Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Affliction of a Nation

Part 3. Genesis of Hezbollah of Lebanon: Accounts of Robert Fisk

I have published three articles on the genesis of Hezbollah: One article described the geopolitical and social context of Iran Islamic revolution, and the living condition of the citizens in south Lebanon during the 22 years of Israel occupation.

How the Lebanese resistance to the Israeli occupation, particularly Hezbollah, got organized, developed, and managed to kick out Israel in the year 2000 without preconditions or any negotiation?

It is recommended, in order to appreciate the facts, eye-witness accounts, and reports of Robert Fisk, which points to the creation of Hezbollah and how it started to resist Israel occupation of Lebanon from 1982 to 2000, to read

Robert Fisk wrote the book “Affliction of a Nation” and I am reading the Arabic translated version. Fisk was the correspondent to the British The Times in Beirut and covered Lebanon civil war for nine years. I am summarizing one of the chapters.

“By 1983, a tight bonding between the political demands of the citizens in the south and religious belief set in: A close relationship between seeking peace and tranquility in isolated south region of Lebanon and the duty to martyrdom.

Every blow suffered by Israel occupation force was perceived as a means to emulating what Imam Hussein Bin Ali endured in the battle of Karbalaa against the Omayyad dynasty.

When Israel foolishly named Karbalaa one of its hired factions of militias of “Lebanese guards” to maintain “peace and orders”, the Shias comprehended the gesture as direct blasphemy.

In early October 1983, Israel threatened to close the bridge of the Awali River, the only passage to the towns and villages in the south.  Sheikh Shams el Din declared “total civil disobedience to the Israeli occupation forces”.

On October 16, the 10th day of the religious ceremony of Ashoura, an Israeli military convoy barged amid the crowd in the square of Nabatieh.  The people pelted the Israeli soldiers with stones, overturned military vehicles, and set fire in them. Israel soldiers reacted by firing live ammunition, killing two and seriously injuring 7 worshipers.

Suheil Hamoura, 19 year-old, was one of the casualties, shot in the back. Suheil was not that religious, and he came from Beirut to visit his family for the holiday. Within a week, Israeli troops suffered 9 ambush attacks.  The Shia members in the stooges “South Lebanon Army” of Major Saad Haddad, resigned their posts and joined the Amal party, created by late Imam Moussa Sadr, and headed by Nabih Beri (current chairman of the parliament).

Many collaborators with Israel were  executed.  Italian landmine named Shatchi were planted on the sides of road.

Israel blamed the two sheikhs Ragheb Harb and Abbas Harb (no relation) to be behind the escalation.  Consequently, Israel bulldozed down the house of Abbas Harb in the town of Hallousieh, in January 1984. Young sheikh 3Adel Mo2ness replaced Abbas in leading the prayer.  He told me that a helicopter flew Abbas and 5 of the townspeople to the detention center in Tyr.  When Abbas was released, he was in a terrible condition.

Sheikh Ragheb was released and rumors spread that Israel intended to assassinate Ragheb.  He was indeed killed by 3 bullets on February 1984. Within a week of the assassination, Israeli troops suffered 15 ambushes.  Israel reacted by executing dozens of prisoners in Ansar prison.  When I was visiting the town of Adlun, two Israeli jet fighters flew very low over us.

A young member of Hezbollah pointed to the jets and said: “They have no power over us

In January 1984, Saad Haddad died of cancer and was replaced by General Antoine Lahd. Lahd was to sustain several assassination attempts, and one seriously injured him.  Dozens of Shias quit the “South Lebanon Army” and joined the Lebanese resistance movement.

One Christian soldier in that army told me: “The Israelis are all pimps:  They just abuse of us with daily chores“.  An Israeli soldier told me: “I don’t want to be here. Definitely, this Ariel Sharon is a testified lunatic

Israel began constructing bunkers, 60 meters long, 6 m wide, and 15 m high.  Military buses were always escorted by tanks. In April 12, 1984, the 20 year-old Ali Safi el Din crashed his car, packed with explosives, in an Israeli convoy at Jesr Deir Kanoun.  Ali had lost his brother who was detained in Israeli army headquarter in Type. (To be continued)

Note: You may read this previous article for the political context

Part 2. Genesis of Hezbollah of Lebanon: Accounts of Robert Fisk

It is recommended, in order to appreciate the facts, eye-witness accounts, and reports of Robert Fisk, which points to the creation of Hezbollah and how it started to resist Israel occupation of Lebanon from 1982 to 2000, to read

Robert Fisk wrote the book “Affliction of a Nation” and I am reading the Arabic translated version. Fisk was the correspondent to the British The Times in Beirut and covered Lebanon civil war for nine years.

“The Moslem Shias in south Lebanon believed the claims and pledges of Israel that Israel invasion was meant to “liberate the south from Palestinian occupation”.  Very quickly, the claims didn’t match what they inflicted on the Shias on the ground.  During the siege of West Beirut, most of the casualties were Shias living in the suburbs of Bourj Barajneh, Shiyah, and Hai Selum.

Sheikh Ali Mahdi Ibrahim (64 year-old) of the town of Adlun knew Ayatollah Khomeini intimately:  He studied in the Iraqi city of Najaf, where Khomeini spent 15 years of his exile. Sheikh Ibrahim said: “It is the Iranian revolutionary clerics who learned from us in Tyr…”  Many of Ibrahim students presented themselves as members of Hezbollah.  This was in 1984, and most of the kidnapping were claimed by “Islamic Jihad” before they adopted the name of Hezbollah.

When the Shia inhabitants in the south asked me “Are you a spy?”, it was less of their animosity against the western States behaviors, but rather relevant to their endemic isolation:  The successive Lebanese governments ignored the regions in the south and totally forgot to budget in any development resources.  It was incumbent on the “citizens” to shoulder the central State responsibilities in building schools, and hospitals…, even before the total collapse of the government in the civil war that started in April 1975 to 1991.

Before the Lebanese resistance got organized and spread to the south, most of the attacks and ambushes targeted the Israeli brigade 162, stationed in the Druze Chouf district, and commanded by Brigadier General Amnon Lifkin (39 year-old).  Ten years earlier, Lifkin commanded a terrorist team of the Mossad:  This team entered Beirut and assassinated three Palestinian officials; two Israeli soldiers were killed in this infiltration (Read “Searching for the red prince” by Barzhar Whitan Haber).

As of February 1983, this brigade was ambushed eight times.  I arrived in March to a headquarter located in a villa.  The Israeli soldiers were celebrating their Jewish Easter.  One soldier told me “There is no future to Lebanon”. Suddenly, a detonation like a thunder-clap shook the villa.  The second detonation got the soldiers scrambling for their guns and running outside.  Two Jeeps were ambushed and a rocket missile killed two soldiers and injured many others.  The spirit in the villa had changed: Up until now, it didn’t yet sink in the Israelis that they were an occupation force, and unwanted in the land.

By mid May, all hopes had evaporated to staying in the Chouf. Lifkin was making plans to withdraw his troops to north Saida.  Already, brigade 162 had lost 118 soldiers in 6 months (one-fourth the total loss during the invasion). In the south, the Israeli defense line extended from the Awali River, crossing the valley of Bisry River, all the way to the Baruk Mountain. Israel had built helicopter fields, radar stations, and depots for tanks…

In June 1983, Israel Shin Beth secret agents, in civilian cloths, and backed up by soldiers rounded-up 60 young men in the city of Tyr Palestinian camps.  In one month, the Lebanese resistance ambushed the occupation troops 35 times on the regular roads lounging the Karawon artificial lake.  Israel started constructing a highway to avoid old roads.

Israel adopted blackmail tactics:  Mayors of towns and villages had to cough up $5,000 per month in order to hire Israeli appointed “guards” to secure “law and order”.  Otherwise, the sons of the village will not be released from the Ansar prison, and the militias will barge into town, ransack it and round-up more people to prison…

Mayor (mokhtar) Ahmad Shebli of Beit Leef wrote to the UN Netherlands peace force contingent saying: “Are we living within the State of Israel?”  The mokhtar of Yater disbursed the first installment and refused to pay more. Consequently, Israel set up check points at the exit of the town and levied fees on every car and truck leaving town.

In June 10, an Israeli convoy was ambushed by 10 resistance fighters and three soldiers killed.  The town of Gebsheet was stormed and its religious cleric sheikh Ragheb Harb arrested and detained in Tyr.  Gebsheet was thus on the resistance path. When I visited Gebsheet the next day, a banner said “Death is part of our attributes. Martyrdom is a grace from God”.  The Mosque displayed large photos of Khomeini and Imam Moussa Sadr.  A bearded young man named Jihad, a member of Islamic Jihad, was talking of “America the greatest Satan”  Jihad said: “For months, Israel secret service agent, code-named Abu Nour, tried hard to meet sheikh Ragheb, who refused any communication with this occupation officer.  On March 17, sheikh Ragheb was arrested.

A week later after the arrest of Ragheb, ten militia “guards” drove to the Shin Beth headquarter in Nabatieh and returned their guns:  They refused to be part of Israel watch dogs.  Israel appointed Lebanese to head selected associations in order to facilitate communications; for example, requesting the freeing of prisoners in exchange of favors…

On September 4, Israel withdrew its forces from Chouf to north of Saida.  It re-organized the 25,000 occupation forces, and maintained 300 tanks, and 100 field guns in 5 brigades.

In November 4, a Lebanese kamikaze blew up his car, packed with explosive, in the Israel military headquarter in Tyr; over 75 people were killed instantly.  It was time for Israel to regroup its troops and shrink its occupation territory.  (to be continued)

Interview with a general in Israel air force: Who is Specter?

Robert Fisk covered for 9 years the civil war in Lebanon as correspondent to the British The Times and described in minute details the events of the preemptive war of Israel on Lebanon in 1982.

Fisk witnessed the bombing of hundreds of civilian building in Beirut and described the carnage.

On July 27, Fisk dispatched to the Times a telex asking Walker to conduct interviews with Israeli pilots.  Walker replied that Israel does not allow any interviews with pilots.

Israel had the habit of describing its pilots as the best in the world and that the pilots are trained to hit targets with “surgeon precision“.  Surgeon precision was the exact term used for their gunners… The evidence on the ground demonstrated that they were very poor in accuracy and thousands of innocent civilians were dying like flies after each bombing raid.

Natanya (Israel), April 14, 1987

I called Brigadier General of Israel Air Force from Jerusalem and asked him “How all this happened. Why your air-force pilots and you could have done what you did?”.  

Specter understood my question and he was in the mood of talking.  Specter was the commander of Galilee air force base in 1982, during the savage Israeli incursion in Lebanon and the occupation of its Capital Beirut.

Specter was in his garden, a tall, olive colored skin and large faced.  He seemed intelligent, active, and he talked of the moral obligations of handling military arms…His shy wife Elisa followed him with a tray of tea.

Specter was listening to Bach and said: “How can I be of help?”

Specter barely spoke English and took his time selecting his words.  He said: “We were under the impression that we were not targeting civilian areas, but specific targets in civilian quarters.  We didn’t use bomb launcher jets such it was used in WWII. The targets were selected in the battle fields.  We could see our targets.  We were the support force. Long time passed before we realized that something fishy was happening.”

I asked him: “Have you ever visited Beirut, even after Israel occupied this city?”

He replied: “None of us ever visited the targets we were about to demolish or after they were hit. All we did is to get up, hit the target and return to base. Pilots rested for 15 minutes before going on another mission; they carried out three missions a day.”

I asked: “Did any one of the pilots complain? Did any one of them knew what were the consequences of their bombing?”  

Specter replied: “At first, a few pilots expressed sensitivity to the collateral damages on civilians.  Their sensitivity was always fresh. General David Every discussed the issue in every report.

From then on, Specter sounded more confident and shook his head for confirmation, and used to smile when he believed that I comprehended what he was conveying. He went on: “There were rules of engagement:

1. The first rule was to never drop bombs if the pilot could not determine the target.

2. Second, targets not on the lists should not be hit unless fired upon, on condition that the target is 3 miles away from civilian areas…”

I asked him: “Did all pilot abide by these rules?”

Specter said: “I just gave instructions and flew. Officers of the intelligence services selected the targets, their importance, and the timing for the missions.  We had no feedback whether we hit the targets: We had no private sources on the ground. The rule was to drop bombs in the sea if we failed to pinpoint our target.” (It was never recorded that any pilot did drop bombs in the sea)

I asked him: “Who are these intelligence officers? From where did they get their sources of information?”

Specter made a large swap with his hand from right to left and said: “I cannot answer it

I said: “Did the pilots have any confidence in the pieces of intelligence for the targets?”

Specter replied: “I can say this in an after thought that we got suspicious of our bombing. People in Israel started to ask questions: There was something in common between their worries and what we felt in our air-force ghettos of bases.  We believed that we went far overboard, and our missions had no military utilities”.

I drew a sketch of the civilian area in Beirut that was devastated on July 27 and that I witnessed personally.

Specter didn’t confirm and resumed: “There might be reasons. For example, a personal vendetta from the pilot or for targeting the erroneous buildings.”  I said: “Do you mean that the intelligence officer gave on purpose the wrong coordinates?” Specter replied: “Errors come from both sources.  It is also possible that the terrorists had vacated the area before the target was hit…”

I said: “What about the casualties. Don’t pilots ever read or follow-up on what happened after their mission?”

Specter replied: “They occasionally do.  But you are aware of Begin PM opinion “If Hitler was present among innocent civilians, I would have blown up the location…”  Specter looked perturbed of what he just said.

Specter resumed: “We knew that we were targeting civilian quarters. Our tactic was that if we blew up a few buildings then the people in Beirut would vacate the capital.  But the number of targeted civilian building kept climbing and the people stayed in their buildings. The intelligence officers would tell us how many terrorists were located in this or that building and when they will meet…I started to warn my pilots of the doubtful targets the intelligence officers were providing…”  But he admitted that no discussions on current issues of targeting civilian buildings were undertaken

I brought to Specter’s attention that he was constantly referring to the Lebanese and Palestinians as “terrorists“.

Specter then refrained from mentioning terrorists again in the interview.

I asked: “When the pilots began to realize that most of the targets were wrong and misleading?”

Specter said: “It was the genocide in the Palestinian camps of Sabra and Shatilla in Beirut that was the cornerstone of our reversal and questioning.  We realized that what we were doing was not plain mistakes but a horrendous error. It was then that pilots started saying “How can we be sure that information on targets are correct?”

Specter got voluble and said: “Look, there is a problem. We are saying to our pilot if you want to refuse orders then you better agree on our ideology before joining the air force.”

I asked: “Tell me. How does it feel to bomb Beirut? How Beirut looked to you?” 

Specter said: “Beirut is an exact replica copy of Haifa in every thing. In missions, you just focus on the target. It is after you return that you revert to normal life.”  It dawned on me that pilots were trained to fly over Haifa before  being sent on missions to bomb Beirut.

I asked: “If you say that the missions were professional and precise, that the bombing were surgically executed, why all these errors? Isn’t the targeting a matter of computer precision?”

Specter said: “It is all visual.  The computer helps in the timing. We hold the map and the photographs in our left hand and try to locate our target.  The computer is for the correct timing of dropping the bombs or firing the missile on our visual target.”

Note 1:  I reviewed many chapters of “Affliction of a Nation“.

You may start with this post

Note 2: Israel used all kinds of most modern bombs on Beirut such as phosphorous bombs, cluster bombs, and bombs that perforate floors and detonate in basement where hundred of people huddle

Over 40, 000 civilians died in the siege of Beirut in 1982 by Israeli shells.

Kids burned by phosphorous bombs: Usage not internationally illegal yet?

Here is a story I read of the account of the credible British journalist investigator Robert Fisk, during Israel invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and sealing off the Capital Beirut. He wrote in his book “Affliction of a Nation” (Lebanon civil war from 1975 to 1989):

“I visited the Barbeer Hospital with Terry Anderson as we were making our routine visits to hospital and grave yards for accounting of the fallen dead after savage shelling from land, sea and air. We met on July 21 the tiny female physician Amal Shama3, a graduate of John Hopkins and Duke University. This hospital has “welcomed” 200 dead casualties from June 4 to July 10 and was being frequently shelled by Israeli army.

Amal was confronted with news cases of burns that few physicians were familiar with. She recounts: “I dipped the two twin burned babies of just 5 days old in a bucket in order to extinguish the flame.  Half an hour later, the new-born were still burning.  In the morgue, the kids burned for hours.  Next day, as I held the calcined babies to bury them, and suddenly, their body reignited again.”  Amal accounted for 19 phosphorous burn cases between June 6 and July 29, 1982.

Alia, the mother of the twin, was dispatched to the hospital with 11 members of her family and her was suffering from severe burns, as a shell hit their shanty in the Palestinian camp of Bourj Barajneh and spewed white smoke.  Alia had already lost three other kids and was spitting constantly and the right side of her body was burned and her lungs contained particles of phosphorous,  a sure diagnostic that she is a goner.

Physician Amal said: “The Israelis know this is a hospital, but they kept shelling it for five days, preventing us from exiting the hospital.  We lived in the stench of decaying bodies.”

Amal urged me to find out the kind of chemicals used in these bombs, the phosphorous bombs, so that she might figure out an efficient way of handling these cases of burns, at least a way of putting out the flames emanating from the bodies.

I contacted The Times and Michael Horsenel replied : “Phosphorous have been used since WWI in bomb shells for Howitzer-109 and 150 mm, and hand grenades. The German port of Hamburg in Germany was put aflame during WWII:  The Nazi police force used to shoot the injured civilians in order to alleviate their suffering. These bombs are manufactured in the USA, England, and Germany… The US consider phosphorous bombs as regular ammunition…”

In the afternoon, Terry returned to the office and started typing a letter, awfully angry, tears of despair coming down his cheeks: He had witnessed the death of the 3 year-old Ahmad.  He was mumbling: “By God, why this had to happens?”  Anderson had a 7 year-old daughter and loved children.  Terry wrote: “Ahmad Baytam is 3 year-old and suffering from phosphorous burns.  Ahmad is tied down to bed with thin ropes. Physician Amal Shamaa held the stethoscope on his chest and began pressing with her powerful hands while the attendant nurse blew air in Ahmad mouth.  Ahmad is dead. Amal said: “His lungs were contaminated. He was inhaling phosphorous.”

In June 25, a team of US television crew shot footage of the Babeer Hospital and victims of phosphorous burns, and the hundreds of kids dying of shell splinters. Israel censured the damaging scenes.  The US TV kept blank the censured seconds to demonstrate to viewers that these footage were censured.  From then on, TV crewmen sent their footage via Syria, and three US TV even paid what Syria owed for renting the satellites emission.

Beirut had 600, 000 inhabitants and Israel cut off water and electricity supplies, lying through its teeth that it never did such things as President Reagan and the European community condemned these practices.

In June 27, the Red Cross counted 10,112 civilian victims in Beirut.  Folley, Aftimos and I had  counted 250 dead just in the last two days. (The battle of Beirut would last another two months and the death toll would climb to over 50,000, in Beirut alone the toll was 40,000.  Two weeks earlier, Israel fighter jets dropped special bombs in the city of Saida that pierced the floors of buildings and detonated in basements, where people huddled. The Red Cross accounted for 2,000 civilian dead casualties, mostly women and kids, trapped in basements).

Israel was also using two kinds of cluster bombs on camps and civilian quarters, also delivered by the US administration and the US Navy.  I had sent the identification numbers of the non-detonated cluster bombs to The Times (You may read the issues of July 20, 1982).  There is the cluster bomb targeting tanks and guided by radar and the other kinds that kids played with as they found the metal balls spread on the ground, and ended up getting badly injured, mutilated, or killed. The US has supposedly delivered these bombs to Israel under conditions for usage. For example, targeting tanks and military vehicles…,” (but Israel had the habit of forgetting under which terms military hardware were delivered).

In August 5, Israel bombs targeted a wide range of institution around the Hamra Street, institutions of of all kinds, cultural, hospitals, embassies, dailies… Every 10 seconds, a phosphorous shell would hit the offices of the daily “L’Orient le Jour”, the offices of “American United Press”, the office of the Prime Minister, the headquarter of the Middle-East airline, the Bristol Hotel, the Commodore Hotel, the movie center Piccadilly, the American University Hospital, Jewish synagogues…

In September 1987, I met the US plenipotentiary ambassador to Lebanon Philip Habib during this period, at Ditchly in England, and asked him of Israel barbarity of that day in August 1982, he said: “I was at the Presidential palace in Baabda and watched it all. I called up Sharon he he relied: “What I am saying is not true” I let the phone outside the window for him to listen.  That son of a bitch of Sharon said: “What I am seeing is a virtual scene.  What I am seeing and hearing is not the reality.”

For example, even in July 2006, Israel shelled 2 million cluster bombs in south Lebanon in the last three days as a truce was about to be signed. Israel purpose was to scare people to returning to their homes. Six years later, only a third of these cluster bombs have been detonated and the world community is disheartened of extending more funds for eliminating the “infected areas” and caring for the kids being injured playing with the “lovely bombs”.

In 2009, Israel used phosphorous bombs in Gaza.  Nothing changed in the behavior of Israel acting against human rights and international conventions.

Since 1982, foreign correspondents refrained from accepting Israeli information as credible and valid to be published without further investigation.

Note: Robert Fisk was at the time the correspondent of the London Times in the Middle-East, but used the facilities of the Associated Press to dispatch his reports, every day. He is currently the correspondent of the British daily The Independent.

Why Israel committed this Genocide in 1982: In the Palestinian camps of Sabra and Chatila (Beirut)?

Robert Fisk, the credible British investigative reporter wrote in his book “Affliction of a Nation” something to that effect: “By June 5, Israeli forces have cordoned off the city of Saida from all sides, including the sea.  It started shelling the city and bombing from air and sea, and killed over 2,000 civilians.  As Israeli army tried to enter the Palestinian camp of Ain Helweh, 47 Israeli soldiers and officers were made prisoners. The Palestinian leader of the camp, Abu al Zaim, chained the Israeli soldiers around a residence and negotiated the safe exit of the Palestinian fighters from the camp.  As the Palestinian fighters were out of the camp, Abu al Zaim ordered the explosion of the house and the Israeli prisoners were killed.  After this feat, Israel never ventured to enter any Palestinian camp in Lebanon.”

Israel encircled the Capital Beirut and shelled it for over a month.  A deal was struck with Yasser Arafat and 15, 000 Palestinian fighters to vacate Lebanon to Tunisia.  The US and Israel guaranteed the safety of the Palestinian civilians.  Two weeks before the entrance of Israel to the Capital Beirut, the US contingent left Lebanon.  Sharon and his officers had vengeance in mind to the killing of 47 Israeli soldiers in Ain Helweh, but never dared enter the camps.

After the assassination of the elected President to Lebanon Bashir Gemayel, Sharon got the idea of facilitating the entrance of hundreds of Phalanges militias into the Sabra and Chatila camps, supposedly to vendicate the assassination of their “leader” Bashir. Israel discharged about 50 fighters of the stooge Lebanese South army of Major Saad Haddad in a helicopter on the airport.  These soldiers (militias) of the South Army were indeed Israeli/Lebanese and out of control of Saad Haddad who was dying and a smokescreen for the presence of Israel in South Lebanon.  The principal task of the “Saad Haddad” contingent was to control, supply, and initiate the genocide of the Phallenges militias.  Israel had totally cordoned off the two Palestinian camps of Sabra and Chatila and prevented the Palestinian civilians from exiting the camp.

Robert Fisk reported that on the day he arrived in Beirut, Israel was illuminating the night sky of the neighborhood of the camps.  Already, rumors that mass killing is rampant in the camps, but no firm intelligence pieces were coming out.

After three nights and two days of slaughtering civilian Palestinians (women and children) in the two Palestinian camps of Sabra and Chatila, where over 2,500 civilians were savagely exterminated, Fisk was among the first reporters to enter the camps.  The stench was preceded with legions of flies invading any orifice, mouth, nose, and ears…Fisk reported gruesome details of what he witnessed, which I might translate in a followed up article.

Robert Fisk joined an Israeli unit of fresh new recruits, which was dispatched to enter the camps where mass genocide had taken place.  The young soldiers were white of fright and constantly warned Fisk to watch out for the “terrorists”.  “I kept telling them: “What terrorists are you referring to?  In these camps there are but slaughtered women and children.  Can’t you smell decomposed bodies?  The terrorists have already done their job, and they are not the Palestinians…”

Apparently, the Israeli soldiers freshly arriving had no idea of what happened in the last three days:  The Israeli government and army officers had done a nice job propagating the menace of “terrorists in general” hiding in the camps… However, the Israeli soldiers who cordoned off the camps were very much aware of what was happening inside.

The US Ambassador Philip Habib admitted that the US and Israel had guaranteed the safety of Palestinian civilians, after the retreat of the Palestinian fighters.  Philip Habib was in San Francisco when he heard the news of the genocide and called President Ronald Reagan for the default of the US on its written guarantee.

You may read detailed accounts of the international reactions to the genocide in the link of note 2.

Note 1: Sharon had detailed the goal of that invasion ten months prior to the invasion.  Sharon told the Israeli military reporter that Israel had in mind to kick the Palestinian fighters out of Beirut, and force them to settle in Jordan so that they establish a Palestinian State in Jordan…The State of Lebanon will be ruled by Christian stooge government…

Note 2:




June 2023

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