Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Algeria

Are you curious how USA create, foment sectarian wars and then resolve them?

During Algeria civil war with extremist Islamic factions in 1990, the USA imposed 5 conditions on President Bouteflika to end the war.

1) Algeria oil money is to be deposited in US banks

2) Algeria gas money to be saved in France banks

3) Stop supporting the PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)

4) Stop backing Iran and Lebanon Hezbollah in the UN

5) Form a government with the Islamist factions as done in Turkey

And the US ordered late Saudi Kingdom king Abdullah to desist from buying weapons from Israel, sending them to France and dealing with bribed Algerian army officers who transfer the weapons to the extremist factions.

The US then gave the Algerian army all the necessary coordinates of the location of the factions headquarters and weapon depots. The factions ended their activities within a week.

اتمنى ان تقرأوا هذه الواقعة
10 مايو، 2017/0 .
اذا اردتم ان تعرفوا كيف يتم التحكم بالارهاب طالعوا اجابة وزير الخارجية الجزائري “بن فليس ” السابق كيف تخلصت الجزائر من
الارهاب الذي فتك بها حتى اواخر التسعينات
أ. د . عبدالحميد دشتي نائب سابق في مجلس الامة الكويتي
——————–
سؤال مقدم للسيد بن فليس
كيف تمكنتم في الجزائر من القضاء على ظاهرة العنف والقتل والتي استمرت لسنوات عديدة ؟؟؟؟؟
نظر إليَّ السيد بن فليس وأخذ نفسا عميقا مع تنهيدة بسيطة , قام عن مقعده وطلب مني أن نسير سويا بمحاذاة الشاطيء …..

قال والحديث لبن فليس :
في أحد الأيام استدعاني الرئيس بوتفليقة إلى مقره , فوجدت عنده السفير الأمريكي ومعه ثلاثة أشخاص آخرين , تبين أنهم من دائرة السي أي ايه الأمريكية .

طلب مني بوتفليقة الإستماع لما سيقولون . بدأ السفير الأمريكي بالكلام قائلا :
هل ترغبون يا سادة أن تنتهي حالة العنف والقتل السائدة لديكم في الجزائر ؟؟؟

فأجابه الرئيس بوتفليقة :
طبعا وبدون شك ……
استطرد السفير قائلا :
حسنا , نستطيع أن ننهي لكم هذا الوضع وبسرعة , ولكن وحتى نكون واضحين لدينا شروط واضحة يجب أن توافقو عليه مسبقا ……
أشعره بوتفليقة بالموافقة وطلب منه أن يكمل ……

قال السفير :
أولا :
عليكم إيداع عائدات مبيعاتكم من النفط لدينا في أمريكا ……
ثانيا :
عليكم إيداع عائدات مبيعات الغاز في فرنسا …….
ثالثاً :
عدم مناصرة المقاومة الفلسطينية …..
رابعاً :
عدم مناصرة إيران وحزب الله ……
خامساً :
لا مانع من تشكيل حكومة إسلامية وعلى أن تكون شبيهة بما لدى تركيا ……

وافق الرئيس بوتفليقة على هذه الشروط متأملا إخراج الجزائر من حالة القتل والفوضى التي كانت تعصف بالبلاد ……
استطرد السفير الأمريكي :
حسنا , سنقوم بدورنا بالتحدث مع كافة الأطراف المعنية لإعلامهم باتفاقتا .
سأل بوتفليقة :
ومن هي تلك الأطراف ؟؟؟؟؟

فأجاب السفير :
فرنسا و إسرائيل والسعودية !!!!!!!
صعقنا من ذلك وتساءل بوتفليقة:وما علاقة هذه الدول بما يجري لدينا ؟؟؟؟

أجاب السفير والإبتسامة الصفراوية على وجهه ::
السعودية هي التي تقوم بتمويل شراء السلاح من إسرائيل , وتقوم إسرائيل بإرساله إلى فرنسا , وفرنسا بدورها وعن طريق بعض ضباط الجيش الجزائري المرتشين والذين يتعاملون معها , يوصلونها للجماعات الإسلامية المتطرفة …..

واستطرد السفير وسط دهشتنا :
سنقوم بإبلاغ فرنسا وإسرائيل باتفاقنا وعليكم إرسال شخص من طرفكم للتحدث إلى الملك عبد الله ملك السعودية حيث سيكون أسهل إبلاغه عن طريقكم نظرا لصعوبة التفاهم معه .

على أثر ذلك طلب مني بوتفليقة السفر إلى السعودية لأجل هذه الغاية …..
وصلت إلى السعودية بعد ترتيبات مسبقة , والقول لبن فليس , والتقيت بالملك عبد الله وشرحت له ما تم من إتفاق مع الجانب الأمريكي وأنهم أي الامريكان طلبوا من باقي الأطراف وقف الدعم للمسلحين , والآن على السعودية وقف تمويل السلاح .

استغرق حديثي مع ملك السعودية عدة ساعات دون أن يوافق وأصر على موقفه . عندها اتصلت بالسفير الأمريكي وأعلمته عن تزمت الملك السعودي وعدم موافقته على هذا الإتفاق .

أجابني السفير :
لا بأس انتظر قليلا , سأهاتف الملك شخصيا ….. لم تمض بضع دقائق حتى استدعاني الملك وهو يربت على صدره قائلا :
ابشر ابشر .
بعدها بعدة أيام توقف الدعم والتمويل للإرهابيين , وتم تزويد قواتنا المسلحة من الأمريكان بإحداثيات لمواقعهم وأماكن تواجدهم , حيث قامت قواتنا المسلحة بالقضاء عليهم وخلال فترة بسيطة من الوقت

انتهت القصة . هذه القصة التي سمعتها مباشرة من صديقي وليس عن وعن .
والآن أعزائي وأحبتي هل لكم أن تدركوا حجم الدور الذي يقوم به آل سعود وحكام مشيخة قطر في دعم الإرهاب وفي خدمة أسيادهم الأمريكان ولغاية تدمير بلداننا العربية مقابل الحفاظ على كراسيهم ؟؟؟؟

وكيف تتم معالجة مثل هذه الأمور ؟؟؟؟
وما هذا عما يحدث الآن في سوريا والعراق واليمن وليبيا ببعيد .
— – – – – –
أ. د . عبدالحميد دشتي نائب سابق في مجلس الامة الكويتي

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Dying while looking forward for a 4th term: Algeria President Abdelaziz Bouteflika

The 77-year-old president maintains staunch support in part because he presided over the end of the civil war that erupted in the early 1990s after the success of an Islamist party led the army to intervene in elections and lasted for a decade.

The brutal conflict, involving the military and Islamic militants, left tens of thousands of Algerians dead.

Abdelaziz Bouteflika

Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika waves from inside a vehicle on March 3, 2014, in Algiers.(AFP/Getty Images / March 3, 2014)

Bouteflika supporters view him as capable of ensuring stability for the North African nation amid upheaval in the region.

Algerian officials announced in February that Bouteflika, who has been recovering from a stroke he suffered last year, planned to seek a fourth 5-year term. He came to the voting booth on a wheel chair.

The president easily won the vote in 2009. Government critics, however, consider elections unfair with state institutions under Bouteflika’s control.

Amara Benyounes,  a Bouteflika campaign official, said in an interview Sunday with a French television station that the president could continue leading the country.

(Algeria gained independence from France in 1962 after a decade of bloody war with the French colonial troops and the adoption of terrible torture methods and terrorist attacks from both sides.

More than 500,000 Algerians were killed. The French troops and their allies lost over 37,000).

“His health is steadily improving,” Benyounes said, and “his head works very well.”

Bouteflika survived the so-called Arab Spring that began in December 2010 and resulted in several revolts in the region, including government changes in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Yemen.

Shortly after the uprisings, Algeria – a beneficiary of oil and gas resources – took preemptive initiatives to appease the public, such as increasing subsides on food and implementing pay increases.

A recent report by the International Monetary Fund showed that the unemployment rate in Algeria fell from 29.5% to 10% between 2000 and 2011. (What kinds of jobs?)

Bouteflika is one of 6 presidential candidates this year. Analysts say the others have little chance of winning, though there have been recent signs of government opposition. (One candidate is a woman who ran three previous attempts and is a left leaning activist for women rights)

On Saturday, Bouteflika’s campaigners canceled a rally after opponents stormed the venue in the eastern Kabylie region. On Wednesday, demonstrators threw stones at the Algerian prime minister’s motorcade during a campaign event, the Associated Press reported.

There have been several such incidents in recent weeks but the country has not seen a large-scale political movement against the Bouteflika government, said Imad Mesdoua, a political analyst with the Mintz Group investigative services firm.

“Protests in the capital, Algiers, were initially suppressed by police,” Mesdoua said in an email interview. “The government and Bouteflika loyalists have repeatedly targeted [protesters], labeling them as either ‘agents of foreign interference’ or ‘importers of Arab Spring-style instability.’”

And many Algerians, particularly young people, have not shown great interest in the election, he said.

“Most [Algerians] are more interested in day-to-day bread and butter issues, such as youth employment and housing,” Mesdoua said, “and don’t really feel represented by any of the political parties in the political scene.”

Note: Bouteflika WAS RE-ELECTED by a huge margin (reminiscent of dictatorial regimes), but the leading opposition candidate (Bouteflika’s former PM) claimed vast mishandling in the election process and would not admit defeat.
ALSO:

Israel imposes more sanctions on Palestinians

 

French assassins trained by British secret services since 1942…

From 1952 to 1962, during the independence movements of the various French colonies around the world, the French secret services SDECE assassinated over 200 political leaders and arms dealers.

The oversea French Empire stretched from East Asia (Viet Nam, Cambodia), Western Africa, Central Africa (of Omar Bango), North Africa, Syria, Lebanon, Polynasian Islands, Latin America…

Winston Churchill ordered the British secret services in 1942 (during WWII) to train French assassins from the Corsica and Sicilian mafias and gangs and expedite them to eliminate German spies and French leaders who were pro the Vichy government.

Amiral Darlan was assassinated in Dec. 1942 by Fernand Bonnier de la Chapelle because Churchill disapproved of Roosevelt’s option of selecting Darlan as President of France after the war ends.

The Maghreb States of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia suffered the most from the terror tactics and inhuman torture methods of the French assassins hired from among the mafias and gangs.

A few of the victims are: Omar Drissi, Ahmed Slaoui, Baby Berrada, Tahar Sebti, Farhat Hached, Ben Barka

A few of the assassins are: Tony (Antoine Melero in “The Red Hand”), Colonel Paul Paillole in “Services speciaux”, Emile Buisson, Abel Danos, Louis Raggio, Joe Renucci, Mathieu Zampa, Meme Guerini, Robert Arthur Blemant, George Thierry d’Argenlieu, Dolan, Marcel Le Roy Finville, Jacques Abtey, Marco Calvert, Gaston Boue-Lahorgue, Marcel Hongrois, Jose Salord, Alexandre Tislenkoff, Christian David, Francois Marcantoni, Ange Simonpierri, Marcel Francisci, Dominique Ventura, Jo Attia of the Lepie Street gang, Henry Fille-Lambie (alias Morlane or Capt. Fillette), Bob Maloubier

Michael Foot in “SOE in France” mentioned the meeting of the circle “Murder Incorporation” in Marseilles in 1952. The CIA representative Irving Brown, Lucky Luciano, Robert Arthur Blemant, representatives of the clans Orsini, Gurrini, Renucci, and Calenzana… met and decided on a grand plan of murder activities.

The long-term objective of this circle was to “free” the major ports in the Mediterranean Sea from the hold of the “leftist” and communist syndicates by murdering and dispersing the leaders of these syndicates.

This was the beginning of what will be called “The French Connection” for trafficking opium, heroine and cocaine all over the world, and particularly to NYC and Miami.

In Viet Nam, the French reopened the opium usage, traffic and cultivation in order to finance the costly illegal activities. The French authority and troops cooperated with the Binh Xuyen pirates to dominate the distribution of opium in Saigon and to export the surpluses to Marseilles. General Salan was commander in Saigon and was an addicted opium user, several times a day.

In Algeria, the rebel French army formed the OAS under the leadership of Challe, Susini, Degueldre, Salan, Jouhaud… in order to oppose de Gaulle decision to give Algeria its independence.

In March 1962, street to street battles in the Capital Algeria confronted French soldiers from both sides, loyalist and rebel forces, a war that generated 60 killed and 200 injured.

The French secret services Service Action, headed by Foccart, dispatched its assassins and killed many of the rebel army leaders.

In May 1962, a cease fire with the Algerian independent factions was signed, a deal that was to retain a temporary French troops for 3 years in order to achieve “smooth” transition for the repatriation of the Pieds Noirs (French who colonized Algeria since the mid of the 19th century) and the Harkis (Algerian soldiers within the French troops).

The smooth deal never materialized and 400,000 French Pieds Noirs “citizens”, who never set foot in France, had to transfer within 3 months and relocate in their “homeland”. This war of independence lasted 7 years and the toll was over 500,000 Algerian killed along with 35,000 French troops and cooperators.

Mind you that in 1962, France of de Gaulle started its open air nuclear testing in Algeria. The indigenous people were not warned of what’s happening and even the French soldiers were not briefed of the danger of exposure to contamination.  The documentary showed French soldiers in shorts and short sleeves after the nuclear explosion.

Soldiers are the vast pool of citizens to be abused of and sacrificed for the sake of the Emperor, and they were not told of the danger in order not to frighten the other groups who will be dispatched for the over 160 nuclear tests conducted within the decade. And the government never acknowledged that their ailments were caused by the nuclear radio-activities.

In the French Polynesian Islands, entire islands exploded and the neighboring indigenous people were not warned of the nuclear explosion and left to die in the days and months later. No treatment or care were invested on these people who chanted the Marseillaise whole heatedly when French personalities visited the islands.

Mind you that it was France that dotted Israel with its nuclear plant in the 60’s and armed Israel with all kinds of weapons.

Most of the French politicians supported the activities of these  assassin and waited anxiously the results, politicians such as Guy Mollet, Mendes France, Mitterand, Chaban-Delmas, Jules Moch, Michel Debre

Note: Information from part of this post was taken from the French book “The cleaners: spies, rascals, crooks… at the service of the French government” by David Defendi

“Black skin, white mask” by Frantz Fanon (1925-61)

Decolonization process affects the individual and modifies him fundamentally: it transforms crushed and unessential spectators into privilege actors.

Decolonization introduces a proper rhythm to the newly created man, to the new languages, and a newer humanity.  Man is liberated through the process and demands revisiting a set of questions in the integrally of the new situation: The damned spectators in the last rows want to edge to the first rows and then become full actors on the scene.

The damned of the earth want to smash the tribal and clannish conditions that colonial powers maintained to divide and subjugate.

This kind of violence is a de-intoxicating phase to get rid of the inferiority complex.  This initial violence tends to unify the damned of the earth toward national unity regardless of tribal and sectarian roots.

Thus, this violence has no pity to reactionary forces that struggle to maintain colonial statue-quo.

The damned needs the post colonial violence to re-gaining self-esteem: he wants to believe that success was the work of all the damned, even if not a single shot was fired in many decolonization conditions.

The damned is elevated to the rank of leader and refuses to confirm any single person as the “liberator”, simply because he wants to understand everything and then to decide on every issue.

The conscience of the damned, illuminated by violence, does rebel against any sort of pacification program. The de-colonized damned of the earth intend to demand from the colonial powers to rehabilitate man, his dignity, and his human rights. (1961)”

Frantz Fanon (1925-61) was born in French Martinique Island and died of cancer at the Bethesda hospital in Washington DC. He was buried, according to his will, in Algeria where he practiced as psychiatrist for four years (1954-57).  Algeria acquired its independence the following year to Fanon’s death.

Fanon was engaged in the French Liberation Army in 1943 and received the war medal in 1945. He then studied psychiatry in Lyon and he adopted the vision of his mentor Francois Tosquelles (1912-94) that says that hospital should be the center of unifying the sick, nurses, and physicians for the sole objective of rehabilitating and re-inserting the sick to normal society.

Frantz was incensed to witnessing Creole people (mixed blood) in French colonies trying to behave as class apart of blacks and be accepted as white to the heavy price of deep amputation in their heritage and culture.

Thus, Fanon published in 1952 his “Black skin, white mask” which is a study of the alienation of black people whose identity is defined by the others (white prejudiced culture).

Race is a prison for black man; he is radically alienated into becoming an object.  Black man should refuse to shoulder the burden of past slavery and thrives to catch up as man among men. Nigger is not; White too is not!

Mother, look at this nigger; I am scared: he wants to eat me live.  Every white child is scared when he sees me.  When a black man shivers of cold then the kid thinks that the black man is shivering of rage. I tended to get amused first, but quickly this game turned impossible to suffer. It dawned on me that every apartheid attitude is fundamentally not based solely on color but on every culture that is different of the mainstream culture. (1952)”

Note: Fifty years after acquiring independence, most African States have reverted to tribalism and religious antagonism.  The colonial and imperial powers have been at it indirectly: the enemy is not that obvious, because black foremen and black intellectual are doing the maligning and the work hired by multinationals that are mostly directly backed by their respective powerful governments.

“The damned of the earth”; (Feb. 19, 2010)

            “Decolonization process affects the individual and fundamentally modifies him; it transforms crushed and unessential spectators to privilege actors.  Decolonization introduces a proper rhythm to the newly created man, to the new languages, and a newer humanity.  Man is liberated through the process and demands revisiting a set of questions in the integrality of the new situation: The damned spectators in the last rows want to edge to the first rows and then become full actors on the scene.

            The damned of the earth want to smash the tribal and clannish conditions that colonial powers maintained to divide and subjugate. This kind of violence is a desintoxicating phase to getting rid of the inferiority complex.  This initial violence tends to unify the damned of the earth toward national unity regardless of tribal and sectarian roots. Thus, this violence has no pity to reactionary forces that struggle to maintain colonial statue-quo.

            The damned needs the post colonial violence to re-gaining self-esteem; he wants to believe that success was the work of all the damned, even if not a single shot was fired in many decolonization conditions.  The damned is elevated to the rank of leader and refuses to confirm any single person as the “liberator” simply because he wants to understand everything and then to decide on every issue.

            Illuminated by violence the conscience of the damned rebels against any sort of pacification program. The decolonized damned of the earth intend to demand from the colonial powers to rehabilitate man, his dignity, and his human rights. (1961)”

            Frantz Fanon (1925-61) was born in French Martinique Island and died of cancer at the Bethesda hospital in Washington DC. He was buried, according to his will, in Algeria where he practiced as psychiatrist for four years (1954-57).  Algeria acquired its independence the following year to Fanon’s death.

            Fanon was engaged in the French Liberation Army in 1943 and received the war medal in 1945. He then studied psychiatry in Lyon; he adopted the vision of his mentor Francois Tosquelles (1912-94) that says that hospital should be the center of unifying the sick, nurses, and physicians for the sole objective of rehabilitating and re-inserting the sick to normal society.

            Frantz was incensed to witnessing Creole people (mixed blood) in French colonies trying to behave as class apart of blacks and be accepted as white to the heavy price of deep amputation in their heritage and culture. Thus, Fanon published in 1952 his “Black skin, white mask” which is a study of the alienation of black people whose identity is defined by the others (white prejudiced culture).

            “Race is a prison for black man; he is radically alienated into becoming an object.  Black man should refuse to shoulder the burden of past slavery and thrives to catch up as man among men. Nigger is not; White too is not!

            Mother, look at this nigger; I am scared: he wants to eat me live.  Every white child is scared when he sees me.  When a black man shivers of cold then the kid thinks that the black man is shivering of rage. I tended to get amused first but quickly this game turned impossible to suffer. It dawned on me that every apartheid attitude is fundamentally not based solely on color but on every culture that is different of the mainstream culture. (1952)”  

Note: Fifty years after acquiring independence, most African States have reverted to tribalism and religious antagonism.  The colonial and imperial powers have been at it indirectly: the enemy is not that obvious because black foremen and black intellectual are doing the maligning and the work hired by multinationals that are mostly directly backed by their respective powerful governments.

Note 2: Check my newest category “Black culture/Creole”

Devastating civil war in Yemen: Is it of any concern to the UN? (Oct. 27, 2009)

The UN did it again!  Civil wars in non-oil producing Arab States are left to run its natural steam until the State is bankrupt and ready to be picked up at salvage price.

The UN tends to get busy for years in collateral world problems when civil wars strike any non oil-producing Arab States.  Occasionally, the UN demonstrates lukewarm attempts for a resolution in oil producing States as long as it is under control.

Lebanon experienced 17 years of civil war.  Morocco still has a civil war in south Sahara for three decades.  Sudan has been suffering of a rampant civil war for four decades.  Algeria is experiencing a resurgence of a devastating civil war that started in 1990 because Europe refused to accept a democratically elected Islamic majority in the parliament.  Iraq was totally neglected while Saddam Hussein was decimating the Shias and Kurds in Iraq for three decades, even after the US coalition forced the Iraqi troops out of Kuwait.  Somalia never got out of its miseries for four decades so far.  Mauritania is rope jumping from one military coup to another. The other Arab States are in constant low-level civil wars overshadowed by dictators, one party, oligarchic, and monarchic regimes.

A week ago, a few trucks were allowed to cross Saudi borders to Yemen carrying tents and necessary medicines to stem rampant diseases where hundred thousands of refugees huddle in refugee camps on the high plateau of North-West Yemen, by the borders with Saudi Arabia that closed its borders and chased out any infiltration of refugees.

The most disheartening feeling is that you don’t see field reporting of this civil war by the western media.  The written accounts are from second-hand sources and decades old. They abridge the problem by stating it is a tribal matter. They feel comfortable blaming Iran; then how this land locked region can be supplied by Iran needs to be clarified. The western media is easily convinced that Al Qaeda moved from Saudi Arabia and was ordered to infiltrate the Somali refugee camps in South Yemen; then how Al Qaeda got to be located in a region of North West Yemen with Shia Yazdi population is irrelevant.

The population of North West Yemen forms the third of the total and it is Yezdi Chiia that agrees to seven Imams and not 12 as in Iran; the Yazdi sect does not care that much about the coming of a “hidden” Mahdi to unite and save Islam.  The western media want you to believe that this war, which effectively started in 2004, is a succession problem to prevent the son of current President Abdallah Saleh from inheriting the power. Actually Saleh’s son is the head of the Presidential Guard which has been recently involved in the war after the regular army failed to bring a clear-cut victory.

Yemen was a backward States even in the 60’s.  South Yemen had a Marxist regime backed by the Egyptian troops of Jamal Abdel Nasser against North Yemen ruled by an ancient Yazdi Imam; a hereditary regime labeled the “Royalists” and backed by Saudi Arabia. After the Soviet Union disintegrated Yemen unified in 1990.  Since then, South Yemen and North West Yemen were deprived of the central State financial and economic distribution of wealth.  President Saleh could present the image of a “progressist” leader as long as Yemen was out of the screen and nobody cared about this bankrupt State.

Yemen is on the verge of being divided into three separate autonomous States, the South, North West, and Sanaa the Capital.  The problems in the Horn of Africa have migrated its endemic instability into Yemen; refugees from Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Sudan have been flocking into the southern shores of Yemen for same climate.  Heavy influx of contraband products are keeping the people of these two regions precariously afloat. The deal between Hillary Clinton and Israel foreign affairs Levny to patrol the Indian Ocean was not just meant for Gaza but mainly to prepare President Saleh for his 2009 campaign against the rebels in North Yemen by monitoring contraband arms shipments to the “hawssy” rebel.

Saudi Arabia, during the duo power brokers of Prince Sultan and Neyef (respectively Ministers of Defense and the Interior) did their best to destabilize Yemen on account of fighting the spread of the Shia sect in the Arabic Peninsula. Yemen has no natural resources to count on and the population is addicted to “Qat” that they chew on at lunch time for hours.

Yemen was the most prosperous region in the Arabic Peninsula for millennia.  Land caravans started from Taez and then passed by Maareb from which town the caravans split to either Mecca (then to Aqaba and Syria) or took the direction to Persia and Iraq. All kinds of perfume, seasoning, and textile landed by sea from India and South East Asia; incense was produced from a special tree grown in Yemen and Hadramout. The British Empire didn’t care about this region; all that it wanted to secure were sea ports for commerce and to defend the entrances of the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea to Egypt.

The UN is inheriting the same lax attitude of the British Empire; as long as the US bases are secured in this region then the hell with the people. Qatar arranged for reconciliation in 2007 and Saudi Arabia interfered to fail it. Archaic tribes fighting one another wearing daggers as symbol of manhood are all that there is in Yemen.

Sahara Lives (May 13, 2009)

The southern part of the Arabic Peninsula such as Yemen, Muscat, and Hadramout had trade routes for the incense they produced since the third millennia BC using donkeys for transport.  These urban civilizations domesticated first the camel for its milk and hair (coat) for tent making and eventually its meat. Camels were then used as beast of burden within the urban regions; an implement in the form of horse shoe (bat) surrounded the boss and when attached in the front served for stabilizing loads on both sides.

As camels were discovered not to need to drink for over two weeks while crossing long distances under extremely hot climates then, various modifications were necessary to holding loads for desert travels. Eventually, in the second millennia techniques for designing saddles for war purposes as a mounting fighting beast were introduced; there were saddles located ahead, on, or behind the boss of the camel for specific fighting advantages; the main specifications related to matters of control of the beast, stability, and range of vision.

The Bedouin caste system was thus created by the urban merchant to domesticate camels.  Camel riders were later used to support caravans as fighting guards against raiders.  Raising camels thus became a lucrative trade that specific tribes of Bedouins had the monopoly. The Romans never introduced camels in their northern African colonies because camels did not exist then in that region.  Otherwise, the Empire of Carthage would have used camels instead of elephants for their greater benefits.

Camels were introduced in the Sahara after the second century BC.  Bedouins riding domesticated camels crossed the Red Sea from Arabia and reached Mauritania on the Atlantic by taking routes in the sub Saharan regions such as Sudan, Chad, Niger, and current Mali. Then various tribes ventured north to Morocco, Algeria, and Libya.

In the seventh century AC the Moslem Arabs conquered North Africa and one of their leader Tarek bin Ziad crossed the Gibraltar strait to invade Spain. By and by, Arabic tribes settled in North Africa; the tribe of Banu Hilal settled in Morocco. More trade routes from the north to the south of the Sahara were created.  Consequently, nomadic tribes from south and north of the Sahara communicated.

There are many nomadic tribes crossing the sub Sahara desert.  One of the most known tribes is what the French called “Touareg”.  The name Touareg is an Arabic name for “tawareq” meaning “outsiders”.  The French colonial power tried hard to weave myths around the Touareg mainly to distinguish them from the “Arabs” who resisted every foreign colonial invasion from Spain, France, and Italy.  Consequently, the Touareg had to be categorized as a “white race” and very different from their Arab counterparts and the inhabitants of Algeria were divided as Arabs (coastal urbane) and Kabila (tribes or people of the interior).

Sahara is the Arabic plural for “sahrat” given to uncultivated lands but that are still inhabited by seasonal nomadic tribes around oasis close to urban centers. The desert regions that are not inhabited at all are called “khali” or “khlat”; caravans occasionally cross these desert area for seasonal trading events.

There are lopsided romanticism in favor of the lifestyle of the nomadic tribes based on myths of freedom, liberty, and level of democracy in organizing their life; I bed to differ strongly.  I recall reading an article published in 1908 in Paris by the Lebanese journalist Jubran Tueni Senior mocking a new method of teaching freedom to Bedouins.  Tueni relates that representatives from a new political party formed in Damascus visited nomadic tribes in Huron with the purpose of explaining the freedoms guaranteed by the new Constitution.  Tueni ends his articles “Wouldn’t it be wiser for the urban representatives to learn the fundamentals of freedom, liberty, and democracy from the Bedouins?” That is the kinds of romanticism that has plagued and is still plaguing our understanding of the “high” moral quality of nomads.

There are many different tribes settling and crossing the Sahara and speaking different slangs.  Almost all the nomadic tribes in the Sahara are Moslems with variations in the strictness of application of the “Sharia” or laws.  There are definite hierarchical structures within the tribes; in general, tribes specialized in raising camels are at the highest level. The Touareg tribes have a matriarchal society, the same that the Arab Peninsula tribes had before Islam; in the sense that women run the economical and daily life of the tribes and the men do the outside commerce and the raiding to bring in the spoil and loots.  The tents of the Touareg are made of leather while the Arab tents are made of camel and goat hair; the design of saddles is also different.

I recall a paragraph of one of the earliest books of George Orwell “The Cleric’s Daughter” describing the Gypsies with their stupid faces and their eyes shining with malice and mean purposes.  Many people might consider these sorts of descriptions as racist.  That authors should be judged as they change and develop and not on their early beginning is out of this subject matter. My contention is that this description could be applicable of any people who have been displaced from their familiar environment; it is true to nomads transplanted to urban environment for making a living or westerners happening to live among the nomads for making a living and not just tourists.  The factor of utter fear in new unfamiliar settings within a different society is the same no matter how advanced we think we are.  The nomads lead a harsh life and the exigencies for survival should eliminate romantic tendencies that they are saints and the ultimate in liberty to live at will.

The European nations, especially France and England, had far-fetched projects to conquer the Sahara. For example, they contemplated a TransSaharien railroad that would link the north to the south; they had projects to flood part of the Sahara by the Atlantic Ocean and form an artificial lake that might allow navigation to the Mediterranean Sea and circumventing the Gibraltar strait; they designed a string of hundreds of wells; and they wanted to divert the Nile River inland. There is a complex aquifer system deep in the Sahara large as 3 millions square kilometers.

Libya managed to construct a long and large water duct through the desert; this project is to be 3 thousands kilometers long and would extract 6 millions cubic meters per day from the underground aquifer by 2017).  Al-Khufrah, in Libya, is a town of dozens of artificial oasis.  Egypt has irrigated, since 1997, 600 thousand hectares from this underground aquifer from the oasis of Bahriya to the oasis of Kharga. Algeria mobilized 20,000 soldiers to plant 3 millions trees and restarted this project in 1998.  In 2007, Algeria has started the construction of solar energy; the Sahara is destined to produce enough solar energy to satisfy 25% of Europe demands in energy.

Currently, the Sahara is providing gas, oil, and uranium to the western countries including clandestine immigrants fleeing to better pastures.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

September 2019
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