphates on the map: Hafsid (centered on Tunis, but much larger than Tunisia), and Sokoto in West Africa (nowadays: northwest Nigeria).

Sokoto, Dahomey, Benin and other states in country-rich West Africa. 

A Sultan is an independent Islamic ruler who does not claim spiritual leadership.

Five states in the greater Somalia region are Sultanates, for example: Majerteen, Hiraab, Geledi, Adāl and Warsangele. Others include Az-Zarqa (in present-day Sudan), Misr (Egypt, but also virtually all of today’s Israel), and Tarābulus (capital: Tripoli, in our Libya).

An Emir is a prince or a governor of a province, implying some suzerainty to a higher power. There’s a cluster of them in West Africa: Trarza, Tagant, Brakna, all south of Al-Maghrib. But they are elsewhere too: Kano and Katsina, just north of Sokoto.

Islam of course did not originate in Africa, and some would claim that its dominance of large areas of Africa, at the expense of pre-existing belief systems, is as much an example of foreign cultural imperialism as the spread of Western religions and languages is in our day.

But that is material for another thought experiment. This one aims to filter out the European influence.

Neither European nor Arab influence is in evidence in the southern part of Africa – although some toponyms relate directly to states in our timeline: BaTswana is Botswana, Wene wa Kongo refers to the two countries bearing that name. Umoja wa Falme za Katanga is echoed in the name of the DR Congo’s giant inland province, Katanga.

Rundi, Banyarwanda and Buganda, squeezed in between the Great Lakes, are alternative versions of ‘our’ Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda.

Some familiar-sounding names around the Great Lakes.

There is an interesting parallel to the Africa/Alkebu-Lan dichotomy in the toponymic ebb and flow of Congo and Zaïre as names for the former Belgian colony at the center of the continent.

Congo, denoting both the stream and the two countries on either of its lower banks [4], derives from 16th- and 17th-century Bantu kingdoms such as Esikongo, Manikongo and Kakongo near the mouth of the river.

The name was taken up by European cartographers and the territory it covered eventually reached deep inland.

But because of its long association with colonialism, and also to fix his own imprint on the country, Congo’ s dictator Mobutu in 1971 changed the name of the country and the stream to Zaïre.

The name-change was part of a campaign for local authenticity which also entailed the Africanisation of the names of persons and cities [5], and the introduction of the abacos [6] – a local alternative to European formal and business wear.

Curiously for a campaign trying to rid the country of European influences, the name Zaïre actually was a Portuguese corruption of Nzadi o Nzere, a local term meaning ‘River that Swallows Rivers’.

Zaïre was the Portuguese name for the Congo stream in the 16th and 17th centuries, but gradually lost ground to Congo before being picked up again by Mobutu.

After the ouster and death of Mobutu, the country reverted to its former name, but chose the predicate Democratic Republic to distinguish itself from the Republic of Congo across the eponymous river.

Kongo – a coastal superstate in the alternative timeline.

This particular tug of war is emblematic for the symbolism attached to place names, especially in Africa, where many either refer to a pre-colonial past (e.g. Ghana and Benin, named after ancient kingdoms), represent the vestiges of the colonial era (e.g. Lüderitz, in Namibia), or attempt to build a postcolonial consensus (e.g. Tanzania, a portmanteau name for Tanganyika and Zanzibar).

By taking the colonial trauma out of the equation, this map offers a uniquely a-colonial perspective on the continent, whether it is called Africa or Alkebu-Lan.

Map of Alkebu-Lan and excerpts thereof reproduced by kind permission of Nikolaj Cyon.

See it in full resolution on this page of his website. Map of Africa in 1913 by Eric Gaba (Wikimedia Commons User: Sting), found here on Wikimedia Commons.

_______________

Strange Maps #688

[1] A name popularized by the Romans. It is of uncertain origin, possibly meaning ‘sunny’, ‘dusty’ or ‘cave-y’.

[2] The origin and meaning of the toponym are disputed. The Arabic for ‘Land of the Blacks’ would be Bilad as-Sudan, which is how the present-day country of Sudan got its name.

Other translations offered for Alkebu-Lan (also rendered as Al-Kebulan or Alkebulan) are ‘Garden of Life’, ‘Cradle of Life’, or simply ‘the Motherland’. Although supposedly of ancient origin, the term was popularized by the academic Yosef A.A. Ben-Jochannan (b. 1918).

The term is not a 20th-century invention, however. Its first traceable use is in La Iberiada (1813), an epic poem from 1813 by Ramón Valvidares y Longo. In the index, where the origin of ‘Africa’ is explained, it reads: “Han dado las naciones á este pais diversos nombres, llamándole Ephrikia los Turcos, Alkebulan los Arabes, Besecath los Indios, y los pueblos del territorio Iphrikia ó Aphrikia: los Griegos, en fin, le apellidaron Libia, y despues Africa, cuyo nombre han adoptado los Españoles, Italianos, Latinos, Ingleses y algunos otros pueblos de la Europa”.

[3] A.k.a. the Plague, a very contagious and highly deadly disease caused by Yersinia pestis. That bacterium infested the fleas that lived on the rats coming over from Crimea to Europe on Genoese merchant ships.

[4] In fact, Brazzaville and Kinshasa, capitals of the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo respectively, are positioned across from each other on the banks of the Congo River – the only example in the world of two national capitals adjacent to each other.

[5] The ‘founder-president’ himself changed his name from Joseph-Désiré Mobutu to Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa za Banga. The capital Léopoldville was renamed Kinshasa, after an ancient village on the same site.

[6] Despite the African-sounding name, abacos is an acronym of à bas costumes, or: ‘Down with (Western) suits’.

We are just travelers…” A poem by Nizar Qabbani in 1985

قصيدة “مسافرون”
التي ألقاها الشاعر” نزار قباني “في مهرجان المربد الخامس في بغداد عام 1985 وبحضرة صدام حسين -وما كان مسروراً-

وقد أحدثت ضجة كبيرة داخل الأوساط الأدبية لجرأتها في حينه وتم التعتيم والتشويش عليها ومنعت من الصدور على الصحف وقنوات الاعلام

مسافرون

مسافرون نحن فى سفينة الأحزان
قائدنا مرتزق
وشيخنا قرصان

مواطنون دونما وطن
مطاردون كالعصافير على خرائط الزمن
مسافرون دون أوراق..

وموتى دونما كفن
نحن بغايا العصر
كل حاكم يبيعنا ويقبض الثمن

نحن جوارى القصر
يرسلوننا من حجرة لحجرة
من قبضة لقبضة
من مالك لمالك
ومن وثن إلى وثن

نركض كالكلاب كل ليلة
من عدن لطنجة
ومن طنجة الى عدن
نبحث عن قبيلة تقبلنا

نبحث عن ستارة تسترنا
وعن سكن
وحولنا أولادنا احدودبت ظهورهم وشاخوا
وهم يفتشون في المعاجم القديمة
عن جنة نظيرة
عن كذبة كبيرة…
كبيرة تدعى الوطن

أسماؤنا لا تشبه الأسماء
فلا الذين يشربون النفط يعرفوننا
ولا الذين يشربون الدمع والشقاء

معتقلون داخل النص الذى يكتبه حكامنا
معتقلون داخل الدين كما فسره إمامنا
معتقلون داخل الحزن.

وأحلى ما بنا أحزاننا
مراقبون نحن فى المقهى..
وفى البيت
وفى أرحام أمهاتنا

لساننا..مقطوع
ورأسنا..مقطوع
وخبزنا مبلل بالخوف والدموع

إذا تظلمنا إلى حامى الحمى قيل لنا: ممنـــوع
وإذا تضرعنا إلى رب السما قيل لنا: ممنوع
وإن هتفنا..يا رسول الله كن فى عوننا
يعطوننا تأشيرة من غير ما رجوع

وإن طلبنا قلماً لنكتب القصيدة الأخيرة
أو نكتب الوصية الأخيرة قبيل أن نموت شنقاً
غيروا الموضوع

يا وطنى المصلوب فوق حائط الكراهية
يا كرة النار التى تسير نحو الهاوية

لا أحد من مضر..أو من بنى ثقيف
أعطى لهذا الوطن الغارق بالنزيف
زجاجة من دمه و بوله الشريف

لا أحد على امتداد هذه العباءة المرقعة
أهداك يوماً معطفاً أو قبعة

يا وطنى المكسور مثل عشبة الخريف
مقتلعون نحن كالأشجار من مكاننا
مهجرون من أمانينا وذكرياتنا

عيوننا تخاف من أصواتنا
حكامنا آلهة يجرى الدم الأزرق فى عروقهم
ونحن نسل الجارية

لا سادة الحجاز يعرفوننا..
ولا رعاع البادية
ولا أبو الطيب يستضيفنا..ولا أبو العتاهية
إذا مضى طاغية
سلمنا لطاغية

مهاجرون نحن من مرافئ التعب
لا أحد يريدنا
من بحر بيروت إلى بحر العرب

لا الفاطميون..ولا القرامطة
ولا المماليك…ولا البرامكة
ولا الشياطين..ولا الملائكة
لا أحد يريدنا

لا أحد يقرؤنا
فى مدن الملح التى تذبح فى العام ملايين الكتب
لا أحد يقرؤنا
فى مدن صارت بها مباحث الدولة عرّاب الأدب

مسافرون نحن فى سفينة الأحزان
قائدنا مرتزق
وشيخنا قرصان

مكومون داخل الأقفاص كالجرذان
لا مرفأ يقبلنا
لا حانة تقبلنا

كل الجوازات التى نحملها
أصدرها الشيطان
كل الكتابات التى نكتبها
لا تعجب السلطان

مسافرون خارج الزمان والمكان
مسافرون ضيعوا نقودهم..
وضيعوا متاعهم

ضيعوا أبناءهم.. وضيعوا أسماءهم.. وضيعوا إنتماءهم..
وضيعوا الإحساس بالأمان

فلا بنو عدنان يعرفوننا.. ولا بنو قحطان
ولا بنو ربيعة.. ولا بنو شيبان
ولا بنو ‘لينين’ يعرفوننا..
ولا بنو ‘ريغان’

يا وطنى.. كل العصافير لها منازل
إلا العصافير التى تحترف الحرية
فهى تموت خارج الأوطان

نزار قباني –


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

September 2020
M T W T F S S
 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
282930  

Blog Stats

  • 1,418,766 hits

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.adonisbouh@gmail.com

Join 771 other followers

%d bloggers like this: