Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Bashir Gemmayel

Road map of a civil war: phase 2 (mid 1976-1982)

The second phase of this lengthy civil war (mid 1976-1982) began with the entrance of the Syrian forces to most regions of Lebanon, except the South that was under Israel de facto control.

The Palestinian Resistance Movement controlled the coast line from West Beirut to Sidon: the Syrian forces push to enter Saida was halted after suffering heavy casualties from the resistance of a few of  the Palestinian factions.

This period was characterized by the de facto civil administration of the Fateh faction of Yasser Arafat for the parts outside Syrian influence. The Lebanese leftist parties were practically marginalized and the head of that coalition, Kamal Junblatt, was assassinated in 1978.

The “Lebanese Forces” under Bashir Gemmayel managed to kick out the Syrian forces from Ashrafieh and East Beirut in what is called the “100-Days war”. The Syrian forces redeployed to the demarcation zone from Kfarshima to Tayyouni in Beirut.

The Syrian forces organized the attacks of the Shiaa “Amal” militia (of current chairman of the Parliament Nabih Berry) against the Leftist coalition and the Palestinian forces.

The relocation of the population took place in the South, especially the villages bordering Israel, because Israel sustained a military campaign designed to empty this region from its population under the code name of “Litany campaign”.

The refugees from South Lebanon converged to the shantytowns of the suburbs of West Beirut of what is currently called Dahieh or “Hezbollah Land” with heavy concentration of the Moslem Shiaa sect.

The “Amal” militia managed by the end of 1981 to take control of these suburbs of West Beirut at the expense of the communist and leftist forces.

The success of the Khomeini Islamic revolution and the Iran-Iraq war will have definite impacts on later events.




July 2022

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