Adonis Diaries

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Before colonial powers took over Africa: Africa history

Note 1: Repost of 2014 of “Africa, Uncolonized: A Detailed Look at an Alternate Continent”

Note 2: Maps were drawn upside down during the Arabic Empire and they skew the current traditional eurocentric point of direction.
Africa was called before the European colonization Al-Kebulan or Alkebulan meaning ‘Garden of Life’, ‘Cradle of Life’, or simply ‘the Motherland’
Frank Jacobs, November 12, 2014
Uitsny_suid_afrika

What if the Black Plague had killed off almost all Europeans?

The Reconquista in Spain would have never happened.

If Spain and Portugal didn’t kickstart Europe’s colonization of other continents in the 16th century, this is what Africa might have looked like.

The map shows an Africa dominated by Islamic states, and native kingdoms and federations.

All have at least some basis in history, linguistics or ethnography.

None of their borders is concurrent with any of the straight lines imposed on the continent by European powers, during the 1884-85 Berlin Conference and in the subsequent Scramble for Africa.

By 1914, Europeans controlled 90% of Africa’s land mass.

Only the Abyssinian Empire (modern-day Ethiopia) and Liberia (founded in 1847 as a haven for freed African-American slaves) remained independent.

This map is the result of an entirely different course of history. The continent depicted here isn’t even called Africa [1] but Alkebu-Lan, supposedly Arabic for ‘Land of the Blacks’ [2].

That name is sometimes used by those who reject even the name ‘Africa’ as a European imposition.

It is therefore an ideal title for this thought experiment by Swedish artist Nikolaj Cyon.

Essentially, it formulates a cartographic answer to the question: What would Africa have looked like if Europe hadn’t become a colonizing power? 

To arrive at this map, Cyon constructed an alternative timeline. Its difference from our own starts in the mid-14th century.

The point of divergence: the deadliness of the Plague.

In our own timeline, over the course of the half dozen years from 1346 to 1353, the Black Death [3] wiped out between 30 and 60% of Europe’s population. It would take the continent more than a century to reach pre-Plague population levels. That was terrible enough.

But what if Europe had suffered an even more catastrophic extermination – one from which it could not recover?

Allohistorical Africa, seen from our North-up perspective. The continent’s superstates (at least size-wise): Al-Maghrib, Al-Misr, Songhai, Ethiopia, Kongo and Katanga.

European colonies in Africa in ‘our’ 1913.

Blue: France, pink: Britain, light green: Germany, dark green: Italy, light purple: Spain, dark purple: Portugal, yellow: Belgium, white: independent. Lines reflect current borders.

Cyon borrowed this counterfactual hypothesis from The Years of Rice and Salt, an alternate history novel by Kim Stanley Robinson. The book, first published in 2002, explores how the depopulation of Europe would have altered world history.

Robinson speculates that Europe would have been colonized by Muslims from the 14th century onwards, and that the 20th century would see a world war between a sprawling Muslim alliance on the one side, and the Chinese empire and the Indian and native American federations on the other.

Cyon focuses on Africa – or rather, Alkebu-Lan – which in his version of events doesn’t suffer the ignominy and injustice of the European slave trade and subsequent colonization.

In our timeline, Europe’s domination of Africa obscured the latter continent’s rich history and many cultural achievements.

On the map of Cyon’ s Africa, a many-splendored landscape of nations and empires, all native to the continent itself, gives the lie to the 19th- and 20th-century European presumption that Africa merely was a ‘dark continent’ to be enlightened, or a ‘blank page’ for someone else to write upon.

Basing himself on Unesco’s General History of Africa, Cyon built his map around historical empires, linguistic regions and natural boundaries.

His snapshot is taken in 1844 (or 1260 Anno Hegirae), also the date of a map of tribal and political units in Unesco’s multi-volume General History.

Al-Andalus, in this timeline still a dependency of Al-Maghrib; and the Emirate of Sicily to the left of the map.

Zooming in on the northern (bottom) part of the map, we see an ironic reversal of the present situation: in our timeline, Spain is still holding on to Ceuta, Melilla and other plazas de soberania in Northern Africa.

In Cyon’s world, most of the Iberian peninsula still called Al-Andalus, and is an overseas part of Al-Maghrib, a counterfactual Moroccan superstate covering a huge swathe of northwestern Africa.

Sicily, which we consider to be part of Europe, is colored in as African, and goes by the name of Siqilliyya Imārat (Emirate of Sicily).

The Arabic is no accident.

Absent the European imprint, Islam has left an even more visible mark on large swathes of North, West and East Africa than it has today.

Numerous states carry the nomenclature Sultānat, Khilāfat or Imārat. And what are the difference between a Caliphate, Sultanate and Emirate?

A Caliph claims supreme religious and political leadership as the successor (caliph) to Muhammad, ideally over all Muslims.

I spot two Caliphates on the map: Hafsid (centered on Tunis, but much larger than Tunisia), and Sokoto in West Africa (nowadays: northwest Nigeria).

Sokoto, Dahomey, Benin and other states in country-rich West Africa. 

A Sultan is an independent Islamic ruler who does not claim spiritual leadership.

Five states in the greater Somalia region are Sultanates, for example: Majerteen, Hiraab, Geledi, Adāl and Warsangele. Others include Az-Zarqa (in present-day Sudan), Misr (Egypt, but also virtually all of today’s Israel), and Tarābulus (capital: Tripoli, in our Libya).

An Emir is a prince or a governor of a province, implying some suzerainty to a higher power. There’s a cluster of them in West Africa: Trarza, Tagant, Brakna, all south of Al-Maghrib. But they are elsewhere too: Kano and Katsina, just north of Sokoto.

Islam of course did not originate in Africa, and some would claim that its dominance of large areas of Africa, at the expense of pre-existing belief systems, is as much an example of foreign cultural imperialism as the spread of Western religions and languages is in our day.

But that is material for another thought experiment. This one aims to filter out the European influence.

Neither European nor Arab influence is in evidence in the southern part of Africa – although some toponyms relate directly to states in our timeline: BaTswana is Botswana, Wene wa Kongo refers to the two countries bearing that name. Umoja wa Falme za Katanga is echoed in the name of the DR Congo’s giant inland province, Katanga.

Rundi, Banyarwanda and Buganda, squeezed in between the Great Lakes, are alternative versions of ‘our’ Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda.

Some familiar-sounding names around the Great Lakes.

There is an interesting parallel to the Africa/Alkebu-Lan dichotomy in the toponymic ebb and flow of Congo and Zaïre as names for the former Belgian colony at the center of the continent.

Congo, denoting both the stream and the two countries on either of its lower banks [4], derives from 16th- and 17th-century Bantu kingdoms such as Esikongo, Manikongo and Kakongo near the mouth of the river.

The name was taken up by European cartographers and the territory it covered eventually reached deep inland.

But because of its long association with colonialism, and also to fix his own imprint on the country, Congo’ s dictator Mobutu in 1971 changed the name of the country and the stream to Zaïre.

The name-change was part of a campaign for local authenticity which also entailed the Africanisation of the names of persons and cities [5], and the introduction of the abacos [6] – a local alternative to European formal and business wear.

Curiously for a campaign trying to rid the country of European influences, the name Zaïre actually was a Portuguese corruption of Nzadi o Nzere, a local term meaning ‘River that Swallows Rivers’.

Zaïre was the Portuguese name for the Congo stream in the 16th and 17th centuries, but gradually lost ground to Congo before being picked up again by Mobutu.

After the ouster and death of Mobutu, the country reverted to its former name, but chose the predicate Democratic Republic to distinguish itself from the Republic of Congo across the eponymous river.

Kongo – a coastal superstate in the alternative timeline.

This particular tug of war is emblematic for the symbolism attached to place names, especially in Africa, where many either refer to a pre-colonial past (e.g. Ghana and Benin, named after ancient kingdoms), represent the vestiges of the colonial era (e.g. Lüderitz, in Namibia), or attempt to build a postcolonial consensus (e.g. Tanzania, a portmanteau name for Tanganyika and Zanzibar).

By taking the colonial trauma out of the equation, this map offers a uniquely a-colonial perspective on the continent, whether it is called Africa or Alkebu-Lan.

Map of Alkebu-Lan and excerpts thereof reproduced by kind permission of Nikolaj Cyon.

See it in full resolution on this page of his website. Map of Africa in 1913 by Eric Gaba (Wikimedia Commons User: Sting), found here on Wikimedia Commons.

_______________

Strange Maps #688

[1] A name popularized by the Romans. It is of uncertain origin, possibly meaning ‘sunny’, ‘dusty’ or ‘cave-y’.

[2] The origin and meaning of the toponym are disputed. The Arabic for ‘Land of the Blacks’ would be Bilad as-Sudan, which is how the present-day country of Sudan got its name.

Other translations offered for Alkebu-Lan (also rendered as Al-Kebulan or Alkebulan) are ‘Garden of Life’, ‘Cradle of Life’, or simply ‘the Motherland’. Although supposedly of ancient origin, the term was popularized by the academic Yosef A.A. Ben-Jochannan (b. 1918).

The term is not a 20th-century invention, however. Its first traceable use is in La Iberiada (1813), an epic poem from 1813 by Ramón Valvidares y Longo. In the index, where the origin of ‘Africa’ is explained, it reads: “Han dado las naciones á este pais diversos nombres, llamándole Ephrikia los Turcos, Alkebulan los Arabes, Besecath los Indios, y los pueblos del territorio Iphrikia ó Aphrikia: los Griegos, en fin, le apellidaron Libia, y despues Africa, cuyo nombre han adoptado los Españoles, Italianos, Latinos, Ingleses y algunos otros pueblos de la Europa”.

[3] A.k.a. the Plague, a very contagious and highly deadly disease caused by Yersinia pestis. That bacterium infested the fleas that lived on the rats coming over from Crimea to Europe on Genoese merchant ships.

[4] In fact, Brazzaville and Kinshasa, capitals of the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo respectively, are positioned across from each other on the banks of the Congo River – the only example in the world of two national capitals adjacent to each other.

[5] The ‘founder-president’ himself changed his name from Joseph-Désiré Mobutu to Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa za Banga. The capital Léopoldville was renamed Kinshasa, after an ancient village on the same site.

[6] Despite the African-sounding name, abacos is an acronym of à bas costumes, or: ‘Down with (Western) suits’.

We are just travelers…” A poem by Nizar Qabbani in 1985

قصيدة “مسافرون”
التي ألقاها الشاعر” نزار قباني “في مهرجان المربد الخامس في بغداد عام 1985 وبحضرة صدام حسين -وما كان مسروراً-

وقد أحدثت ضجة كبيرة داخل الأوساط الأدبية لجرأتها في حينه وتم التعتيم والتشويش عليها ومنعت من الصدور على الصحف وقنوات الاعلام

مسافرون

مسافرون نحن فى سفينة الأحزان
قائدنا مرتزق
وشيخنا قرصان

مواطنون دونما وطن
مطاردون كالعصافير على خرائط الزمن
مسافرون دون أوراق..

وموتى دونما كفن
نحن بغايا العصر
كل حاكم يبيعنا ويقبض الثمن

نحن جوارى القصر
يرسلوننا من حجرة لحجرة
من قبضة لقبضة
من مالك لمالك
ومن وثن إلى وثن

نركض كالكلاب كل ليلة
من عدن لطنجة
ومن طنجة الى عدن
نبحث عن قبيلة تقبلنا

نبحث عن ستارة تسترنا
وعن سكن
وحولنا أولادنا احدودبت ظهورهم وشاخوا
وهم يفتشون في المعاجم القديمة
عن جنة نظيرة
عن كذبة كبيرة…
كبيرة تدعى الوطن

أسماؤنا لا تشبه الأسماء
فلا الذين يشربون النفط يعرفوننا
ولا الذين يشربون الدمع والشقاء

معتقلون داخل النص الذى يكتبه حكامنا
معتقلون داخل الدين كما فسره إمامنا
معتقلون داخل الحزن.

وأحلى ما بنا أحزاننا
مراقبون نحن فى المقهى..
وفى البيت
وفى أرحام أمهاتنا

لساننا..مقطوع
ورأسنا..مقطوع
وخبزنا مبلل بالخوف والدموع

إذا تظلمنا إلى حامى الحمى قيل لنا: ممنـــوع
وإذا تضرعنا إلى رب السما قيل لنا: ممنوع
وإن هتفنا..يا رسول الله كن فى عوننا
يعطوننا تأشيرة من غير ما رجوع

وإن طلبنا قلماً لنكتب القصيدة الأخيرة
أو نكتب الوصية الأخيرة قبيل أن نموت شنقاً
غيروا الموضوع

يا وطنى المصلوب فوق حائط الكراهية
يا كرة النار التى تسير نحو الهاوية

لا أحد من مضر..أو من بنى ثقيف
أعطى لهذا الوطن الغارق بالنزيف
زجاجة من دمه و بوله الشريف

لا أحد على امتداد هذه العباءة المرقعة
أهداك يوماً معطفاً أو قبعة

يا وطنى المكسور مثل عشبة الخريف
مقتلعون نحن كالأشجار من مكاننا
مهجرون من أمانينا وذكرياتنا

عيوننا تخاف من أصواتنا
حكامنا آلهة يجرى الدم الأزرق فى عروقهم
ونحن نسل الجارية

لا سادة الحجاز يعرفوننا..
ولا رعاع البادية
ولا أبو الطيب يستضيفنا..ولا أبو العتاهية
إذا مضى طاغية
سلمنا لطاغية

مهاجرون نحن من مرافئ التعب
لا أحد يريدنا
من بحر بيروت إلى بحر العرب

لا الفاطميون..ولا القرامطة
ولا المماليك…ولا البرامكة
ولا الشياطين..ولا الملائكة
لا أحد يريدنا

لا أحد يقرؤنا
فى مدن الملح التى تذبح فى العام ملايين الكتب
لا أحد يقرؤنا
فى مدن صارت بها مباحث الدولة عرّاب الأدب

مسافرون نحن فى سفينة الأحزان
قائدنا مرتزق
وشيخنا قرصان

مكومون داخل الأقفاص كالجرذان
لا مرفأ يقبلنا
لا حانة تقبلنا

كل الجوازات التى نحملها
أصدرها الشيطان
كل الكتابات التى نكتبها
لا تعجب السلطان

مسافرون خارج الزمان والمكان
مسافرون ضيعوا نقودهم..
وضيعوا متاعهم

ضيعوا أبناءهم.. وضيعوا أسماءهم.. وضيعوا إنتماءهم..
وضيعوا الإحساس بالأمان

فلا بنو عدنان يعرفوننا.. ولا بنو قحطان
ولا بنو ربيعة.. ولا بنو شيبان
ولا بنو ‘لينين’ يعرفوننا..
ولا بنو ‘ريغان’

يا وطنى.. كل العصافير لها منازل
إلا العصافير التى تحترف الحرية
فهى تموت خارج الأوطان

نزار قباني –

Religious sects, everywhere and in all times, were against any kind of sciences and mental reflection

Western people must already know how Christianity, in all its sects, persecuted scientists and researchers. This article cover the Islamic sects, and during the glory of Islamic Renaissance to boot it, which preceded western renaissance 5 centuries and in all fields .

بلال جابر shared this article on FB. January 7 at 4:05 PM

ضحايا رجال الدين

هل تعلمون أنّ رجال الدّين أحرقوا كلّ كتب ابن رشد؟
هل تعلمون أنّ ابن سينا كان ملقّبا بإمام الملحدين أو شيخ الملحدين؟
هل تعلمون أنّ الرّازي أعلن كفره بكلّ مذاهب شيوخ الدّين وكان يسخر منهم في كلّ مجالسه؟

هل تعلمون أنّ التّوحيدي أحرق كتبه بنفسه بسبب القهر واليأس من رجال الدّين في عصره؟ وأنّ المعرّي فرض السّجن على نفسه لنفس الأسباب؟
… هل تعلمون أنّ ابن المقفّع مات مقتولا وهو لم يتجاوز الثّلاثينات من عمره؟
هل تعلمون أنّ إخوان الصّفاء كانوا لا يذكرون أسماءهم بسبب الخوف من إهدار رجال الدّين لدمائهم؟

هل تعلمون أنّ أمّ الجاحظ كانت تشتكي من ابنها بسبب إفراطه في طلب العلم والقراءة… إلى أن مات المسكين بسبب سقوط خزانة كتبه عليه!!
هل تعلمون أنّ خيرة رجال الدّين، وفي مقدّمتهم الإمام الشّافعيّ، كانوا يعتبرون أنّ بعض علوم الطّبيعة والكيمياء والفلسفة من المحرّمات، مثلها مثل التّنجيم والضّرب بالرّمل والسّحر!!!

هل تعلمون أنّ الإمام الغزالي والذّهبي وابن القيّم وابن الجوزي وابن تيمية، وغيرهم من “كبار”رجال الدّين، أفتوا بتكفير وهدر دم كلّ من يمتهن أنواع العلوم العقليّة الّتي قد تتسبّب في كفر المسلمين وابتعادهم عن دينهم الحنيف؟

هل تعرفون أن الغزالي الذي كفّر الفلاسفة تمّ تكفيره هو الاخر في عهود متأخرة؟
هل تعرفون الطّبري؟
طبعا تعرفونه،

ومن لا يعرف الطّبري؟! صاحب أشهر كتاب تفسير للقرآن، وصاحب أشهر كتاب تاريخ كتبه المسلمون.
هل تعلمون كيف مات الطّبري؟
الطّبري مات كمدا وقهرا بعد أن رجمه الحنابلة واتّهموه بالكفر والإلحاد بسبب اختلافه مع مذهب الإمام ابن حنبل. الحنابلة رجموا منزله بالحجارة إلى درجة أنّ باب منزله لم يعد يُفتح بسبب أكوام الحجارة المتراكمة عليه.

هل تعلمون من قتل المتصوف الكبير الحلاج؟
هل تعلمون من اغتال المفكر المصري فرج فودة؟
هل تعلمون لماذا فر المفكر نصر حامد ابو زيد من مصر؟

هل تعلمون أنَّ الطبري قتل , والحلاج, صلب و المعري الضرير حُبِس , وسفك دم أبن حيان, ونفي ابن المنمر, وحرق كتب الغزالي وابن رشد والأصفهاني, و الفارابي والرازي وابن سيناء والكندي والغزالي اضطهدوا و كفّروا و هدر دمهم , وربما لا تعلمون ان السهروردي مات مقتولا, و قطعوا أوصال ابن المقفع, ثم شويت أمامه ليأكل منها قبل أن يلفظ أنفاسه بأبشع أنواع التعذيب,

وان الجعد بن درهم مات مذبوحا, وعلقوا رأس (أحمد بن نصر) وداروا به في الأزقة, وخنقوا (لسان الدين بن الخطيب) وحرقوا جثته, وكفروا (ابن الفارض) وطاردوه في كل مكان…

منقول بتصرف

What are these ridiculous claims that we are an “Arabic” nation or an Islamic nation?

There are sections in Lebanon (mostly Christian Maronite) advancing the French mandatory alternative of a “Phoenician” ancestors.  Currently, there are Lebanese testing their blood for DNA evidences of any physical “Phoenician inheritance“. It appears, mostly the Lebanese living in south Lebanon have traces of Phoenician ancestry.

A few are wary that they won’t be found to have any Phoenician stain, strain and be caste off as “strangers”.  What a load of crap.

The Phoenicians ruled the Mediterranean Sea in 1,200 BC and the string of their City-States (Byblos, Beirut, Saida, Tyre, Arwaad…) extended from southern Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, up to Haifa in Palestine.

The Phoenicians were famous for maritime trade and commerce and established many trading centers around the Sea, North Africa, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Sicily, Greece and most islands.

The written language has been around for 3,000 years, but the Phoenicians in the City-State of Byblos are credited for inventing the alphabet (currently in use with slight modifications.)

Before the Phoenicians and afterward, the Near East region of the Mediterranean (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine) has been invaded by a dozen warrior empires, and many invaded us repeatedly.

For example, the empires in Iraq (Akkad, Babylon, Assyria), Egypt, Persia under various dynasties (at least four of them), Greece, Roman, Byzantium, Arabic, Ottoman, and finally the colonial powers of France and Britain.

All these warrior empires didn’t build anything worth showing as representative of civilization, until they invaded our region and rounded off and hoarded the educated and master craftsmen to their capitals.

We are a region of multiple identities if we have to rely on occupation empires.

How about we identify with education and craftsmanship?  I love this identity.

Let us focus on affordable efficient schooling system; let us encourage technical and craftsmanship schooling system; let us focus on building commercial ships; let us invest in railways and fast communication facilities; let us open up to knowledge facilities all over the world.

I love this identity; let us get to work and planning.

Another sections of Lebanese, mostly Muslim-Sunnis, would like to have an Arabic identity and pushing it too far to claiming that we are from the Arabic Peninsula. Are we Arabs?  What that means?

The Islamic “Arabic” army, led by Arabic nomadic Peninsula “generals”, which came to fight the Byzantium Empire and later the Persian Empire barely numbered 7,000 men of war.  The other three-forth of the army that backed and supplemented the “Arabic army” was constituted from people and tribes living in Syria, Iraq, and Jordan wanting to defeat the Byzantium unforgiving Orthodox Church and domination.

How can we be descendant of the sparsely populated Arabic Peninsula?

The “Arabic identity” group would claim that our culture and civilization is Islamic Arabic. How that?

The cultural development during the Arabic Empire was shouldered by the scholars in Syria, Iraq, and Iran and they were mostly Christians. They would like to rely on the Arabic language as basis for our identity.  Excellent idea.

Let us prove that the Arabic language is a viable foundation; let us infuse a new spirit in that dying language; let us translate the worthy manuscripts; let us invent new terms that have no religious connotation and spread the Arabic language as a universal language, valid to sustaining modern civilization with fresh brains and advanced sciences and technologies.  I will be for it and will support it vehemently.

There are other factions wanting to claim that we are Muslims.  How about the dozen minority religious sects?  Are we to agree on a theocratic identity?

Turkish Ataturk cancelled the caliphate in 1925 and there is no caliphate anymore, anywhere.  Tiny Lebanon has 19 recognized self-autonomous religious communities running our civil life.  Let us get real.

A theocratic State will never pass and will never find unity for identity.

Should we hide behind a reality of disparate communities to establish the concept of plurality community government?  Should 19 wrong identities constitute a valid identity?

What we need is to be unified under the banners of civil rights, human rights, sustainable environment, equitable and fair election laws and regulations, civil marriage, linked to fast communication technologies, access to social platforms, freedom of expression, laws not discriminating among genders, versatile opportunities to jobs and expertise, affordable education system, national health system…

What we need is to unify against any State invading our borders, bombing our infrastructure, humiliating us, destabilizing our society and economy.  

What we need is to unify against any political current that has proven to working against democratic representations, racial demagoguery, sectarian political ideology.

Almost all religions are practically copy/paste of previous ones, with small editing

Note 1: Let’s start from the end, shall we? Almost all religions are practically copy/paste of previous ones, with small editing to correspond to the myths, stories, customs and tradition of the society it was disseminated within, before going universal, once power was secured.

Notes 2: this article is a re-editing of a previous post written on May 15, 2008.: Foundations and history of the monolithic religions

Discovering the mysteries of life and the Universe might not be attainable: for the simple reason that any paradigm would not stick long enough to capture the mind of a few generations.

This article is intended for those who accept the validity of the hypothesis that

  1. Earth is billions years old and that a form of mankind emerged, at least more than a couple millions years ago;
  2. That human kind was on the verge of extinction several times, due to drastic climatic changes and the eruption of monster volcanoes.

Thus, prior civilizations, which may have been as developed as today, could have vanished with no traces left.

We need to accept the fact that if the number of the world population was far less than it should have been at the beginning of the 19th century, from simple mathematical computation in the last 2,000 years, it is because most of our ancestors were the product of incest and Not from couples of different families or tribes, even after accounting for the casualties of wars, pestilence, famine and climate calamities.

I also would like to state that mythologies were based on real events and the transmitted verbal stories accounted for their longevity:  the verbal communication of these stories extended the imagination and gave the various mythologies the religious power and the dimension that are interpreted nowadays.

When dealing with religions, people feel the need to contrast faith versus facts and logic.

People who have sincere faith must have experienced supernatural revelations or gone through a moment of irrational state of out-of-body exposure.

I believe that faith cannot be acquired by reason or logic and those who repeat frequently the word “truth” in their conversations are not sincere in their belief system because truth is plainly, simply and absolutely a subjective attitude: It means “do not bother using facts, science or logic. All those reasoning principles do not mean a thing and would not change my mind”.

Truth is for me the most dangerous term that man has invented:  Truth blocks any consensus or negotiation or meaningful conversation and it connotes an extremist disposition based on ignorance and lack of intellectual interactions.

Thus, the concept of truth is practically opposite to faith, although people positively correlate it with faith.

Logic is a construct, a system of the mind used to expose a coherent hypothesis, hopefully based on some facts, or a story that hold a convincing alternative.  Logic can be used in science, in rhetoric and as well in religion.

Institutionalized religions heavily make use of logic, though they hammer out the concept of faith because its concept is not founded on anything tangible or can be proved rationally.

Religion is basically a theological philosophy that has been manipulated to be grounded in myths, symbols, and secrecy to satisfy the initiated High Priests and generates its power through scare tactics within the psychic of man.

Let me offer a logical story, one of the alternative stories, of the monotheist religions of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions.

The root of these three religions is the religion practiced in the Kingdom of Sumer, in southern Iraq, 6,000 years ago.  This ancient religion believed in a trinity and its mythology stated that out of space creatures, arriving from the tenth dying planet, landed on earth to exploit gold and oil because the environment of their planet required abundant quantities of gold to be pulverized and injected in their outer atmosphere to rejuvenate the deteriorating environment of their planet. (Sound that saving the degradation of earth environment might require another drastic mythological story)

These creatures created human artificially (test tube for example) to serve as cheap and mechanical slaves in the mines.

After many centuries, the created human revolted against their masters and fled from the Eden of the super cruel creatures and had to fend for themselves to survive and develop their intelligence.

The Kingdom of Sumer and its far developed civilization that discovered the existence of ten planets (there is nine in our solar system so far, and lately this year the tenth planet was discovered) and their rotations; the Sumerians divided the day into 24 hours, the hours into minutes and minutes into seconds.

Ancient mythologies mention that this kingdom was destroyed by a natural calamity (resembling to an atomic explosion used by the outer space creatures).

The Sumerian mythology had ramifications into all the neighboring civilizations that came after it, when it was weakened.

Jewish “scholars” in 200 BC in Alexandria (Egypt) assembled faked stories and borrowed many myths in orde rto attach a faked history to their tribes. For examples:

It is narrated that Abraham left the Kingdom of Sumer with his tribe during a period of famine and carried with him the verbal mythology of the country.

Moses was a High Priest in Egypt and fled persecution because he adhered to the Akhenaton new religion of the one God the Sun and carried with him the ten laws and the secrets of the Egyptian religion.

Jesus was initiated by the Essen sect (indirectly related to Jewish religion), located in upper Galilee by Mount Carmel and had their Great Temple on the Mount.

The members of the Essen sect believed in knowledge and spirituality and shared the resources in common.

It is also narrated that Jesus lived for a time in Sidon (Saida) in this Lebanese southern City-State, teaching in its famous law school.  Mary, his mother and part of her family were from the town of Qana (closer to the main port of Tyr that was the administrative district of Upper Galilee) and lived there when Jesus was a lecturer in the law school.

It is no fluke of an incident that Jesus and Mary attended a wedding in Qana; it is also very rational that Jesus decided to start his message after Qana when his mother removed the cover of secrecy and exposed his supernatural gifts of turning water to wine.

Jesus was a high priest in the Essen sect and preached a message based in symbolism and fables and was highly spiritual and staunchly anti-Pharisee, this Jewish sect that believed that adhering to the Laws was sufficient to be saved.

The Jewish Cabala sect is a branch of the Essen sect and is founded on the Sumerian theology and myths.

Albert Schweitzer, a theologian, physician, thinker, organ player and Nobel Peace laureate offered his version on Jesus.  He said, based on the first two testaments of Mathew and Marc, that Jesus preached his message to the general public in the last year before his crucifixion.

Just six months, all in all, Jesus was accompanied by the public and the remaining months he spent them among his close disciple around Caesarea of Philippi.

In the beginning, Jesus accepted the label of a prophet among the prophets but then he reached the belief that he is the Messiah of the Jews.

Thus, he sent his disciples two by two to preach the message of the end of time (as all monolithic religions claim).  Jesus was very surprised when all his disciples returned safe and sound; he expected his disciples to suffer terribly and be put to death in order for the prophesy to be accomplished.

Jesus then decided that God would accept his sacrifice and save his close disciples from atrocious deaths before the first coming of the Messiah.

The apostles and disciples of Jesus believed that Christ would return to Jerusalem during their life time, and thus they stayed in Jerusalem for as long as they could before they were forced to leave that city out of persecution by the Jews.

The Christian-Jews would not relinquish the Jewish Laws and they harassed and even persecuted St. Paul for preaching to the gentiles and establishing Christian communities based on faith in Christ who came to absolve our sins and who was resurrected from death.

St. Paul insisted that without the belief that Christ resurrected there would be  no foundations for Christianity.  That is true because Christianity would be another extremist and salafist Orthodox Jewish sect.

The Council of Nicea in 325 adopted only four out of the hundreds of testaments that were written, and which accounted for more credible eye-witness testimonies before four testaments were adopted as Not apocryphal (teaching of wisdom).

The authors of the four testaments were biased toward the message of their respective gurus.

For example, Marc followed Paul for a while and then he proselytized with Peter and wrote the biography of Peter.

Lucas stuck with Paul for the longest parts of his trips and the foundations of Christian communities.

The Talmudic Mathew outdid himself forcing the genealogy of Jesus to descend from David.

The educated Jean was of a noble family and wrote his testament when he was already senile at the age of 95; he had acquired the Hellenistic culture and symbolism.

It is unfortunate that Jean had to write the apocalyptic hallucination that is wrecking havoc at the beginning of every millennium.  Apparently, the apocalypse is not from the same Jean the disciple.

The Arab Prophet Mohammad was not illiterate and he was initiated to the Jewish-Christian sect (the Ebionites) located in Mecca with his uncle as Patriarch of the sect.

Mohammad read the Books and listened to the proselytism of the Eastern Christian sects during his caravan commerce to and within Syria. 

These Christian sects believed in the mono-physism of Jesus (No divine spiritual identity), in contrast to other monophysist sects that believed Jesus was spiritual, for example the Orthodox Church of Byzantium. These Eastern churches staunchly adhered to the Jewish Laws, the Jewish prophets and their books.

Consequently, the religion of Mohammad during its first 13 years was almost a duplicate of these Eastern Christian sects with strong Jewish foundations in their religions.

At that period of his message, Mohammad had decreed that Muslims should face toward Jerusalem for prayer. When Mohammad had to fight the Jewish tribes in Yathreb  he changed the direction for prayer to facing Al Ka3ba (the Black Stone) in Mecca.

Mohammad had to flee to Medina after the Kureich tribe decided to terminate him; he then endeavored to establish firmly his community of Muslims in Yathreb (Medina).

The next phase of taking up the civil social responsibilities and politics for maintaining this community forced upon Mohammad to linking the spiritual dogma with the civil laws and regulations.

It was while strengthening the community of Islam in Medina that Mohammad had to wage many wars against a few Jewish communities who ended siding with Mohammad’s archenemy, the Kureich tribe in Mecca.

Mohammad thus learned to discriminate between the practices of the Jews and the Jewish religion and hundreds of Jews were displaced.

After Mohammad showed clemency twice with Jewish rebellions, he finally ordered the beheading of 700 members of the Jewish Khyber tribe.  For some reason, Mohammad selected his nephew and son-in-law Ali to have the honor of the decapitation; it is no wonder that the Jews have an animal hatred for Ali and his followers.

To comprehend the nature of Islam it would be beneficial to collect the revealed verses before relocating to Yathreb or Medina.

Most of the verses generated in Medina were generally rules and laws designed for managing the daily lives of the believers.  You will realize that most of these laws are identical to the desert and Bedouin customs of the Jews before and long after they got established in Palestine.

Personal hypothesis:

The ancestor of all the Gods that were created since antiquity is this scary total Silence before a coming major natural cataclysm.  It is the silence of death when the whole earth is still and the atmosphere suffocating, no breezes of any kinds, that generates in all living creature a terrible reaction of wholesome anger, of pure revolt against the sense of death in this universal silence.

It is the silence and quietude before tornadoes, cyclones, sand desert storms and all the kinds of whirling at great magnitude in the atmosphere, the seas, deserts and the bowel of earth in volcanoes.

There is no avoiding the silence of coming cataclysms as there is no avoiding death, a correlation that people noticed and prayed for their own God of Total Silence to keep chatting through winds, birds, animals, rains, thunderstorms, shouting, crying and anything that can be heard, lest miseries, devastation and evil spirits hovering over the land befall their region.

The same behavior is applied to the starting of wars and their ending.

It is no wonder that men shout stupid songs, curse loudly at fictional enemies like if drunk, bang on batteries and metals, light and heavy metals, blow on air instruments and all the hysterical trepidation at the announcement of a major war, an ancient psychic custom within our deepest pre-historic brain to ward off the cataclysm wrapped into maddening songs of patriotism and cursing at the evil enemies.

Indeed, heavy silence is the root of our fundamental fear, and dealing with fear should pass through learning to accept silence as a necessary step to investigating our soul.

Note 3: The Catholic religion, and most of its offshoots, were extremist and bloody organizations during most of their history. They were too the primary weapons in colonizing and subjugating other people.

Note 4: Every time, anyone of these monolithic sects mentions the faked stories in the “Bible”, they are providing ammunition to the Zionist movement and its head, creator and financier the western colonial powers.

Do we have to emulate what the Arab Bedouin of the Arabic Peninsula did 1,400 years ago?

Islam changed many societies except the Bedouin of the “Arabic” peninsula.

Not only Islam was a means for them to expand by force and didn’t make a dent to their customs and traditions, but they want Muslims to emulate their backward mentality.

Note: I posted this article as an example of the level of frustration we have been submitted to since Saudi Kingdom disseminated Wahhabi Madrassat everywhere there are Muslims in 1985.

1400 عام…
منذ 1400 عام عاشوا في البراري …ناموا في المضارب.. اضاووا لياليهم بإشعال الزيت و الحطب …لم يعرفوا غير الرعي و السبي و الغزوات .. تيمموا بالتراب …تقاتلوا … تحاربوا ِ. تناحروا .. تزاوجوا..

منذ 1400 عام تركوا لنا قصصا و سيرا ذاتية و أحاديث و نصوصا .. قالوا إنها مقدسة ..كما قال اللذين من قبلهم …و بعد 1400 عام يتوجب علينا أن نفكر بها كما كانوا يفكرون …ان نلبس كما كانوا يلبسون … ان نعيش كما كانوا يعيشون ..ان نتقاتل كما كانوا يتقاتلون..ان نتزوج كما كانوا يتزوجون ..
1400 عام من التزوير ..و المطلوب أن نصدق كل ما وردنا …و نحن نشهد تزوير الحاضر ..


1400 عاما من التمترس خلف شخصيات و حكايات لا نعرف شيئا عن حقيقتها و يتوجب علينا أن لا نخرج من عباءاتهم..و نقتدي بهم و نمتثل لهم …ان نسير في موكب تشييعهم… ان نزور اضرحتهم حتى اليوم …
1400 عاما .. ونحن نفسر ماذا قالوا … و لماذا قالوا …و ماذا كانوا يقصدون …


1400 عاما من الصلوات و الدعاء على النصارى و اليهود ..
لتشتيت شملهم …و لم يتبق لنا شمل ..
لتدمير أوطانهم …و لم تبق لنا أوطان …
لسبي نسائهم..و لم تسبى إلا نساء المسلمين ..
1400 عام من الزكاة …و عدد الجياع و المحرومين يزداد كل يوم في بلاد المسلمين …


1400 عام من الصيام و البطون تكبر و الأوزان تزيد عند شيوخ المسلمين ..
1400 عام من رجم الشيطان …و الشيطان يتكاثر في بلاد المسلمين ..


أيتها الأمة النائمة…ان من تصلون و تدعون عليهم..وصلوا للفضاء..ناموا على سطح القمر …شطروا الذرة …جزاوا الثانية ..اخترعوا الثورة الرقمية …و أنتم لم تفلحوا إلا بثورة الأعضاء التناسلية ..و تتدارسون حتى اليوم طريقة دخول المرحاض …و ماذا يفسد الوضوء غير المرأة و الكلب الأسود..


و عندما اجتهد العلماء..توصلوا لجهاد النكاح …و سفاح القربى …و إرضاع الكبير و وداع الزوجة الميتة..


أيتها الأمة النائمة..الا يحق لعقولنا أن تتأثر بهذا الفيض من المعارف و العلوم و التكنولوجيا التي تحيط بنا …و هل يتوجب على عقولنا أن تبق رهينة منذ 1400 عام ..و تنهل من كل العلوم لطالما كانت صالحة لكل زمان و مكان…كما تدعون …و لو كانت صالحة لماذا بقينا على تخلفنا..و لماذا لم يأخذ الغرب منها …


عندما نضع الحصان لفلاحه الارض..و الحمار للسباق …
فلن نجني خيرا …..و لن نكسب الرهان …

Status of women in Islamic/Arabic societies: Kholoud Wattar Kassem

منذ فجر البشرية اتُّهِمَت حواء بأنها سبب طردْ آدم من الجنة. وهكذا اعتُبِرتْ ناقصة عقل وناقصة ودين منذ ذلك الحين

اضطُهِدت الأنثى عبر التاريخ بكافة أنواع العنف الجسدي والثقافي والاجتماعي ثم جاءت الأديان السماوية فعمِلَ الرجل على إِخاطة الدين ليناسب مصلحته وهكذا بُنيَت على هذا الأساس قوانين الأحوال الشخصية متخذة شرعيتها من القرآن في المنطقة العربية.

كل هذا أدى إلى تراكم مشاكل وعِقَد فضاعت طاقات هائلة نسائية وتقوقعت وانعزلت عن اتخاذ القرار فأصبحت تابعة لوالدها، لأخيها، لزوجها وحتى لإبنها…وضاعت حقوقها كإنسانة …

استطاع الغرب أن يتخطى الفرق بين الرجل والمرأة بنسب متفاوتة بعد صراعات طويلة وصلت فيه المرأة في بعض هذه الدول إلى المساواة الكاملة بين الرجل والمرأة في كافة الحقوق والواجبات..

من أكثر الدول التي اختفت فيها التفرقة الجندرية هي الدول الاسكندنافية وخاصة في أيسلندا..


ولكن في هذا المقلب من العالم مازالت المرأة العربية تعاني للحصول على أبسط حقوقها الانسانية فمثلا بعض الدول مازالت تعفي عن الشاب الذي يغتصب فتاة إذا وافق أن يتزوج ضحيته وهكذا تُغتصب هذه الفتاة مرّتان، مرة من قِبَل مجرم مريض ومرة أخرى من قبل قوانين وأعراف أكثر مرضا وإجراما…..


هنالك دول أخرى حيث مازالت المرأة لا تستطيع أن تعطي جنسيتها لأولادها فتعاني هي وأولادها طوال حياتها..

ولكن من الأمور الطارئة في أيامنا هذه هي الأوضاع السياسية والأمنية التي تعاني منها معظم دولنا العربية والتي ظاهرها ديني وطائفي وباطنها مصالح وهيمنة وجشع بالإضافة إلى تراكم عصور من القمع والقهر مما أدى إلى تأخر هذه الدول عن ركوب عصر الحداثة والعلمنة والتكنولوجيا فضرب الفقر والجهل كافة المجتمعات .

هنالك أكثر من 50 مليون عربي أُميّ وأكثر من 40 % من هذه المجتمعات دون مستوى الفقر والمفارقة أن الفئة المستهدفة هي معظمها بنات ونساء .


لذا قررت النساء الأخذ بزمام الأمور وابتدأت تتوجه نحو مراكز القرار حتى استطاعت أن تفرض كوتا نسائية وصلت في بعض الدول مثل تونس والجزائر إلى المناصفة في الحكم في الدستور ولكن بعض الدول مثل لبنان حيث التمثيل النسائي في البرلمان لم يتعدى 4% في تاريخه وحاليا وبعد ما يُسمى انتخابات نيابية 2018 وصلت الى سدة البرلمان 6 نساء من أصل 113 ترشّحن. ثلاثة منهن تجدد لهن وثلاثة حديثات في الإطار السياسي.

هي نتيجة مخزية للبنان ولكن هذا مؤشر على ان العمل لنشر ثقافة وجود المرأة في مراكز القرار يجب ان يتضاعف في المرحلة المقبلة وهكذا في ان هذه النسبة ستُبقي لبنان في أسفل اللوائح الإقليمية والعالمية..

ولكن هذا كله لا يعني أن المرأة غير قادرة على تبوأ مراكز القرارإنما تراكم القيود الاجتماعية والدينية عبر التاريخ وضع العثرات والصعاب في طريقها فأصبح نضالها عسير ولن يستطيع أحد أن يثنيها عن الوصول إلى ماتطمح إليه..

المرأة العربية هي متميزة بجيناتها المتنوعة والصلبة التي تجعلها قادرة على تحقيق ما تصبو إليه والمرأة اللبنانية ستتابع بعد هذه التجربة السياسية التي مرّت بها ولسوف يتضاعف عدد النساء المرشحات في المرحلة المقبلة…

أقول لكل من يقرأ هذا.. ليس من حال يدوم.. بالعمل والإصرار والمثابرة والمتابعة لا بد لليل أن ينجلي ولا بد للقيد أن ينكسر..خلود 14/5/2019
#المرأة #التقاليد #الأعراف #التاريخ #المرأة_والسياسة #المراة_اللبنانية #المرأة_العربية#انفصام #مصالح

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adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

March 2020
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