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Third President: Thomas Jefferson (1801-09)

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) was behind the formation of the Republican-Democrat Party against the Federalist Party that seek a strong executive power and supported by Alexander Hamilton.

Once in power, Jefferson switched to a “strong executive” concept and nominated Hamilton for the Treasury.

Jefferson was born in Virginia and inherited from his father 1,000 hectares of land with 200 slaves at the age of 14. His was educated at College of William and Mary and become lawyer. At the age of 25, he is elected at the Chamber of the Bourgeois, the colonial assembly of Virginia (the richest and most populous of the 13 colonies).

He published in 1774 the pamphlet “Summary View of the Rights of British American” which accused the British government of killing American individual rights. and was selected to represent Virginia at the Philadelphia Congress of 1775 and to write the essential parts of the Declaration of Independence.

From 1776 to 79, Jefferson is member of Virginia legislative body where he demanded the separation of Churches from the State.

At 36, Jefferson is elected governor of Virginia and has to confront the frequent incursions of the British.

In 1781, he retired to his property in Monticello and published his “Notes on the State of Virginia”. His wife Martha died in 1782 and Jefferson decided to return to the public life.

In 1785, he is appointed ambassador to France to replace Benjamin Franklin. Consequently, Jefferson could not be physically at the Constitution Convention of 1787, but approve the text globally.

He witnessed the French revolution of 1789. On the autumn of 1789, Jefferson is nominated by George Washington to head the department of foreign affairs. He has this certitude that only France can counter balance the power of England. His ideas on foreign affairs go counter to the Washington inkling and resigns in 1794.

Aged 50, Jefferson is enjoying the life of a land grower and focus on his studies. His friend James Madison is in charge of organizing the opposition to Washington.

Jefferson took residence in the new Capital of Washington DC in 1801. It has barely 3,000 people. His inaugural address:

Minority own equal rights that an equal law must protect… We are all republicans, we are all federalists…” He walks to the Capitol without the traditional white wig and the formal reception is cancelled.

James Madison is nominated head of foreign affairs and replace most of the 600 executive employees with people of his party.

He launched in 1801 a naval attack against the Algerian Pasha for ransoming American ships.

Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon Bonaparte in 1803 for $15 million and the negotiations are held in total secrecy from Congress and invented a new procedure: The Executive Order. This territory included all the States where the Mississippi River passes through. The mischievous story is that England extended the loan to the US for the purchase in order to get the French out of the American continent. Napoleon was preparing to invade England and needed funding…

That loan came with a heavy price: Alexander Hamilton convinced Jefferson to sign on the monopoly of the Rothschild family of England to print US paper money and eventually have control the expansion of the internal US market.

The second calamity attached to this monopoly is that England invaded the US in 1814 in order to pressure Congress to extend this license for 24 years…

The third catastrophe was that England (through the Bank Of US) cut-off credits to the settlers in Ohio and the North-West Territory and plunged the US in a deep financial crisis in 1819.

Jefferson imposes an embargo toward European ports in 1807 and denied any ships coming from Europe to accost on US ports.  This decision is a blow to US trade and Jefferson decides not to seek a third term.

Jefferson returned to Monticello at the age of 66 and created the university of Charlottesville.

He died on July, 4, 1826: a date that coincides with the independence.

How George Washington filled a few loopholes in the initial Constitution…

In the previous post on how George Washington was elected first President https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2014/01/05/how-george-washington-was-elected-in-his-first-executive-functions-part-3/ we wrote:

“The ceremony of investiture is done in the Federal Hall at the angle of Wall Street and Broad street.

At noon, Robert Livingston, the chancellor of New York administers the Presidential oath.

This ceremony institutes two precedents that were not covered by the Constitution:

1. Washington swore with right hand on the Bible

2. And concludes “May God assists me

George Washington had to create the Presidential functions from scratch. He was allocated a limited budget of 16% of the $639,000 spared for the executive branch that was newly provided for in the Constitution.

Washington is supported by a dozen assistants, about 1,000 tax collectors, and 700 military personnel.

He nominated Alexander Hamilton (his right hand during the revolution) for the Treasury, Henry Knox for the department of war, Thomas Jefferson for foreign affairs, Samuel Osgood as Post Master, and Edmund Randolph as Attorney General.

The Constitution didn’t provide for a cabinet of ministers and the heads of department barely met.

Philadelphia was the temporary Capital for the Confederated colonies, and on July 1790, Congress decided for a permanent Capital to the new Federal Constitution. Maryland and Virginia ceded a portion of their lands to erect the capital from the ground up, which was later named Washington DC. The essential building in that Capital will be operational to host the President a decade later.

In August 1789, the Senate refused to provide recommendations concerning a treaty with the Indians in the North-West and Washington decided since then to bypass Congress during the negotiation phase of any treaty.

On June 1790, Washington, bypassing Congress, dispatched 3 incursions against the Indians, 240 km inside Ohio, without declaring war to tame the Indian resistance and opened up the North-West territories for colonization on August 1794.

Alexander Hamilton created a national bank in 1791.

In 1791, Washington traveled for 2 months in the southern States, accompanied by journalists. Washington relied on James Madison to value the executive function, initiated prepared ceremonies, and organized bi-weekly meetings with ordinary citizens to impress his position.

Internal conflicts between Hamilton and Jefferson took Washington and Congress by surprise, and the Constitution had no provisions for such instances among heads of departments. Jefferson issued the daily National Gazette and formed the Republican-Democrat political group in order to oppose the Federalists of Hamilton.

Because of worsening foreign wars in Europe, Washington decided to run for another term of 4 years and obtained in 1793 132 out of 136 votes of the Grand Electors. The Constitution didn’t discuss the number of terms a President can seek. Since Washington and Jefferson refused to run for a third term, it became a custom for Presidents not to try for a third term.

Only Franklin Roosevelt (1933-45) ran for 4 terms before the Constitution was amended for only 2 terms.

In April 1793, Washington accepted the letter of credential of the French ambassador “citizen Genet” without consulting Congress, which was not in session.

On April 22, he proclaimed the neutrality of America in the French/English conflict, a decision that cancelled the treaty of alliance of 1778 with the French, and the legislative branch had to approve this “proclamation” a posteriori.

Madison replied to Hamilton under the pseudo-name of Helvidius that grabbing the double power of deciding on and leading wars by the executive is the beginning of tyranny.

Under Washington, the effective of the military was multiplied by 7.

In 1796, Washington created a first by refusing to divulge to Congress secret documents relative to the Jay treaty with England on the ground of “State security interests“… What were so secret in that treaty?

Thomas Jefferson resigned as head of foreign affairs department in 1794 on the ground that only France can play a counter power to England. He was proven right since British troops invaded the US and burned the new capital Washington DC in order to pressure the US government to renew the monopoly for printing US money by the Rothschild family of England…

The anti-federalists accuse Washington and Hamilton for their close ties with England, and the opposition press suggest that Washington has black blood and may have been an agent to England during the war of independence…

By Sept. 19, 1796, Washington let know that he will not seek a third term. He returned to Mount Vernon on March 4, 1797 and dies on Dec. 14, 1799.

Mason Weems published in 1800 a biography of George Washington, which was re-edited 20 times within 2 decades.

Note: How the-rothschild-family-Controlled the printing-of-the-dollars/https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2012/06/10/privately-owned-federal-reserve-bank-how-the-rothschild-family-controlled-the-printing-of-the-dollars/

How George Washington was elected in his first Executive Functions? Part 3

By July 2, 1788, 9 States out of the 13 have ratified the Constitutional text.

On may 29, 1790, all the Stated signed on.

Between October 1787 and May 1788, Alexander Hamilton, James Mason and John Fray published 85 open letters in New York dailies to explain their conception of the executive federal function.

These letters are collected in The Federalist in the Spring of 1788 in order to interpret the Constitution of Federation.

For additional guarantees to individual freedom, 10 amendments are joined to the initial text, and by the end of 1791, the Federal Constitution goes into application.

It was George Washington that was in the mind of the delegates when they agreed on the presidential function and central power.

Born in 1732 in Virginia, Washington leads the local colony militia at the age of 22. He fought against the French during the European war of the 7 years.

The Continental Congress designate Washington as military chief as the battles with the British started.

With the aid of the French, the 13 colonies gained independence from England.

Washington was not famous as a military strategist but his competence was recognized.

At the end of the War for Independence, Washington put down the New-burgh mutiny and retired to his property in Mount Vernon.

Washington had already presided the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention and is highly qualified for the executive function.

The delegates had to work hard in order to convince Washington to accept to be a candidate.

The electoral process begins on the first Wednesday of January 1789. The legislature of each State designates its two candidates for the Presidency.

On the first Wednesday of the next month, the Grand Electors of each State select their choices. North Carolina, Rhode Island and New York didn’t participate in the election.

Among the 12 candidates are John Jay, John Adams and the governor of New York George Clinton.

The legislature election was done in January, but the voting on the President had to wait till April 6, 1789. Washington received 69 votes and in second place came John Adams with 34 and became the vice-president according to the Constitution.

Washington arrived to New York (the capital since 1785) on April 30, the Inauguration Day.

The ceremony of investiture is done in the Federal Hall at the angle of Wall Street and Broad street.

At noon, Robert Livingston, the chancellor of New York administers the Presidential oath.

This ceremony institutes two precedents that were not covered by the Constitution:

1. Washington swore with right hand on the Bible

2. And concludes “May God assists me

Washington’s inaugural speech was the shortest in history, and then they converge to St. Paul Church for mass.

Next post will cover how Washington transformed the executive functions and added by filling loopholes and gaps in the initial Constitution

Note 1: Read part 2 on power of Executive function https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2014/01/01/initial-constitutional-text-on-the-usa-presidential-institutionpart-2/

Note 2: Read “Les Presidents Americains” by Andre Kaspi and Helene Harter

History of The USA Presidential Institution…

In August 1786, Daniel Shays, a retired officer, lead a revolt of the debtors in Massachusetts in order to block actions of the creditors in courts. The proprietors, rich elite classes and politicians who defended the concept of public order were terribly worried of this turn of events.

What to do in periods of crisis, economic and foreign wars on the US territory?

Since May 1775, before independence, delegates from the 13 colonies took residence in Philadelphia and voted for the Declaration of Independence.

In Nov. 15, 1777, the same delegates adopted the Articles of Confederation and the North-West ordinance of 1787 related to colonization of territories westwards. These articles were applied on March 1781.

During the Confederation status, the power resided in a unicameral legislative body (printing money, naming military chiefs, voting laws and regulating justice differences among the States…)

This legislative body Congress was assisted by 3 departments: Finance, war, and foreign affairs and presided by an honorific President. When not in session, a counsel of States took care of the general affairs of the Confederation.

With the exception of Rhode Island, all 12 States dispatched representatives to Philadelphia on May 25, 1787.

A third of the delegates have fought in the independence war. Most of them were educated, had experience public affairs and were financially comfortable (proprietors of vast land and slaves). These delegates were later named “The Founding Fathers

They discussed for weeks and reached an agreement on Sept. 17, 1787 on a project that replaced the Confederation with articles of Federation and a centralized power. The power resides in the people and includes 3 separate powers: Legislative, Executive and Judiciary.

The project for discussion was conceived by the delegates of Virginia and the notes taken by James Madison were published in 1840 after his death.

The hardest of issues was the level of power attributed to the President: The southern States wanted a weak executive in order to preserve “individual freedom” and keep at bay tyrannical and monarchic tendencies… Thomas Jefferson was leading this group who apprehended the encroachment of the central power on the Rights of the States.

Alexander Hamilton in daily The Federalist pressed for a strong Executive: “A powerful executive which is the essential condition for good governance with a substantial budget to run the interest of the country facing powerful European nations…”

A third group of delegates offered the alternative of Collegiate Executive, emulating the model in Switzerland, where the authority is diluted in the name of liberties.

Mind you that 25% of the Constitutional text were dedicated to the Congress for just 5% to the executive. This means, the Founding Father gave Congress priority in the Constitution which initially had the power to vote on laws, taxing, declaring war, external commerce…

Slowly but surely, the first strong presidents (mainly George Washington and the third president Thomas Jefferson) implicitly encroached on the power of Congress when not in session under various excuses related to “time of crisis” and many loopholes not covered in the initial Constitutional text.

During a full century, most Presidents were of the weaker kinds in exercising their power because Congress took over the selection of the candidates.

The next post will discuss the power of the executive and the selection process as defined by the first Constitutional text

Note 1: Story taken from the French book “Les Presidents Americains” by Andre Kaspi and Helene Harter

Note 2: At the time of independence in July 4, 1776, the colonies had barely 4 million. Virginia was the most populous and richest of the 13 colonies. Massachusetts  was the second most influential in political clout and followed by New York. The other colonies were: Delaware, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Maryland, North and South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Connecticut, Rhode Island.

Note 3: By 1800, the 13 States had 300 dailies that constituted the main media to promote ideas, programs, political positions and candidates for the presidency and Senate. A little over 67,000 popular votes were expressed during the election of the Grand Electors.

Privately owned Federal Reserve Bank: How the Rothschild family controlled the printing of the Dollars?

The US British colonies had the right to print their own currencies before they snatched their independence. Benjamin Franklin was ambassador in France and delivered a speech in London. He explained how the colonies developed and prospered by issuing money as the internal market expanded to facilitate transactions.

The Rothschild family got the message clear and set about to acquiring the monopoly of printing the US money.

In 1804, Alexander Hamilton, US finance minister and aristocrat during President Thomas Jefferson, coerced Congress to sign a charter with the Rothschild financier family to print US currencies.

This decision came as a price for England loaning Jefferson the necessary money to purchase the Louisiana Territory (all the States bordering the Mississippi River) from Napoleon Bonaparte in 1803.

In 1811, the charter for the Ashkenazi Rothschild family owned the first Bank of the United States and managed to be in control of the US money supply. This control expired and the US Congress voted against the renewal of the charter.

Andrew Jackson, later the 7th President of the US from 1829 to 1837, said:

If the US Congress has a right under the US Constitution to issue paper money, it was given them to use by themselves, not to be delegated to individuals or corporations.”

Nathan Mayer Rothschild was not amused and he stated: “Either the application for renewal of the charter for the bank is granted, or the United States will find itself involved in a most disastrous war.”

Andrew Jackson’s response to this was “You are a den of thieves vipers, and I intend to rout you out, and by the Eternal God, I will rout you out.”

Nathan Mayer Rothschild replied:  “Teach those impudent Americans a lesson. Bring them back to colonial status.”

In 1812, backed by the Rothschild’s money, the British declared war on the United States, entered the Capital Washington and set fire on it.

The Rothschild’s plan was to cause the United States to build up such a debt in fighting this war that they would have to surrender to the Rothschild family and allow the charter to be renewed.

In 1816, during President James Monroe, the charter for the Bank of the United States was renewed for another 20 years and the  Rothschild recovered the Control of the US money supply again.

The British war against the USA therefore ended with the deaths of thousands of British and US soldiers, but the Rothschild’s got their bank.

In 1819, the Bank cut-off all credits to the settlers in Ohio and the North-West territory and generated the first big financial crisis.

In 1861, President Abraham Lincoln (16th President of the US from 1860 till his assassination in 1865) approached the Rothschild’s to try to obtain loans to support the ongoing American civil war. The Rothschild’s agreed, provided President Abraham Lincoln allows them a Charter for another US central bank, at interest of 24% to 36% on all monies loaned.

President Abraham Lincoln was very angry about this high interest rate and so his government printed its own debt free money and informed the public that this was now legal tender for both public and private debts.

By April 1862, $450 million worth of President Abraham Lincoln’s debt free money had been printed by the US government and distributed. Lincoln stated:

We gave the people of this republic the greatest blessing they ever had, their own paper money to pay their own debts.”

That same year, The Times of London publishes a story containing the following statement:

“If that mischievous financial policy, which had its origin in the North American Republic, should be become indurated down (be rooted) to a fixture North-West territory, then that government will furnish its own money without cost. It will pay off debts and be without a debt. It will have all the money necessary to carry on its commerce. It will become prosperous beyond precedent in the history of civilized governments of the world.

The brains and the wealth of all countries will go to North America. That US government must be destroyed or it will destroy every monarchy on the globe.”

In 1863, The Rothschild’s used John D. Rockefeller, one of their agents in America, to form an oil business called “Standard Oil“, which eventually took over all of its competition.

In 1864, President Abraham Lincoln discovered that the Tsar of Russia, Alexander II (1855 – 1881), was having problems with the Rothschild’s for refusing their continual attempts to set up a central bank in Russia. President Lincoln asked the Tsar for help in the Civil War and the Tsar sent part of his fleet to anchor off New York and the other part off California.

The Tsar made it clear to the British, French and Spanish that if they attacked either side, Russia would take the side of President Lincoln. Lincoln subsequently won the Civil War.

In 1865, in an a statement to Congress, President Abraham Lincoln stated,  “I have two great enemies, the Southern Army in front of me, and the financial institution in the rear. Of the two, the one in my rear is my greatest foe.” Later that year, President Lincoln is assassinated.

The US Federal Reserve, an owned private institution, was created on December 23, 1913.

It was planned at a secret meeting in 1910 on Jekyll Island, Georgia, by a group of Zionist bankers and politicians. The power to print money was transferred from the US Government to a private group of Zionist bankers.

The Federal Reserve Act is hastily passed just before the 1913 Christmas break.

Congressman Charles A. Lindbergh Sr. warned: “This act establishes the most gigantic trust on earth. When the President signs this act the invisible government by the money power, proven to exist by the Money Trust Investigation, will be legalized.”

US President John F. Kennedy planned to terminate the privately owned Federal Reserve System. In 1963, he signed Executive Orders EO-11 and EO-110, returning to the government the responsibility to print money, taking that privilege away from the Rothschild.

Shortly thereafter, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated.

Another myth that all Americans live with is the charade known as the “Federal Reserve.” It comes as a shock to many to discover that it is not an agency of the United States Government.

The name “Federal Reserve Bank” is not federal, nor is it owned by the government. It is privately owned.  Its employees are not in civil service. Its physical property is held under private deeds, and is subject to local taxation.

It is an engine that has created private wealth that is unimaginable, even to the most financially sophisticated.

It has enabled an imperial elite to manipulate US economy for its own agenda and enlisted the US government itself as its enforcer.

Federal Reserve Bank controls the times, dictates business, affects Americans’ homes and practically everything in which Americans are interested.

It takes powerful force to maintain an empire, and this one is no different.

The concerns of the leadership of the “Federal Reserve” and its secretive international benefactors appear to go well beyond currency and interest rates.

Alan Greenspan, served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve from 1987 to 2006, stated at the annual Dinner and Francis Boyer Lecture of The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research on December 5, 1996:

“Augmenting concerns about the Federal Reserve is the perception that we are a secretive organization, operating behind closed doors, not always in the interests of the nation as a whole. This is regrettable, and we continuously strive to alter this misperception.”

The privately owned Federal Reserve has confused the public, lied to them and stole their gold and silver.

All the perplexities, confusion and distress in America arise, not from defects of the Constitution, not from want of honor or virtue, so much as from downright ignorance of the nature of coin, credit and circulation.

Of all the contrivances devised for cheating the laboring classes of mankind, none has been more effective than that which deludes him with paper money.

After many years of blundering toward it, and only a few months before the beginning of the World War 1, Rothschild found the formula for the most efficient credit machine that was ever invented. This was the Federal Reserve System.

Most people are unsure of the meanings of words such as money, dollar, wealth, inflation and credit. The average person would be very surprised if they knew how the money system used to work compared to how it operates now.

The essence of psychological warfare is to confuse the meaning of words, and infiltrate the mind with conflicting concepts. The use of the word Federal in the name federal Reserve leads the public to believe that the Federal Reserve is a government institution, when it is really a private corporation owned by foreign and domestic banks and operated for profit.

The Federal Reserve controls America’s money supply and interest rates, and there by manipulates the entire economy, in violation of

1. Article 1, Section 8 of the United States Constitution that expressly charges Congress with power to coin money and regulate the value thereof, and.

2. Article 1, Section 10 of the constitution says “No State shall make any thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in payment of Debts.”

Over time, gold and silver coins were removed from American money supply and removed as backing for American paper currency and replaced with debt (or credit).

The definition of dollar has changed to hide the fact that a dollar is not money, but a unit of measurement for gold and silver coin. For example:

1. Title 12 United States Code Section 152 says: “The terms lawful money or lawful money of the United States shall be construed to mean gold or silver coin of the United Sates.”

2. Title 31 United States Code, Section 5101 says: “The money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars.”

The recent equivalent to the goldsmith’s receipt for gold is the Federal Reserve Note. The word “Federal” implies Federal government, but the Federal Reserve is a privately owned corporation. The word “Reserve” implies that something gives the paper receipt value, but no gold or silver backs this paper.

The word “Note” implies a contract, because legally a note must state who is paying, what is being paid, to whom and when.

Most people say something like, “I have a dollar bill”. But what is a bill?

A bill is a receipt of a debt owed by one person or company to another. Therefore, a “dollar bill” is a receipt (or bill) of debt of one dollar that is owed.

From 1914 to 1963, Federal Reserve Notes never claimed to be money, nor did they claim to be dollars. A note for five dollars read: “The United States of America will pay to the bearer on demand five dollars.”

How can a promise to pay five dollars be five dollars?

To the left of the President’s picture and above the bank seal, it said: “This note is legal tender for all debts public and private, and is redeemable in lawful money at the United States Treasury or at any Federal Reserve Bank.”

In 1963, the Federal Reserve began to issue its first series of notes without the promise, while taking notes with the promise out of circulation. How can paper become what it promises by removing the promise?

To the left of the President’s picture and above the bank seal, it now read: “This note is legal tender for all debts public and private.”

A note is a proof of debt. It is not possible to pay off a debt with a debt. No debt can be paid in full unless paid in gold or silver, coined and regulated in value by Congress. The name “Federal Reserve Note” is a fraudulent label since each word claims to be something that in reality it is not.

By removing the promise to redeem the note in lawful money, the Federal Government in cooperation with the Federal Reserve, eliminated the monetary system of the United States as established by the Constitution and replaced it with something totally different.

If you are holding a one dollar Federal Reserve Note, the question is: “what is it one dollar of?

The answer is absolutely nothing. The number one measures no substance.

The only thing that give paper money value is the confidence people have in it as is stated in chapter 30 of our textbook.

Federal Reserve Notes are only accepted because people believe they have value.

Note:  The article was from Nalliah Thayabharan in response to my post: https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2012/05/15/super-nationalist-zionism-contributed-to-the-rise-of-the-third-reich/


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