Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Arabic Peninsula

Do we have to emulate what the Arab Bedouin of the Arabic Peninsula did 1,400 years ago?

Islam changed many societies except the Bedouin of the “Arabic” peninsula.

Not only Islam was a means for them to expand by force and didn’t make a dent to their customs and traditions, but they want Muslims to emulate their backward mentality.

Note: I posted this article as an example of the level of frustration we have been submitted to since Saudi Kingdom disseminated Wahhabi Madrassat everywhere there are Muslims in 1985.

1400 عام…
منذ 1400 عام عاشوا في البراري …ناموا في المضارب.. اضاووا لياليهم بإشعال الزيت و الحطب …لم يعرفوا غير الرعي و السبي و الغزوات .. تيمموا بالتراب …تقاتلوا … تحاربوا ِ. تناحروا .. تزاوجوا..

منذ 1400 عام تركوا لنا قصصا و سيرا ذاتية و أحاديث و نصوصا .. قالوا إنها مقدسة ..كما قال اللذين من قبلهم …و بعد 1400 عام يتوجب علينا أن نفكر بها كما كانوا يفكرون …ان نلبس كما كانوا يلبسون … ان نعيش كما كانوا يعيشون ..ان نتقاتل كما كانوا يتقاتلون..ان نتزوج كما كانوا يتزوجون ..
1400 عام من التزوير ..و المطلوب أن نصدق كل ما وردنا …و نحن نشهد تزوير الحاضر ..


1400 عاما من التمترس خلف شخصيات و حكايات لا نعرف شيئا عن حقيقتها و يتوجب علينا أن لا نخرج من عباءاتهم..و نقتدي بهم و نمتثل لهم …ان نسير في موكب تشييعهم… ان نزور اضرحتهم حتى اليوم …
1400 عاما .. ونحن نفسر ماذا قالوا … و لماذا قالوا …و ماذا كانوا يقصدون …


1400 عاما من الصلوات و الدعاء على النصارى و اليهود ..
لتشتيت شملهم …و لم يتبق لنا شمل ..
لتدمير أوطانهم …و لم تبق لنا أوطان …
لسبي نسائهم..و لم تسبى إلا نساء المسلمين ..
1400 عام من الزكاة …و عدد الجياع و المحرومين يزداد كل يوم في بلاد المسلمين …


1400 عام من الصيام و البطون تكبر و الأوزان تزيد عند شيوخ المسلمين ..
1400 عام من رجم الشيطان …و الشيطان يتكاثر في بلاد المسلمين ..


أيتها الأمة النائمة…ان من تصلون و تدعون عليهم..وصلوا للفضاء..ناموا على سطح القمر …شطروا الذرة …جزاوا الثانية ..اخترعوا الثورة الرقمية …و أنتم لم تفلحوا إلا بثورة الأعضاء التناسلية ..و تتدارسون حتى اليوم طريقة دخول المرحاض …و ماذا يفسد الوضوء غير المرأة و الكلب الأسود..


و عندما اجتهد العلماء..توصلوا لجهاد النكاح …و سفاح القربى …و إرضاع الكبير و وداع الزوجة الميتة..


أيتها الأمة النائمة..الا يحق لعقولنا أن تتأثر بهذا الفيض من المعارف و العلوم و التكنولوجيا التي تحيط بنا …و هل يتوجب على عقولنا أن تبق رهينة منذ 1400 عام ..و تنهل من كل العلوم لطالما كانت صالحة لكل زمان و مكان…كما تدعون …و لو كانت صالحة لماذا بقينا على تخلفنا..و لماذا لم يأخذ الغرب منها …


عندما نضع الحصان لفلاحه الارض..و الحمار للسباق …
فلن نجني خيرا …..و لن نكسب الرهان …

Notes and comments on FB and Twitter. Part 28

Les bouleversements graves ménent une existence souterraine. Le genie politique est de les débusqués a temps

On a negligé de considerer serieusement les limites irreversibles du climat: Le mal est deja incurable.

The language of Daesh and Al Nusra has No connection with Arabic. The source is pre-historic “Arabic Peninsula”

People in the urban centers in the Arab World don’t understand the rhetorical language of Daesh and Al Nusra

The various dialects in the Arab World don’t match formal Arabic. If you want to learn Arabic, don’t read formal books.

Taking the short-cut of learning formal Arabic will steer your “enlightenment” far away from current state of affairs in Arab World

Refrain from pressuring him to kneel when he wants to ask for your hand: You’ll pay dearly later on.

The Near-East (Le Levant) frequently enjoyed centuries of peace and enlightenment. This piece of intelligence is Not to be known and disseminated in the colonial West.

Les échanges séculaires se rompent, a une acceleration brutale. La faille entre Nord et Sud s’élargie a la mesure des mers et oceans.

L’Histoire ecrite a tendance a privilegié les scenarios apocalyptiques et  tendent a se confirmer. Les siècle de paix et de lumiere ne figurant pas dans ses chapitres. Les rares chercheurs d’archives, bien intentionés, attachent ces joyeux addendum

On n’a jamais observer, grandeur nature, des societies ou les jeunes males seraient en surnombre écrasant: le désequilibre de la delinquence parmi les adolescents est un symptome serieux.

L’amour comme dérobade, l’étreinte comme ultime argument: la pensé ne se repose jamais, meme dans les reves.

Tous les reflexes de survie sont honteuse et mesquine, meme si on y attribute quelque légitimité

Les departs definitive ne sont pas épinglés a une date: Ni écharpe ni chasuble ne seront “au bon voyage”

Il n’y aurait plus le récomfort d’un port d’attache a “l’arriére de la tête”: Tout fut détruit, meme la fibre sociale

On ne rejette toujours pas les naufragés a la mer: On fait semblant de n’avoir plus les moyens.

Oú se retrouve désormais cette demarcation entre Nord et Sud? La violence latent s’installe partout

Il n’y a plus de nuance entre violence déclarée et violence latente: le sauve-qui-peut souffle sur le monde. Mais óu aller?

A l’exode des expats vint s’ajouter a celui des elites locales. Meme les gens du commun font bagages que l’avenir épouvante.

Pas de complicité? Alors, plutot étrangére l’une á l’autre.

Pas de chuchotement? Pas de tete-a-tete? Alors pas de confidence.

Comment déceler les apprentis sorciers qui zelent a monopoliser les secrets de la vie?

Comment apprendre a voir dans la larve les contours de l’image adulte? Toute cette violence déchainee, emmagaziné Durant l’enfance.

On peut toujours assumer que les villages du Sud éteignent leur feux de campement. Cette réalité se retrouve au Nord, feu éteint, sauf la TV et les portables

L’Histoire écrite semble un fleuve dont le lit est creusé a l’avance, pour accommoder la logique. Mais non, l’histoire modern se pert dans les deserts et les marécages stagnants.

Le Nord insiste toujours a designer les contrées a risqué (au Sud), defense de franchir cette latitude de l’enfer.

La violence latent est réservée dans les archives top secret des bureaux d’intelligence. La violence declare est communiqué quand le covert operation a terminé

Un nouveau crime legitime contre l’humanité: Privation d’avenir

Pour retrouver le Nord, de la Mediterrannée ou le Rio Grande, point n’est besoin de boussole: les ainés ont precedes ces oiseaux migrateurs, la route est déja inscrite dans leurs genes.

Should be an international right: any person can enjoy the opportunity to go somewhere else: a place away from civil war, lingering violence and endemic poverty

Frequently, I save a good title in my backlog: I have this firm conviction that I eventually will give flesh to the article

Je polissais le dernier chapitre. Avant d’entamais l’ecriture des autres chapitre. Une technique merveilleuse pour commencer les projets Non pratiques

La plupart d’entre nous ménent une vie, assoiffée d’attention et d’une main douce, carressant nos rare cheveux

Une vocation, une inspiration profonde et irresistible, une griserie creatrice…s’accompagne d’un manqué de don et de talent. Seule, la pratique constant et a long-terme peut devenir suffisante.

Les apparences de maturité des adroits tailleurs cache L’Enfant en culotte courte

The novel, “The last century after Beatrice” published in 1992 by Amine Maalouf is the best in predicting our current troubles, this enlarging split/shasm between North/South and East/West

Le salut sera planétaire ou il ne sera pas: la folle sagesse seculaire d’eriger des murs de quarantaine doit faire place aux risques mineurs de l’ouverure des frontiéres.

Le basané, le crepu, le barbu, l’etranger comme vecteur ambulant latent de violence?

Les chiffres de la pauvreté nouvelle ne font que balbutier ce que les rues hurlent a tue-tete, des rues froides de terreur.

Si je se raconte mes histoires avec humour, c’est les contes du petit royaume du “Je” de chacun de nous.

We hire live-in helper, and refuse to admit that her personal problems are more important to her, far more than the needs of your children

Populous speech (sha3bawi) is the most appropriate for Presidential election speech. It is downhill after this speech when eventually rationality immerse itself.

A lire  La promesse de l’aube” by late Romain Gary. Tant d’humour

A lire “Le premier siècle après Beatrice, 1992” By Amine Maalouf. Predicted the current cataclysm in Middle-East, Africa, Europe

La legend de mon avenir brilliant par ma mere etait ce qui tenait sa vie: Mon amour-propre, ma virilité suspecte, ma dignité en suspend… tout cela ne pouvait entrer en ligne de compte.

Si je parle tellement et si haut de l’honneur, d’appels a la dignité et a la justice… c’est que j’ai vécu trop longtemps du travail d’ume vielle maman, malade et surmenée. Je lui en veux beaucoup.

L’etude de 20 pages d’un psychoanalyst de renom, fesant le cas que j’étais attaint des complexes de castration et de fécal, le comble du chic, m’a prove que je suis devenu quelqu’un

Il me faut un public pour donner le meilleur de moi-meme.

Les orphelins et ceux qui sont en manque, savent dire avec un regard reveur: “Vous pouvez dire que votre maman vous aime vraiment”

Commandant Mére m’envoyait des billets lapidaires. Les phrases ressemblaient aux proclamations des géneraux vaincus: “Nous vaincrons, car nous sommes les plus forts”, “Courage mon grand, tu reviendra a la maison a la fin de l’ an, le front ceint de lauriers…”

Friends of parents are more interesting to kids. Parents are the first broken-records examples to kids: That’s how they learn.

 

 

Main Difference between ISIS and monarchist family of Al Saud

ISIS or Daesh adopted the Wahhabi Islamic sect that the tribe of Saud in the Najd province,  in the Arabic Peninsula, adopted in the 18th century.

This was a religious sect that was the most extreme in denying the worship of prophets, shrines, pictures, music on any form of pleasure.

The Saudi monarchy is a branch of a Bedouin tribe that affiliated with the theocratic extremist religion of Wahhab.

It is the difference between an abstract religious dogma with a set of daily prescriptions and a real living tribe with customs and traditions.

It is like the difference between the Jewish religion, the religious Jews  and the State of Israel.

In the province of Najd in the Arabic peninsula, there exist wide differences among the tribes.

The differences are even wider between the tribes in Najd and the tribes of the northern provinces close to the Syrian and Jordanian borders.

An abyss separate the psychological characters between the sedentary and nomadic Arabic tribes.

The British Palgrave in the 19th century described the Wahhabis tribes in the Najd province:

They are less generous than the tribes in the North.

They quick in understanding difficult projects.

They are Not cheerful people and less candid than other tribes

They rarely express through words their secret feelings

They are firm in their plans

Are terrible in their vengeance

Are implacable enemies

They doubt whoever is Not their compatriot.

The expression of their features denote reserved, hard, and gloomy dispositions: They contrast with benevolent faces of the northern tribes

They have limited intelligence

They are strong and persevering will which makes them capable to powerfully organize their social system and become their neighbors tyrannical masters

Their ambitious dream to dominate the entire Arabic Peninsula will be realized earlier than one think

Their character is reflected in the slightest acts of domestic life.

One should watch his tongue and measure his gestures when dealing with them as he should with enemies.

Ibn Saud, backed by the British, managed to conquer all of the Peninsula and entered Mecca and chased out the Hashemite dynasty. The British offered the Hashemite  a kingdom in Jordan, in Damascus and in Baghdad.  Only the Jordanian dynasty survived the turmoil of the Syrian and Iraqi independence movements.

In order for the Saudi monarchy to survive, Ibn Saud ordered his descendants to follow his strategy in the Arab world:

1. Egypt is the head of the Arab World: decapitate Egypt

2. Syria is the heart of Arabism: Remove this heart

3. Never allow Syria to link up with Iraq under any condition: This would create the Oriental power house in the region.

The USA, Israel and the western colonial powers couldn’t agree better, and kept the Middle East States in constant destabilizing conditions and unable to unite.

Note 1: In 1818, Ibrahim Pasha, the elder son of Egypt Muhammad Ali, entered and erased the Wahhabi capital Deryeh. After Ibrahim left the Arabic peninsula, and two decades later, the Wahhabi tribes were back to their old habit of raiding the Syrian provinces by the border, thanks to the  sustained British aids in finance and military weapons.

Read my review: https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2011/12/01/part-2-mehemet-ali-the-last-modern-pharaoh/

 

How current “modern” Islam radicalized into negative and oppressive precepts?

I’ll discuss three radical trends: The Moslem Brotherhood of Egypt, the Wahhabi Islam brand in the Arabic Peninsula, and the Ben Laden (Al Qaeda) for international jihadists.

1. In 1929, Egypt was relatively the most modern State in the Arab World. The Al Azhar religious university was guided by an enlightened sheikh Abdel Razeq.  Author Taha Hussein had published a very controversial book on poetry during Jahiliya period (before Islam in the Arabic Peninsula), and the Egyptian court refused to ban it.

During that period, the monarchs Fouad and Farouk and their entourage went overboard emulating the western life-style and flaunting blatantly their unacceptable behaviors to the little people.

Hassan al Banna (founder of the Brotherhood in 1929) jumped at the occasion of life-styles that obfuscated the common people and blamed the modern interpretation of Islamic teachings as a cover to the to the ill-behavior of the ruling classes.

Consequently, a return to Chariaa and fundamental “bedouin” Islam: tribal ancient customs and rules were prescribed in order to overcome the current degenerate conditions that will weaken the Moslem spirit for Jihad against the infidels…

The presence of colonial Britain in Egypt was mainly opportunistic catalysts for every time the British governor harshly confronted street demonstrations and uprisings…

Colonial western life-style was added as a practical dimension to the reactions of the Brotherhood members. The Brotherhood was implicitly regarded anti-colonial and, as a logical result, a de facto national movement…

2. The Wahhabi brand of Islam.  This sect was initiated by Abd el Wahhab in the Najd region in the Arabic peninsula in the early 19th century, during the Ottoman Empire. This Hanafi sect was quickly supported by the emirs in Najd, particularly the Saud tribe, and is currently classified as the fourth admitted sect in Sunni Islam.

Mainly, the Wahhabi movement was opposed to the Ottoman Empire, which didn’t really administered directly the Arabic Peninsula, and was funded and supported with arms by the British Empire, which had plans to occupy strategic ports in Aden (Yemen) and the Arabic/Persian Gulf.

Mind you that Islam of the Ottoman Empire was pretty loose and accommodating since the foundation of the Empire, and the Chariaa was observed with wide latitude  All that the Sultan wanted was the title of Calif of all the Moslems.

It happened that in the early 19th century, the Ottoman Empire was wide open to western culture and life-style and some Constitutional reforms were underway, called “Tanzimat” (Regulations)

The British got wary of reforms starting in the Ottoman Empire, and worked on minorities to destabilize the already shaky and declining Ottoman Empire. And how best to rally the tribes around in the peninsula if not by adopting opposite theological and radical religious positions against the Calif?

And quick to a drastic shift to the “fundamentals” of Islam, as the Protestants acted against the Catholic Church in the 15th century. What are these fundamentals? Abolishing and destroying all icons, pictures of Imams and Holy men, prohibiting pilgrimage to Imam sites wide dispersed in all Islamic world, as substitute to the expensive pilgrimage to Mecca…And back to Bedouin customs, traditions, setting more constraints on women…: The modus operandi to rooting the movement within the dominant tribes.

The Ottoman Sultan kept harassing his Viceroy in Egypt, Muhammad Ali, to send an expeditionary military force to wipe out the spreading of the Wahhabi uprising.  Finally, Ali dispatched his young 19-year old second son who entered Mecca and liberated it from the Wahhabis after many difficulties. The elder son Ibrahim Pasha carried out an extensive campaign for years and managed to enter and destroy the main City-State of the Wahhabi inside the deep desert.

And for two decades, the Wahhabi movement subsided, until the Egyptian forces had to return home. The British resumed their funding and support for the Wahhabi movement and eventually conquered all of the Peninsula in 1923.

Since Sadat of Egypt acceded to power in 1970, the Saudi Arabia absolute monarchy had been building mosques all over Egypt and hiring clerics of Wahhabi  inclination, re-publishing their own Coran and distributing it for free…

3. The Ben Laden phenomena of international jihadist movement. Ben laden kept swinging between the Moslem Brotherhood and the Wahhabi sect, driven by the political opportunities opened to him and which captured his attention. Ben laden had no fundamental theological doctrine or dogma and with no definite long-term purpose for his movement.

In the early 1980, he was a CIA agent and was dispatched by Saudi Arabia to usurp the nascent movement of Arab Jihadist flocking to the city of Peshawar (Pakistan) to be trained and sent to fight the Soviet communists in Afghanistan. The CIA wanted to be in control of the “resistance movement” against the Soviet…

After the Soviet withdrawal in 1989, no Arabic State wanted these fighters to return home. These jihadists were relocated to created Hot Spots around the world. The CIA took charge of that bounty of cheap recruits who are zealot and already trained and dispatched them to “containment regions” under the Soviet dominion…It was still the Cold War era.

To make a long story short, (extensively developed in a previous article) the US became an ideal target for the Al Qaeda movement which resulted in the 9/11 attacks on the Twin Towers and the reactions in conducting frequent drone attacks killing potential Al Qaeda “leaders”…

Note 1: The US has got to understand that the Arab peoples feel that an entire century was wasted, for nothing, and worse than going back to point one in 1918, where the Arab people hoped and demanded independence, and the colonial mandated powers replaced the Ottoman and created the Zionist state of Israel. More on that in a follow-up article.

Note 2: How to win war on terrorism https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2010/01/25/how-can-i-win-the-war-on-%E2%80%9Cterrorism%E2%80%9D-part-two/

What if a sticky myth can’t be disproved? Who is Tah Hussein?

I lean for the notion that a myth has factual features, though the story becomes fundamentally a myth by successive alterations.  So what?  Most novels are claimed to be fictions, though there is no doubt authors are describing their own feelings and positions in many sections of the novel.

For example, there is this story of Abraham and his sons Ismael and Jacob and his many wives, legitimate or not.  Obviously, there is no way to disprove this story (this story should not be a big deal: it must have been a common story among families and societies, related to customs and traditions at the time and in the region…)  

For example, all the monotheist, which I prefer to label mono-idolatery, religions (Jewish, Islam, and Christian) claim Abraham for father figure, and they discriminate their religions based on Abraham’s descendents.  In fact, if these religions didn’t disseminate the Abraham story as true, who would care if it was a factual story or one of the famous mythical fictions?

The process of disproving a myth, or its inherent value and the futile labor in investing time in non-documented research, is not the theme of this article. 

My question is: “If you know that there is no adequate means to tackle disproving a myth connected to religious beliefs then, is it worth antagonizing religious people just by stating that (their convictions are based on myths) and not having the moral courage to specializing in all the aspects of the myth?”

Some people would say: “If this myth is wrecking havoc to the unity of society (meaning  of disturbing conformity) then, is it your moral obligation to say that a myth is a myth until proven otherwise?”

Some people would say: “If the impacts of this myth is redundant on society then, it is a crime to approaching and taking out the skeletal of this myth and making it an issue that harms peaceful coexistence and encourages extremist, racist, and obscurantist elements around the myth.”

For example, in 1926, the late Egyptian author Tah Hussein published “On poetry in Jahilyya” (the pre-Islamic period in the Arabic Peninsula.)  First, who is Tah Hussein?

Hussein was blind by birth and is dubbed “Dean of Arab literature”. He continued his education in France and received a doctoral on his thesis related to Ibn Khaldoun (Ibn Khaldoun lived in the 15th century Tunisia and is known as the founder of sociology or ethnography). Hussein divorced his Egyptian wife and married a French woman Suzanne.

“On poetry in Jahilyya” Hussein claimed that his critique is Cartesian; which means a rational method requiring the author to “forget” or set aside all that he knew on a subject matter and then, starts with a clean sheet re-studying the topic from a rational and scientific perspective. Obviously, the sentence “forgetting what we knew” cannot be feasible; saying that an author has to do his best to starting with a neutral position might seem more accurate, but it is not:  How can you get interested in a topic if you are essentially neutral about it? (see note 2)

In one of the chapters of this monumental manuscript, Hussein proposed several views.

First, Hussein claimed that Abraham is a fictional character (but he failed to back up this contention) in his drive to discrediting many religions meddling in literature, which obscured and prevented serious investigations for the development of the Arabic language and literature: religions asserted facts that are principally myths in nature.

For example, Islam (submission to Allah), by claiming Abraham as the founder of Jewish and Islam religions, was a gimmick  adopted by the Prophet Muhammad to uniting Jewish and Christian sects into one comprehensive and common denominator system of belief.

Hussein might not have known then that:

1. Muhammad’s father was a convert to one of the “heretic” Christian-Jewish sects in Mecca (“heretic” was a label extended by the orthodox Byzantium Church);

2. One of Muhammad’s uncles was the Patriarch of this sect;

3. Muhammad joined his uncle once a year, and for an entire month of fasting, prayer, and meditation;

4. Muhammad was versed and immersed in the belief system and the stories of his uncle’s sect.

Second, Hussein proposed that the Prophet Muhammad read his verses in seven Arabic dialects corresponding to the main Arabic tribes in the Arabic Peninsula. (The Coran was finally codified during the third Caliph Othman bin Affan (from Quraich tribe of Mecca) into the Quraichi tribe dialect.)

Third, Hussein claimed that it is not true that Islam was the first religion that the Arabic Peninsula experienced.

Fourth, Hussein denounced the zeal of claiming that the genealogy of the Prophet (the successive clans and tribes) must be the best among the tribes.

There are more propositions which incited the ire of the clerics in Al Azhar who took Hussein to court.  Hussein didn’t hesitate to cancelling this “controversial” chapter from his next versions titled “On Jahilkiyya literature”.  Actually, the press coverage of the proceedings had disseminated the views of Hussein extensively among the intelligentsia in Egypt and the Arab World.

What was striking in these court proceedings is that the prosecutor basically defended the book in a 40-page investigation; the investigation was balanced and rational and the book was not condemned.  That was Egypt between the two world wars; a period of enlightenment that the Lebanese immigrants participated mightily in promoting freedom of speech and opinions in dailies and magazines.

Note:  Tah Hussein published another highly controversial book “The future of Egypt’s culture”.  In this book, Hussein claimed that Egypt culture is basically a Mediterranean Sea culture and a close relative to Greece, Italy, and France, but in no way related to the cultures in Persia and India.  Hussein demonstrated that most of Greek and Roman intelligentsia studied in Egypt, before a few returned to their City-States and established their own schools.

Hussein proposed that ancient Greek and Latin be taught at Egyptian schools as was the case in Europe at the turn of the century. (I think that is the case of the culture in Palestine, Lebanon, and Syria. It was the case of coastal Turkey till the 16th century).  In the 16th and 17th century, the Ottoman Empire experienced total embargo with Europe, economically and culturally, due to its military expansions in Europe. The Ottoman Empire had to turn toward Iran and India to satisfying all its demands in all fields and sectors.  You may read my article “Lions and lionesses in the Fertile Crescent”

Note 2: The famous poet of the 8th century (Baghdad) Abu Nawas was asked by his mentor to memorize 1,000 pieces of poems.  The next season, the mentor demanded from Abu Nawas to doing his best forgetting all the poems he has memorized.  This was an exercise of renewing with your own personality and character…

Nomad pragmatism versus submission to Allah; (Mar. 30, 2010)

The nomads (or bedwins) in the Arabic peninsula before Islam were highly individualistic, even within their clans.  The idols they came to ask for personal benefits and privileges had to satisfy their desires.  Otherwise, idols were discarded as pure rocks or woods.

The large wood carved idols were very prized by the rich tribes because they were imported and were expensive.

Here you have a nomad from the tribe of Mudar arriving to give sacrifice to a rock idol named Saad (Happiness) around Jedda: he wanted his preferred idol to protect his flock of camels and wanted his stock to fructify.  The camels smelt the blood of sacrificial animals on the rock and got agitated; they fled to the desert.  After gathering his camels the nomad returned alone to his idol and declaimed a poem saying: “We came to Saad to unite me with my camels.  Saad divided and dispersed us. Who is Saad in fact? He is but a stupid rock lost in a sterile desert.”

Another example is told of the famous poet Umru2 Al Qaiss, a leader of a Christian-Jewish sect clan. He came for benediction for his next vengeance raid on a rival clan that assassinated his father. The oracle demanded Al Qaiss to be patient and he got angry and said: “Go suck my father’s dick.  If he were your assassinated father you would have not been consulting me anyway”

Islam of submission to one and all-powerful Allah was hard on pre-Islamic tribes to swallow: they needed control over their idols.

The Prophet Muhammad’s verses, lambasting the arrogance of the Pharaoh of Egypt for refusing Moses message to believing in one God, is memorized and recalled by Moslems when they target dictators “taghia”.  The Pharaoh had retorted: “only senile people and weak in their mind submit to another God but me

It is interesting how Moslems, especially urban living Moslems, criticized harshly and verbally their “taghia” leaders, but practically submit to them as long as he is in power.

Submission to Allah in Islam is but a continuous and relentless call against arrogance and blatant individualism: Being considered as equal in a society of believers (man/woman, free man/slave, regardless of race and origin) was anathema to nomadic customs and traditions.

The key verse in the Koran is “We created you man and woman; we have constituted you in confederations and tribes so that you get to know one another.”

The quick victories of Moslems in the first century after the death of the Prophet are mainly due to this spirit of equality of believers regardless of race or origins. It swept away caste and clan affiliations and ancient hierarchical privileges in its advance toward Africa and then to Far East Asia.

Equality among believers was the power of Islam until dynasties of Caliphs had to rely on clans, tribes and castes in conquered lands for support to their dictatorship.

The Moslems have this impression that the current Western civilization, especially among the political leaders, doesn’t give a damn about a God, but plainly submit to power and money. The Western leaders acquired this basic knowledge never to admit that they are no believers in one God, but to constantly ask for His benediction before the start of a war or a critical campaign.

Mainstream Moslems tend to agree that Western leaders think like the Pharaoh “Only the weak in the mind (the common people) believe in one God”

“Sophie’s World” on Indo-European and Semitic civilizations; (Dec. 15, 2009)

Since the 19th century, European “nations” have been trying to set up a “coherent” racist ideology, disguised as “civilization difference”, to supporting their colonial expansions.

Thus, many European “elites” of philosophers and “thinkers” fabricated the Indo-European civilization in order to have any kind of fictitious basis to distinguish themselves from the “non-European” people. Ironically, the author Jostein Gaarder seems absolutely convinced with this fictitious story.

First and obviously, as an axiom or evident proposition, the Europeans had the best civilization. Thus, the antithesis was that the Semitic and other “Chinese sort” of civilizations were lumped at the other extreme end.

Second and obviously, Semitic civilization had to be fabricated in order to satisfy Hegel theory of dialectical processes of history for human knowledge development.

Third, the European nations had no purpose to reaching any synthesis among civilizations: They were on a war path to dominate, win, and prove the superiority of their “Indo-European civilization”.

Actually, the civil wars in Europe and the USA always ended with a victor regardless of cost, trauma, and casualties such as the civil wars in the USA, Spain, England, and France. In non-European cultures, civil wars end with no clear-cut winner in the short-term.

In China, the communists and “nationalists” signed a truce to confront the occupying Japanese. India civil war between Hindus and Moslems ended after its independence with the third of the population remaining Moslems, even though Pakistan was created for repatriating Moslems to that new State.

In Lebanon, 17 years of civil war ended with all factions losing, and their leaders appointed deputies and members in the successive governments. (that is the worst ending for any nation).

The story goes that four thousand years ago, primitive people concentrated in the Caucasus region around the Black Sea (the actual States of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Chechnya…). They immigrated westward to central and north Europe and also eastward to Iran and India.

In the Arabic Peninsula, there were tribal people who immigrated to Syria, Iraq, Egypt, and North Africa and are called Semitic. (Now, why people would settle in arid desert land or in high mountain chains in order to survive? It looks like this rational question was beside the point. We know that people settle in mild weather regions rich in water resources, and they immigrate to God forsaken regions to flee persecutions. This logical question seems also beside the point to the Indo-European ideology).  Let us move on.

On religion: Indo-European civilization believed in a variety of Gods (this was true with the Semitic category, but facts had to be altered to suit the dichotomy method).

In the original Indian language of Sanskrit the celestial God Dyaus was transferred into Zeus, Jupiter (Jov-pater), and Tyr (for the Nordic people). (Can you show me any resemblance in phonetics?).  The Viking God Aser was transformed from Sanskrit Asura and Persian Ahura; (What about Ashur that was adopted in Babylon and the Near East or Ashtarut?)

Another example, in Latin we have Deus and in Old Norse Tivurr which were transformed from the Sanskrit Deva and the Persian Daevra; (should I continue with this masquerade of God’s names?)

(Consequently, Semitic civilization must believe in one God. Trinity is thus the creation of the Greco-Roman culture for altering Christianity initial dogma.  Allah or El was the supreme God, even though He didn’t generated money from the worshipers who dedicated their money to their more practical and pragmatic local business Gods.)

On myths: There are stories on immortal potions, struggle of the Gods against monsters of chaos, the subject playing a drama in which forces of Good and Evil confront one another in a relentless struggle, predicting the Good to win. For example, the Indo-European civilization, specifically the Greek, have tendencies to speculate on how to view the world (philosophy); they have “insight” into the history of the world and the concept of “cosmic vision”.

Thus, vision (the seeing sense) was the most important among the senses and images of Gods in pictures, and sculptures were predominantly used to honor the Gods. (Gaarder must have forgotten that “cosmic vision” is the realm of nomads in deserts, where stars appear close to hand reach.)  Indo-European civilization view history as cyclical, just like seasons; (what kinds of seasons they have up north? I thought there are long winters and a very short stuffy summers.)

Consequently, Semitic civilization had to rely on hearing or the auditory sense.  For example: “Hear, O Israel (Land of El)” or “Thus spake Jehovah”, or “In the beginning was the word”.  Why?

Because tribes relayed their culture verbally by repetitive story telling.  As if the Nordic people didn’t rely on the verbal (could they write a thousand years ago and had they documented their culture?). No matter, since the Greek learned to write then the ideology stands viable.

Anyway, since the Semitic must be in the auditory realm of the senses, then images of God in pictures and sculptures had to be prohibited for the western racist ideologies to take roots.

On after death: Transmission of the soul in Indo-Europe culture is cyclical, the soul is transferred to new-born and the ultimate purpose of life is for the soul to be released from this infernal cycle. .Thus, for the Semitic civilization, history must be linear and that is why they were preoccupied recording history!

God created the world and it will end with the Judgment Day. Thus, there is a distance between God and his creation so that Semitic believers were to be redeemed from their sins by prayers, and the study of the scriptures rather than by self-communion and meditation as Indo-European behave!

Can we propose that Hegel’s theory of dialectical processes of history for human knowledge development had set the stage for western superiority ideology, the re-writing of history to suit the feable minded philosophers and politicians?

The devil is NOT in the details; (October 16, 2009)

 

            Details are what bring people together to communicate, dialogue, and negotiate to reach compromises.  The main wall that separate among communities is the concrete wall mixed with myths, general concepts, and abstract notions.  Strong with draft details each organization can start to sort out the differences and comprehend the big picture; it is never the way around in social behavior. I will discuss two cases, one religious and the other of political nature.

            After the crucifixion of Jesus many Christian sects were born in the Near East in the first four centuries.  Fundamentally, these sects were almost identical in applying the Jewish daily rituals or the Jewish 650 laws of “correct” conduct. What separated these sects were abstract concepts that did not harm their peaceful coexistence in separate communities of believers: they never attacked by force one another; military persecutions started when the Church acquired central power in Constantinople; whole “heretic” sects and entire communities had to flee to safety. 

            Thus, The Mighty Wall was erected after 325 AC when Byzantium Empire decided to adopt Christianity as the main religion of the Empire.  Thus, the central power concept of the Empire dictated that church should be centralized.  Instead of focusing in negotiating on the details that split the various sects an upper abstract super-structure on concepts was imposed; concepts such as the dual nature of Christ, the deity of the threes (the father, the son, and the Holy Spirit), the virginity of the mother Mary and on.  This time around, the sects were to join the Orthodox Church by force if need be: a central Empire cannot permit disunity, even on totally nonsense abstract conjectures!

            Consequently, the labeled “heretic” sects had to flee beyond the eastern shores of the Euphrates River (to the Persia Sassanide Dynasty).  The Nestourian sect reached China and translated “their” Bible into the Chinese language. Many other “heretic” sects settled in the Arabic Peninsula; the Christian-Jewish “Ebionite” sect was firmly entrenched in Mecca; the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, Ain Warkat, was the Patriarch of this sect and Muhammad learned to read in the Aramaic Ebionite Bible; Muhammad aided his uncle in the translation of this specific Bible into the Arabic slang of Mecca.  Thus, Islam is originally a common denominator “heretic” Christian sect, one of many Christian sects in the Arabic Peninsula; the Prophet had to delete all the abstract notions to unite the sects; it was named Islam or the belief in the One and only God.

            The strong animosity of the Catholic Church of Rome against Islam was not directed at a religion such as Buddhism or Mazdean but at a new “heretic” Christian sect usurping its central power in the Near East. The Orthodox Church in Constantinople was more lenient with Islam because it understood its genesis and the causes for the need of this new “heresy”; for Constantinople Islam was the oriental counterpart of Protestantism to Rome when Islam became the dominant religion in the region. 

            It is said: “the enemy of my enemy is my ally”; this Machiavellian principle was lost to obscurantist Catholic Church. Rome was too far away and fought Islam with the ignorance of abstract concepts. For the Catholic Church in 1,000 AC, Islam was doubly “heretic” instead of just the counterpart to the central Orthodox Church of the Byzantium Empire: it failed to realize that if Islam spread so fast and so widely it is mainly because most the labeled Christian heretic sects quickly converted to Islam as representing their system of belief against the monopole of Constantinople.

 

            The other case is the concept of a Syrian Nation with well delimited natural borders including Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and part of Iraq to the west of the Tiger (Dujlat) River. This concept was highly widespread among the people of the region as the Ottoman Empire was dying during WWI.  It was still even more alive during the mandate of France and Britain to the region (Near East) after WWI. The people in the Syrian Nation speak one language and have the same customs and tradition.  This nation was as natural as ABC; the immigrants were first called Turks during the Ottoman Empire and then they were all called Syrians regardless of location or religion.

            The main problem is that the political parties spent two critical decades proving the evident (according to the newer definitions of the West for a Nation) instead of making the effort to developing draft detailed programs on the type of political administrative structure for this nation, the social representation, and election laws; (for example, is it a Federal structure like the USA where each mandated State is fully autonomous with local government and local parliament, or provinces tailored made to religious, ethnic, and sectarian majorities, or loosely united States with open borders, common money, central army, or centralized foreign affairs; is Syria to be a monarchy and what kind). 

            Instead of discussing detailed programs, political parties mushroomed with abstract concepts not based on facts or pragmatic long-term goals. The colonial “mandated powers” of France and England had field days of “dividing to rule”.  Every sect established its political party in every potential State claiming either total independence, or seeking a pan-Arabic Nation of Arabic speaking majorities in States, or Islamic Nation.  We watched the emergence of communist parties disclaiming the notion of affiliating to a nation, to sectarian parties claiming democracy, socialism, and progressive. The worst propaganda that was encouraged by the colonial powers is to incite citizens against the Syrian people with the objective of discrediting the word Syria and giving it a bad connotation.

              Natural borders of chain of mountains, desert, or large rivers do not necessarily protect from invasions; natural borders certainly encourage people to trade and interact inside the borders.  It is the internal rough geography and terrain that protects from outside military incursions.  Once a force crosses the border then Syria is an open land all the way to Egypt. Syria, or the Near East, was continuously occupied by foreign armies: these foreign invaders had to retreat quickly or get absorbed culturally. Whatever monuments, constructions, temples, sport arena, or scholarly works that were attributed to invading nations (Persia, Egypt, Greek, Rome, or Arab) are basically the work of the Near Eastern civilization, their scholars, their craftsmen, and their adventurous business acumen.

            The City-States in the Near East (Tyr, Sidon, Byblos, Ugharit, Mary …) competed in commerce and trade but never attacked one another militarily.  In Greece, City-States frequently waged military wars against one another.  The Near Eastern people adopted defensive strategy; even Carthage in its apogee refrained to antagonize Rome militarily.

            Egypt and Persia frequent invasions in the Near East did not last long.  The Greek were absorbed: what Europe claim as Greek civilization is nothing less than the civilization of the Greek writing Syrians who spoke Aramaic.  Rome was finally absorbed: the Roman Laws are of the legal minds from the school of Beirut and the latest Emperors were born, raised, and educated in Syria. The Byzantium Empire was fundamentally a Near Eastern Empire.  The Arabs from the Arabic Peninsula were absorbed when Damascus was selected as Capital during the Umayyad Dynasty; the Arabs were absorbed by the Persian civilization when the capital shifted to Baghdad.  The Mogul retreated quickly but established long lasting Empires in India and Afghanistan. The Ottoman conquered this land and could not be absorbed: the Syrian people were already exhausted from many years of successive invasions, religious obscurantism, and immigration by scholars to greener pastures.  France and England retreated within two decades.  Israel failed to retreat on time and is now being absorbed as Near Eastern regardless of Israel attempts to seeking European image.

            Consequently, failing to writing a draft on a possible administrative program for the Syrian Nation opened the door to abstract concept instead of working out negotiation and dialogue on pragmatic matters that concerned the people.

Nomads or the transmitters of civilizations; (September 5, 2009)

There are several types of nomadic tribes that can be differentiated along their line of business or trade and the climate environment of hot or cold.

There are tribes specialized in raising camels, lamas, or horses; tribes initiating caravans, transferring to other routes; tribes transporting goods within a territory; tribes relaying (subcontractors) caravans to other territories, and family/clan caravans transporting goods from point of dispatch to final destinations.

You have nomadic tribes hired to safeguard borders in rough areas; tribes specialized in securing safe passages to caravans in the resting stations and supplying water and urgent wants; tribes specialized in gathering intelligence in strategic regions and constitute the primary sources of impending troubles among Kingdoms; and tribes hired to guide troops.

Leaders of caravans are voracious intelligence gatherers: they need to know, even before undertaking their long journey with their expensive cargo: They want to know what are the political status and social unrest in every territory they have to cross.  Leaders of caravans are the best field managers and administrators and generally end up field commanders in periods of wars.  Caravan leaders learn to be great negotiators, flexible with all kinds of culture, customs, and idiosyncrasies; they acquire this “six sense” for comprehending people’s characters and behaviors for the best return on their business.

Family/clan caravan leaders are the best transmitters of civilizations with the most potential to survive downturns in commerce and among belligerent environments.  During wars, family/clan caravan leaders transport what kingdoms want and need and they supply demands.  They disseminate dialects, opinions, new techniques, and fashion.  Nomad women have first selection in matter of fashion; if you don’t believe my proposition then run it on your wife.

Mercenary nomadic tribes, hired during war periods, turn out to be the worst enemy for urban centers during and after wars finishes. The looting and razzias excursions have exacerbated the bad connotations of nomadic life style.  In general, nomadic tribes prefer weak central governments in neighboring kingdom to gain privileges and wider latitude for freedom of actions.  That is why the concept of distrusting nomads’ pledges might be truer to the nature of their existence for survival.

The tribes in Yemen and the southern Arabic Peninsula were the first to domesticate camels; first for the milk and then for caravan route, and then for war excursions.  They initiated or dispatched caravans of incense (exploited from their special trees), myrrh, and precious stones that they received from India.  The tribes in the towns of Mecca and Yathreb (Medina) were subcontractors or relayed caravans arriving from Yemen; the Nabatean tribes of Petra controlled the trade along the “King Road” from Damascus to Aqaba on the Red Sea.  The tribes in northern Arabic Peninsula and northern Syria were borders’ guards, resting stations suppliers, and intelligence gatherers among the various powerful kingdoms.

The Prophet Muhammad ran caravans from Mecca to Damascus and Basra in southern Iraq.  The powerful tribes of Mecca generated the most valuable military commanders and governors of districts during the first expansion of the Arabic Empire and ended up heading dynasties.

When speaking of nomads, people might think of the nomadic tribes in the Arabic Peninsula or the Sahara, mainly the hot climate desert nomads.  My contention is that the most potent transmitters of civilizations of China, India, and Persia are the nomadic tribes of the cold climate of Central Asia stretching from Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Ukraine, and the Caucasus regions.  It is these cold climate desert tribes that formed the backbones of all mercenary armies of ancient and the Middle Age Empires and who transmitted the slow process of civilization assimilation and dissemination as they were disbanded once wars ended among Empires.

It is these cold climate tribes that constituted the modern lucrative caravans along the “Silk Road” and mountain chains passages. The leaders of the cold weather caravans ended up the most valuable commanders and governors of provinces during and after the Arabic Abbasid Empires, in Persia, and in the Ottoman Empire.

Academic researchers demand to rely on the written documents to ponder upon, instead of reflecting when documents are not available. Nomadic tribes disseminated civilizations verbally, by communication, by story telling, around camp fires, by negotiating, by gathering intelligence and information. They also transmitted civilizations by transporting books, manuscripts, letters, and all kinds of written materials. It is unfortunate that this line of research is not taking off.

Genesis of the word Arab; (September 4, 2009)

The ancient Akkadian Empire in current southern Iraq, around the years 2,000 BC, used the word Aribi to designate the nomads exchanging incense, myrrh, and precious stones with the urban centers in the kingdom.

People have the tendency to lump all kinds of nomadic tribes as a uniform way of rough life and scarce food varieties. There are caravansary tribes transporting goods, and there are tribes paid to secure borders and trade routes.  There are cold weather nomads and hot climate nomads. I’ll write more on that topic in another post.

The major nomadic tribes or “bedwins, bedouin” were hired by merchants and the central government of the existing Empires to safeguard the main land trade routes.

The powerful tribes of current Yemen in the southern region of the Arabic Peninsula had exclusivity in raising camels and dispatching caravans to many directions. Thus, the job of many nomadic tribes was to roam a restricted area and have their encampments close to the resting stations on the trade routes.

In period of wars, and as trade dwindled, the nomads made incursions in the nearby urban centers and looted to survive. Thus, this enmity and bad connotations attributed to the bedwins. It is in that perspective that we could comprehend the harsh description of the historian/sociology Tunisian Arabic Ibn Khaldoun (15th century) concerning the behavior and characteristics of Arabs, meaning the tribes still adopting the nomadic lifestyle.

Those nomadic tribes transported their precious cargo by land on camel caravans.  There were vast land networks for the caravans.

In the eastern shores of the Arabic Peninsula of Hadramout, by the Indian Ocean, the city of Shabwa was a major center for incense warehousing.  Incense is a white product that is collected from special trees (Boswelia sacra) that grow from Hadramawt to Zafar in actual Yemen.

Caravans start at Shabwa and travel to Ma3in along the coastal Red Sea.  From the town of Ma3in the route fork to either north or west.  The northern route passes through Maarib and then Najran toward the port of Gerrha on the Persian/Arab Gulf for the Persia and Iraq markets.

The western route passes by Timna (the ancient Capital of Yemen), continues to Yathreb (known as Medina), then Petra in Jordan and resumes the trip toward Gaza on the Mediterranean Sea.

The Roman historian Pline recounts that there were 65 halts between Timna and Gaza. Gaza was the major depot for all kinds of incense, myrrh, and precious stones.  Alexander was about to lift his siege of Gaza when a side door to the impregnable fort was opened following a minor struggles outside the rampart.  Alexander troops entered the fort and he sent all the incense that his superstitious mother needed to burn for her Gods.

Another main trade route was known as “The King route” crossing Syria to the port of Aqaba on the Red Sea. The Jewish tribes would be hired to keep this route safe from minor nomadic clans.  Later, there would be established the “Silk Road” from China to Persia to Turkey to Venice and Europe.

Another varieties of nomadic tribes from Central Asia, bordering the Persian Empires extending from Turkey to west India, would be safeguarding this major and long route.

Maritime routes from India were also used, but they ended in the eastern shores of the Arabic Peninsula or in the southern shores of Iran at the entrance of the Gulf to be transported by land.

So far, archaeology has discovered the word Arab in a text during the reign of the Assyrian King Salmanassar III. The document of 853 BC describes the King’s victory in Tell Karkar in the valley of the Orontes River (Al 3assi, Syria) against a coalition of the Kings of Damascus, Hama, Achab, Israel, and the Arab Gindibu with his one thousand camels.

Gindibu’s tribe had settled in the southern desert of Syria.  Camels were used by archers who dismounted at close range for the fight.  The Assyrian Kingdom with capital in northern Iraq (mostly Kurdish districts now) had replaced the Kingdom of Babylon and had subjugated many Arab tribes in the north of the Arabic Peninsula.

The nomadic tribes had Matriarchal structure and their priestesses (such as Zabibeh, Samsi, and many other priestesses) were called Queens by the Assyrian Empire.  The Assyrian documents prove that the Arab tribes were disseminated along the “King Road” and even in northern Syria.

The Hebrew word of “Arabah” means desert. Thus arabah meant tribes leading a nomadic life in desert-like regions.  The tribes in the southern regions of the Arabic Peninsula such as Yemen never considered themselves as Arabs.

The word Arab in Yemenite documents of the second century AC refers to people not urbanized or living off agriculture; it is the same meaning that the Prophet Muhammad used.

The Arab Nabatean tribe with capital in Petra (Jordan) controlled the “King Road” for over two centuries; they spoke an Arabic dialect but wrote in Aramaic.

In about 140 BC, the southern Jewish tribes of Palestine, led by the Maccabe, established a Kingdom that lasted over a century.  The Maccabe Kingdom during John Hyrcan conquered the southern part of Jordan and most of Palestine, including the Galilee region.  John Hyrcan converted to Judaism and by the sword all the inhabitants of his Kingdom. The people were to be circumcised and follow the Judaic rituals and laws of the Jewish sect in Judea.

That is why Jesus was not considered a “true” Jew by the Pharisee cast in Jerusalem.  Most Arab tribes in that region were converted to Judaism and many settled in Yathreb (Medina) to control the caravan route going to Gaza.

Note 1: The word Aribi, transformed into Arab, meant “the neighbors” (to the Kingdom).  In fact the nomadic tribes were spread along the borders of the Kingdoms of Akkad and later the Kingdom of Babylon.  Nowadays, each one of the Arab States has its Arab “neighbors” and it has no confidence in the friendship intention of their neighbors.

Note 2: There is a myth that I don’t care about, but is all the rage in theology and affecting religious dogmas.  It is recounted that Noah had Sem who was head of the tribe Terah; Sem (Semitic race?) had three sons: Abraham was the eldest, Nehor, and Aran (Arian race?).

Abraham had his eldest son Ismail from his “Egyptian slave” Agar; he also had Isaac from his “legitimate” wife Sarah.

The Muslims consider Abraham as their first prophet and “father” and are entitled to all the “legitimate” legacies of God; the Jews would like you to believe that legitimacy is inherited from Sarah’s legitimacy.  That is how I understand it.

Note 3: Arab does not designate any kinds of ethnicity. It is the ability to write and understand classical Arabic language or the Arab dialect that was spoken in the City of Mecca (imposed by the Prophet as the language of his religion) that forms the basis to be categorized an Arab.  Indeed, Muhammad said it that every religion has its own language and vice versa since all monotheist religions are fundamentally the same.  Moslems around the world have the Arabic Koran as common denominators but the translation of the Koran into the appropriate local languages will generate as many Islamic sects as there are major languages.

Note 4: The Aramaic language was the language of the Middle East for over 3,000 years; it was spoken by the people of all Empires in that region from current Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon, and the western part of Iran known as Ilam in ancient history or (Arabestan for late Saddam Hussein regime).  Aramaic is the root language of Arabic; the Arab nomads spoke several Arabic dialects but wrote in Aramaic as all the urban centers in the Middle East.

Note 5: The Omayyad dynasty, founded by Moawiyah, selected Damascus for the Capital of the Arab Empire and the people in the Near East spoke Aramaic as well as most of the “Arabic” tribes that settled in and around the urban centers of Syria, Jordan, Palestine, and Lebanon. If there is an Arab civilization then it was created during the Umayyad period since the people in that part of the Near East could comprehend and write Aramaic.  The classical Arabic language was established and spread during the Umayyad dynasty.

Note 6: For the Arab Nations (about 22 States) to exist in the future they have to mind their classical language and enrich it with various modern “Arabic” slang words and expressions to be viable among the Arab people.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

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