Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Khawarej

Book review of Genevieve Chauvel

Note: If you missed Part 1, go to this link https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2021/03/03/most-beloved-wife-of-prophet-muhammad-aicha/

Shortly after his return to Medina, Muhammad suffered from terrible headaches for a month; he asked Abu Bakr to preach in his place when he was bedridden.  The Prophet dies on June 8, 632; he was 63 years old.

Aicha was apprehensive that her father might succeed to the Prophet with the subsequent responsibilities, and asked Omar to preach instead, since he had a loud voice and a large body. Muhammad got irate for Aicha involvement in altering his decision, and demanded that Abu Baker resume the preaching.

Omar would not believe that the Prophet could die and threatened anyone who says so; then Abu Bakr told the congregation “Muslims, those among you who adore Muhammad, Muhammad is dead.  Those who adore God, God is living”.

Ali was to wash the body and arrange for the funeral. The Companions elected Abu Bakr Caliph in the absence of Ali who was the closest member in the prophet’s “House”.

Abu Bakr reminded the Muslims what the Prophet told him once: “All prophets were buried at the place of their death”; and thus Muhammad was buried in Aicha’s bedroom.  Aicha replaced the bed on top of the burying ground and continued sleeping there.

Abu Bakr would Not distribute the Prophet’s inheritance to anyone of his wives or family members because Muhammad has told him that prophets’ belonging went to charities. 

Fatima died 6 months later as Mohammad has predicted, aggrieved and desperate.

Under Abu Bakr, Aicha, aided by Zayd ibn Thabit, got the huge responsibility of gathering and collecting all the parchments and written verses and the early oral verses of the Koran and then sorting them, verifying their authenticity, correcting and compiling them.

Aichi was not yet twenty years old.  Abu Bakr died within two years and was also buried in Aicha’s bedroom next to the Prophet. 

At the time of his death, Khalid ibn Al Walid had vanquished the Byzantine Emperor at Yarmuk and was advancing toward Damascus. (This Khalid committed mass massacres in Damascus for 3 days and nights, and for no sane reason)

Omar was selected by Abu Bakr to be the next Caliph. Omar extended Islam to Persia by a victory in Qadissiya and toward Egypt. 

Omar was assassinated by a Christian slave while praying in the Mosque in Medina; Omar also asked permission of Aicha to be buried in her bedroom.  By then, Aicha was the ultimate interpreter of the Koran and had issued 2,210 Hadiths and was the expert in women’s legal right or “Fiqh Al Nisaa”.

On his deathbed, Omar appointed a Council of five Companions from the tribes of Quraish (excluding the Ansar leaders) to elect the next Caliph.  Uthman ibn Affan was selected and Aicha had misgivings on how he might manipulate the masses of documents collected on the verses of Islam.  Omar left the documents with his daughter Afsa to hand over to the next Caliph.

Uthman ended up exercising nepotism and appointing relatives as governors and civil servants in high offices and he built a palace and lived luxuriously with 500 serfs maintaining the palace and organizing the feasts. 

The new Caliph appointed Jewish scholars to select and revise the documents collected by Aisha and published a new version of the Koran, the one being read and accepted.

Aicha got wind of the alterations to the parchments and came out of her house carrying the sandals and shirts and hair of the prophet and shouted at the caliph: “The Prophet’s belongings had not had time to deteriorate and you started to turn your back on his teachings”.

(My conjecture is that Uthman hired scholar Jews to select and re-edit the parchments to match the messages in their Bible, and its is this Koran that is currently adopted, except the version disseminated by the Wahhabi in the Saudi Kingdom. Uthman destroyed many documents that the new Islamic empire needed to woe, especially in matters of imposing taxes, and delivering a patriarchal overtone to the Koran. So far, no original documents have been made public to study their validity. Mind you that the original documents had no punctuation or any kinds of signs or complicated embellishment you see in current versions…The documents/verses could be read as Kerouac “On the Road” or Schelinger “Catcher in the rye”, and were ripe for interpretations)

Aicha had a copy of all the documents and she rewrote her version of the Koran. (There is no information of what happened to these copies)

A large dissatisfied mob of Muslims, who were manipulated by “extremists” in Basra (Iraq), marched on Medina. Aicha had premonition that the arriving mob is bad news and got permission from Uthman to leave for pilgrimage with the harem.  The mob entered the palace of Uthman burned it asunder and stabbed and beat the Caliph to death. (Probably the invading “mob” had wind of Uthman tampering with the Koran and disseminating luxury attitudes and practices that did Not match the conservative understanding of Islam).

Ali was elected Caliph but refrained to give the revenge for the murder of the Caliph Uthman a priority. His lukewarm behavior prompted Aicha to action and she started delivering speeches in Mecca to the effect that the punishment of the leaders of assassins should be carried out first thing first. 

Her brother-in-law Zubair and another Companion Talhat excited Aicha to lead a contingent of 3,000 fighters to Basra.

Ali was on his way to Damascus to fight Moawiya, the governor of Syria, and stopped at Kufa to recruit more fighters and had to challenge Aicha before resuming his campaign. 

Aicha, Zobair and Talhat managed to recruit an army of 30,000 men against 20,000 with Ali. 

The battle of the “Camel”, the first among the Muslims, left 15,000 victims and injured among the Muslim fighters which affected Aicha for the remainder of her life.

Talhat and Zubair died in the battle. Aicha was riding hidden in a palanquin and exhorting her army to fight. Ali ordered his officer to cut the hand of the camel guide so that the camel could be moved from the center of the battle field; guides took the relay and 72 camel guides left theirs hands on the rope before the camel’s hamstrings were cut and was brought down and the battle cry and symbol of “The Mother of the Believer” finally relinquishing its effect on the troops.

Ali permitted Aicha to return to her home in Medina and she was escorted as a Queen. One of Muawiya’s delegates told Aicha that they wished she died in the battle so that the allies of Moawiya would have had an excellent excuse to fight Ali.

Aicha spent the remaining of her life in her house, receiving scholars and students who regarded her as the main resource for correct interpretations of the religious verses and taking notes of her experiences.

Aicha was initially the only virgin in the extended harem, and whatever she knew of love making was of the initiation of Muhammad. 

A specific revelation forbade Muhammad’s wives to remarry and also to remain in their homes and to be covered completely and wear the “niqab” on their face when stepping outside their doors or meeting males.

The effects of the assassination of Uthman didn’t end up there.  Muawiya raised the same reason of avenging Uthman to engage Ali in a terrible battle at Seffine in Syria: the bloodied shirt of Uthman hanging in the Mosque of Madina demanded retribution and the Arabs coined the dictum “the Shirt of Uthman” to convey the meaning that the reason offered is but an excuse for the power struggle.  

There were no victors in this battle that was leaning toward Ali army, and a large contingent of Ali’s army dissented because Ali agreed to arbitrage. These dissenters were labeled Al Khawarij and were led by Abdullah ibn Wahab (A coincidence? The actual Saudi Monarchy sect is founded on a Wahhabi preacher): they went on assassination rampage against the leading followers of both Ali and Muawiya.

The Khawarij failed to assassinate Muawiya (just injured) but killed Ali in Kufa.  Ali refused to name anyone to succeed him as Caliph and said to his followers that he would not disagree with anyone they select.

Aicha was to say “this is typical Ali’s ambiguity” as she forecasted the worst to the unity of the “Umma” or Nation of Islam.

Muawiya was elected Caliph and the power became hereditary and the period is known as the Umayyad (the most powerful tribe of Quraish) reign in Damascus, which lasted for a century before the Abbasid (The house of Abbass, the Uncle of Muhammad) succeeded in taking power in Baghdad for two centuries. 

The occupied Central Asian people converted Sunni sects and their tribes were to dominate the political and religious landscape for over 10 centuries. 

Muawiya sent assassins to ged rid of any potential leaders related to the Prophet , but spared Aisha.

Aicha lived to experience the death of many of her male family members. 

Hassan, the son of Ali, was assassinated by his wife enticing Hassan to wear the poisoned dress given to him as a gift by Muawiya.  Muawiya then slaughtered Hassan’s wife to hide his schemes with her.

Notes:

  1. The Prophet had two sons who died before the age of two.  Ali, his nephew who married his youngest daughter Fatima, was the only male in his “House”.  Muhammad appointed Ali to read the religious messages in meetings where the Prophet could not be present.  Ali and Abu Bakr were the most learned males, among the early Companions, on Islam, but Aicha was the best and she was present during many revelations of “Archangel Gabriel” in her house.
  2. Ali was the most qualified to be the Imam of Islam, but since there was yet no separation between the political and religious functions, then Ali had to seek power as Caliph.  Ali lacked the political acumen and the qualities of a government leader because he was constantly plagued with ambiguities as a result of his vast religious knowledge and his apprehension to err in his decisions. Schism developed during his short five years reign and the Shia sects (the followers of Ali’s second son Hussein) emerged as a counterpart to the Sunni sect representing the legitimate Muslims.
  3. The Prophet Muhammad was highly literate https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2009/04/08/the-parson-and-the-prophet-book-review/

Playing with fire? Review of my story on Syria upheaval

Reluctantly, I have to review my story on Syria upheaval after the blatant interference of  US, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and the Gulf Arab Emirate States in Syria turmoil, and who refuse to seek any reforms: They want to install another regime with definite programs that satisfy the US  biased interests and obscurantist Saudi Wahhabi religious expansion in the region…

The sources of all extremist Islamic sects and political movements originated in the Arabic Peninsula, starting with the Khawarej in the early decades of the Arabic Empire and who assassinated Califs and Imams, to the Karamita in the 10th century, to the current Wahhabi sect in this absolute Saudi Monarchy…

Relying on historical facts and events, all the extremist Islamic sects have been militarily and politically defeated by the central Arabic/Islamic power residing in the Capitals of either Damascus, Baghdad, Cairo, or Istanbul…

The defeat of Islam extremist movement was mainly done with the total support of the Sunnis in Damascus, the revolving door and central city within the Arabic/Islamic Empire…See note

Bashar el Assad and his clan must know by now that the only alternative to maintaining the unity of Syria and blocking foreign interference for initiating a civil war is to let the Sunni merchants in Damascus and Aleppo ally with the internal opposition parties, and the secular political parties…

Only the Sunnis power in Damascus and Aleppo can lead a successful transitional power, and constitute a viable transitional government,  that can defeat foreign meddling in Syria’s internal affairs and oppose any extremist Wahhabi Islamic influence…

Borhan Galiun, the academic appointed by the US and Turkey to be president of the Syrian council, a movement formed of a few members who immigrated from Syria long time ago, declared the new regime will break links with Iran, the Lebanese Hezbollah resistance movement, and the Palestinian Hamas movement in Gaza…

Is that what this foreign council wants from changing a regime that has been sitting on the chest of the Syrian people for 40 years?

How much of a revolution is this foreign Syrian movement? See note 2

Actually, a Moslem Brotherhood leader in Syria went as far as proclaiming that the northern Lebanese districts, including the port of Tripoli, will be attached to the new Syria…

How much of a revolution can we expect from these haphazard movements?  The demand of the Syrian external movement of the  Moslem Brotherhood is in line with the historic refusal of the Sunnis to relinquish part of their territory in order to constitute the Greater Lebanon during the French mandated power after WWI.

This declaration comes after a Sunni political movement in Lebanon, the Future movement of Saad Hariri and his clan, has been demanding that the government of Lebanon meddle in Syria’s turmoil to the side of the Moslem Brotherhood insurgents…

The Mustaqbal movement wants that Lebanon officially send arms, ammunition, and install a safe heaven for the Syrian “renegades”, as if the non-State of Lebanon can assume its responsibilities toward its own citizens…

Maybe Lebanon is currently immune to a full-fledged civil war, because of the power of the Lebanese army and the resistance power of Hezbollah,  but all it takes are a few terrorist attempts to ignite a toxic sectarian smoke and a strong signal for the religious minorities in north Lebanon to start fleeing the district… Then what?  Lebanon is already divided in cantons due to 17 years of civil war, and with new transfer of citizens, how much of a central State can Lebanon expect to establish?

Would the north Lebanese canton demand that the Iraqi pipeline to the port city of Tripoli to be reopened?

Would the south Lebanese canton demand that the Iraqi pipeline into Zahrani be reopened?

Would Beirut and Mount Lebanon initiate a round of negotiation with Israel “to please divert part of legitimate oil in the Lebanese water to Beirut?”

Is that what the plan for Lebanon is being executed by the US administration and Saudi Arabia?

Note 1:  The Sunni Moslem sect always paid allegiance to the power-to-be, regardless of the location of the Capital of the Empire. Fact is, the Crusading campaigns lost their initial advantages when the Sunnis in Damascus and Aleppo refused to cooperate and became the cities from where the counter-offensive started in the 12th century.

Note 2:  In June, the foreign Syrian opposition individuals could barely manage to enlist 70 members.  They begged the Syrian Moslem Brotherhood in exile to join them, at the vigorous instigation of Turkey’s Moslem Brotherhood in power.

After this hapless external government in transition failed to impress the masses within Syria, they again asked the help of the Moslem Brotherhood inside Syria to post banners proclaiming their support for this external government.

The internal opposition groups were invited to Cairo to start dialogue with the external council.  The Galiun group assaulted the internal opposition groups and this academic of Borhan didn’t even condemn the assault and verbal abuse.  How can dialogue start if no educational process of proper communication are discussed within “opposition” movements?

Note 3: President Bashar gave an interview with Barbara Walter in Damascus yesterday.  Apparently, Bashar said that there will be municipal election this month, to be followed with parliamentary election, and a Presidential election in 2014.  Bashar said that serious reforms for the constitution and election laws are being studied.

I say to Bashar: “How about you publish the draft reforms and let the political parties and opposition movement start dialogue on pragmatic and practical papers for reforms and change? Isn’t dialogue based on submitted reform draft?

Iran: Hussein, Karbala, Ashura, Shias, Ayatollah marjaa, Wilayat fakih,…

Prophet Muhammad refused to designate a successor:  He was aware of his fragile health condition 8 days before he died and he was mentally conscious and able to make this decision.

When Muhammad died, his close relatives such as his 8 wives, his remaining two daughters and his sons-in-laws got in charge of the burial procedures and ceremony.

The leading companions such as Abu Bakr and Omar negotiated transition with the original leading tribes of Medina, called Ansars.  The ansars are those who welcomed the Moslems to settle in their city as the tribes of Mecca started persecuting the Moslems in 632.

Abu Bakr was selected Caliph.

The Sunni sect in Islam is this branch that doesn’t mind caliphs not being direct descendants of Muhammad, as long as they are considered from “noble” tribes of Mecca.  The Shia sect insisted that caliphs should be direct descended of Muhammad.

Abu Bakr, Omar bin Khattab, Uthman bin Affan, and Abi bin Abi Taleb were the four caliphs called Rashidun, meaning adult companions who followed Muhammad from the start and fought all his battles.  They were all from tribes of Mecca, which upset the ansar tribes who welcomed the Moslems and saved them from persecution and permitted them to establishing their first City-State in Yathreb named Medina later on.

It is to be noted that all male sons of Muhammad died in very young age and he had four married daughters.

Two daughters died before him.  The youngest daughter Fatima married Ali, his nephew and later son-in-law.  One of his daughters had married Uthman bin Affan.  Hassan and Hussein were the grandsons of Muhammad from Fatima and Ali who were born while the Prophet was alive.

Caliph Muawiya bin Ummaya (from the richest tribe in Mecca) was named governor of Damascus by Uthman and contested the caliphat with Ali.

Ali’s troops had the advantage of vanquishing Muawiya troops but Ali decided to negotiate.  Thus, those against the negotiation as victory was near were called “khawarej” (the ones who aabandoned Ali’s troops); they may as well be the first Shias (those who disagreed).

Ali might have been the most promising Imam, but he was no political statesman.  A few khawarej met in Mecca and decided to assassinate both Ali and Muawiya on the same day.  Muawiya’s assassin barely wounded him, but Ali’s assassin was successful as Ali was leading the prayer in Kufa.

After the assassination of Ali, Muawiya established the first hereditary dynasty in Islam with capital Damascus.  Muawiya struck a deal with Hassan.  The deal was that Hassan will be the next caliph after the death of Muawiya.  In a sense, the deal was sharing power between the Sunnis and the Shias in turn.

Muawiya poisoned Hassan:  He cooperated with Hassan’s wife to convince Hassan to wearing a poisoned expensive robe that Muawiya sent as gift for the deal.  Then, Muawiya killed Hassan’s wife and eliminated direct witnesses.

Hussein continued with the deal and left Muawiya at peace from political upheavals.  Muawiya died and his son Yazid succeeded him as caliph.  Hussein didn’t appreciate this treachery and reclaimed his right according to the deal and moved from Mecca with his family and 72 followers intending to settle in Kufa (southern Iraq).

Three months of marches in the desert brought Hussein in Karbala.

By dawn, Hussein realized that the troops of Yazid had surrounded his small party and cut off the way to the main water sources at the Euphrates River. Hussein negotiated for 10 days, hoping that the citizens of Kufa will come to the rescue, at no avail.  Hussein was beheaded and his head sent to Caliph Yazid on a spear in 680.

The uneven battle of Karbala was waged during Ashura, the tenth day of the month of Muharram.

The Shias adopted the account story of the engagement in Karbala as written by Hussein Kashefi in his “Garden of Martyrs” and which was widely circulated in the 15th century.  The story goes as follows:

“Hussein was hit by an arrow in the neck while trying to drink from the river.  Ten cavalry men from Yazid army rushed to achieve Hussein so that to receiving huge rewards.  Hussein was lying for dead and every time Hussein opened his eyes and looked at the coming killer then, the knight would feel shame and retreat.

Commander Chemr was decided to finish the job and sat at Hussein chest.  Hussein asked Chemr to remove his iron mask and show his face, which he did and Hussein said: “This is the first veritable sign.”  Chemr’s face looked porcupine with two incisive shooting out his lips.  Hussein asked Chemr to open his shirt and said: “This is the second veritable sign”  Chemr’s chest showed scars of leprosy.  Hussein said: “I had a vision last night by the Prophet and He told me how my assassin would look like.”

Hussein asked Chemr: “What day it is?”  Chmer said: “This is the Friday of Ashura”  Hussein asked “What time is it?”  Chemr replied: “This is the time of prayer.”  Hussein said: “The believers are praying and you are indulging in killing me.  Get off my chest and do your job while I am praying facing Mecca.”

The surviving family members of Hussein were given a roundabout three-month long trip up north Iraq, then north Syria before descending to Damascus and suffered hardship and humiliation.

Muawiya made sure to assassinating all males of direct descendant to Muhammad, including the surviving husbands of his daughters and even Muhammad’s wives.

Aicha, the most learned and beloved of Muhammad’s wives, was spared humiliation and assassination for two reasons:

First, she sided with him against Ali after the assassination of the third caliph Uthman and

Second, Aicha was the prime eminent in Islam jurisprudence.  She had gathered all the verses of the Prophet and confronted the Hadith that were lies and incorrect.  Uthman manipulated many verses and officially published the current Koran.

The Shias believe that the Abbassid caliph Al Maamoun assassinated Imam Rida in 817 in the city of Mashhad by poison.

All the streets in Mashhad converge to Imam Rida’s mausoleum and the city welcome 20 million pilgrims per year. The Abbassid dynasty are descendent of one of Muhammad’s uncle Abbas.

Kufa was not spared persecution, even though it didn’t come to succor Hussein.

The new governor Hajaj bin Youssef made the citizens of Kufa check their necks as his first speech started: “I see heads ripening and ready for the harvest…”  Kufa is renowned for its bad luck of supporting the losing party:  It supported Aicha, the youngest and most beloved wife of Muhammad, against the troops of Ali in the first civil-war battle of the “Camel” around Kufa.

Iran was Sunni before the 16th century.  An Azeri prince, Shah Ismail, took power of Iran in 1502.

The successor of Ismail decided to have the Shia sect as the kingdom official religion in order to unite Iran against his nemesis the Caliph of the  Ottoman Empire.  The ottoman Empire crushed the Iranian army but didn’t venture in resuming the war inside Iran.  The ottoman Empire just got Iraq as one of the wilayyats  of the Empire.

The Shia sect has a highly structured hierarchy and the curriculum for religious proficiency is lengthy and passes by degrees of study programs. There are currently 12 “ayatollah marjaa” among the Shias, two them died recently: Montazari and Fadhlallah of Lebanon.  An ayatollah marjaa is the highest cleric who can institute his school of jurisprudence and proclaim fatwas (interpretation opinion on an Islamic law).

The followers of other Ayatollah marjaa do not have to agree with the fatwas of one ayatollah.

Ayatollah Khomeini didn’t vehemently refuse the title of Imam, a title reserved for the “hidden Mahdi” who was declared hidden at the age of 5 in 874.  The successor of Khomeini, Kamenei, was not even ayatollah and still, he is considered “Supreme Guide” of the “Wilayat fakih” or the rule of the highest religious cleric in jurisprudence.

Note:  I read a few articles of Khomeini’s fatwas and I must say that so many years of learning theology and Islamic laws left something to be desired.  I think an ayatollah must have also a PhD in a scientific field in addition to religious knowledge.

Concise Political Islam; (Apr. 11, 2010)

            There were three major tendencies in Islam for resolving political conflicts and divergences; they functioned hand in hand in the first two centuries until the new converts to Islam from Central Asia and the Caucasus regions effectively began to control the political and military decisions of the central power in Baghdad around the 11th century:  The Abbassid Caliphates in the 10th century started to hire and rely heavily on the far away newer converts as military leaders and personal guards.  The new converts were much more interested in the personal stories of the Prophet Muhammad (hadith of what the prophet said and did) than the Coran; thus, they declared that the Coran cannot be interpreted or commented.  Self-autonomous provinces mushroomed in the vast Islamic Empire.

            The first category of divergent alternatives to social unrests was pure political violent acts and represented by the Khawarej (those who were supporting Ali and decided to walked away from a meeting in the battlefield as Ali accepted negotiation with Muawiya) and plotted to simply assassinate the imams and caliphs presumed not to follow the shari3a (the direction to go to the water source) or the correct laws and Islamic guidance. This archaic movement started before the assassination of the third Caliph Othman bin Affan and then followed by the assassination of the fourth appointed caliph Ali bin Abi Taleb.  Muawiya was targeted for assassination but he survived the attempt.

Many imams and caliphs were assassinated through the centuries up to now.  Most of the victims were the vulnerable and fragile imams who had no political backing or clout: a Moslem not satisfied with an imam’s advice or ruling on the correct behavior to adopt could be assassinated.

            The second category of contenders is related to the alternative order of justice (fiqeh) or the correct Islamic guidance in daily routine life.  Sunni or orthodox Islam is divided into four main schools of justices (ways to obeying the shari3a).  They are the Malekite (North Africa), Shafi3ite (Egypt), Hanbalite (Near East people), and the most obscurantist of all, the Hanafi (Wahhabi sect) of Saudi Arabia. 

The Shiaa sects that respect their imams as infallible are also divided into many schools but they dare interpret and comment everything in the Coran or hadith.

            The third category in divergences is the class of the intellectuals, physicians, scientists, astronomers (lumped as philosophers) and known as Mu3tazalat (rational thinkers who preferred middle solutions before gathering facts, analyzing the problem, and pondering on the consequences.)

The main split with the other categories is the critical problem: Is man’s behavior pre-set by God or is man fully responsible for his acts and actions?  The answer was “Man must be responsible for all his acts and should be using his brain (akl); otherwise, all evil actions would be attributed to God.”  This category of rational thinkers was backed by the emerging Abbasid Dynasty to discredit the Omayyad Dynasty. 

The first century of the Abbasid Dynasty witnessed full-scale translation of Indians, Persian, and ancient Greek manuscripts and culture that grew simultaneously with Islamic progresses in sciences such as in physics, medicines, astronomy, and mathematics.  The translation of foreign knowledge was done mainly by the Syriac scholars (of the many heretic Christian sects not abiding by the Orthodoxy dogma of Constantinople or Rome) residing in Syria and Lebanon.  The Indian manuscripts were translated by the Iranian scholars.  If the Renaissance Men of Europe could talk then they would acknowledge the sources of their knowledge.

            The turning point came when the new converts in Central Asia wanted to revert to the “sources” and believe word for word what was written in the Koran and the Hadith: interpretations were banned and philosophers were discredited and persecuted.  The Arab World had to wait for the middle of the 19th century to start a new revival in rational thinking.  The hot beds for this rival were Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon.

            The main sources for financing and planning terrorist acts and military coups up till 1975 were the US, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union.  After 1975, the evil triangle of the US/Saudi monarchy/Israel have been planning, financing, training, and tele-guiding most of terrorist activities in the Middle East. 

After the first invasion of Iraq in 1991 by the US and its alliance then, it was the Saudi monarchy (fully backed by the US and Israel) that invested billions of dollars into disseminating its brand of obscurantist Wahhabi schools of justice or shari3a.  Thousands of Mosques were built and thousands of hired imams were preaching the exclusive Hanbali school of Islam.  Most of the fancy books (sold at cheap prices) were targeting the best techniques for the confinement of women in their residences and pressuring Arab and Moslem States from withholding to women their individual rights to voting, working, and acquiring education.  Al Qaeda and its many factions are the creation of the Saudi monarchy, financed and directed to target terrorist activities against rational thinking scholars, Moslems and Christians.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

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