Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘behavioral patterns.


How White people in USA demonstrate their biases?

By submitting to the Implicit Association Test?

Warning: Most probably, what this test is demonstrating is a human biased behaviour as old as his existence: The in-group/out-group biases. Particularly, when the out-group is so blatantly different in color, genders and native language…

Most white Americans demonstrate bias against blacks, even if they’re not aware of or able to control it.

It’s a surprisingly little-discussed factor in the anguishing debates over race and law enforcement that followed the shootings of unarmed black men by white police officers.

Such implicit biases — which, if they were to influence split-second law enforcement decisions, could have life or death consequences — are measured by psychological tests, most prominently the computerized Implicit Association Test, which has been taken by over two million people online at the website Project Implicit.

Chris Mooney December 8, 2014

Across America, whites are biased and they don’t even know it

Based on this data, it appears that whites in some states may exhibit higher levels of implicit bias than those in other states. The following map, courtesy of Project Implicit, shows the states with the highest level of implicit bias (high number, red) and lowest level of implicit bias (low number, blue). Gray represents states with a middle amount of implicit bias; Michigan is the median state. Overall, the map reflects the scores of 1.51 million individuals, ranging from a high of 99,660 test takers from California to a low of 1,722 test takers from Hawaii.

A cautionary note: The people who have taken the IAT at the Project Implicit website are not a random sample of Americans, either nationally or on a state-by-state basis. Rather, they’re people who, for some reason, chose to take an online test measuring their implicit biases — which may actually mean they are less biased than average. (After all, at least they wanted to know how biased they are.)

“Please keep in mind that this map describes volunteers for the online IAT,” says psychologist Anthony Greenwald of the University of Washington,  who created the Implicit Association Test in 1995. “These volunteers are younger, more educated, more politically liberal, and more female than the U.S. population as a whole.”

So, let’s take some time to unpack further what this image means — and doesn’t mean.

The Implicit Association Test comes in many versions, but in a version that detects uncontrolled racial biases or preferences — as opposed to, say, gender bias or age bias — your task is to rapidly sort a series of faces as either “African American” or “European American,” even as you also sort a variety of words (like “agony,” “joy,” “happy,” “anger”) as either “good” or “bad.”

Bias in the test occurs when people are faster at categorizing negative words when they are paired with African American faces, or faster at sorting positive words when they’re paired with white faces — suggesting an uncontrolled mental association between negative things or concepts and African Americans.

(The “pairing” occurs because you might be asked to sort both “African American” faces and “bad” words to the left side of the computer screen, and “European American” and “good” to the right. And since the differences in sorting speed are measured in milliseconds, this is not something people can consciously control.)

Bias in the IAT is measured in terms of a “D” score, which signifies how much faster people are in their categorizing when African American faces are paired with “bad” concepts (and white faces with “good” concepts or words) as opposed to vice versa. Any score over 0 means that  “when white and good are on the same side, the participants are responding faster than when black and good are on the same side,” explains Kaiyuan Xu, a data analyst for Project Implicit.

It is very important to note that implicit racial bias is not the same thing as conscious racism. People who harbor implicit biases may not think of themselves as prejudiced, and in fact, might consider prejudice to be abhorrent. They also may not know they even have these biases.

With this background in place, one key thing to notice about the map above is that white people in every U.S. state are biased. Their mean scores vary by state, but participants from the median state, Michigan, show an average, positive IAT score of 0.402. According to Xu, a score of .35 is the “cutoff point between ‘moderately prefer white’ and ‘strongly prefer white.'”

Xu says that at this point, researchers from Project Implicit cannot fully explain the most striking feature of the map, which is the fact that implicit bias levels appear stronger in the U.S. southeast and east.

It is also worth noting that there are reasons to think that Americans as a whole may be more biased than the map suggests. After all, as Greenwald noted above, the Project Implicit test takers trend younger than average, as well as towards liberal political beliefs and higher levels of education. But other research has suggested that older Americans past the age of 65, in particular, tend to have higher IAT D scores — suggesting that those included in this sample may be less biased than Americans as a whole.

Overall, looking at a map like this one tells us something pretty crucial to our understanding of racial bias: It is everywhere, from north to south, from Maine to California. It is present among liberals and conservatives, men and women, young and old.

We have a huge amount of work to do.

In an interview with BET, President Obama said time and vigilance is needed to tackle problems such as racism and bias​ in American society. (AP)

The Social animal in us: In-Group, out-group behavioral patterns

Groups and tribes are constituted for minor and trivial criteria: Like where you were born, where you work, what your parents favors…

As these in-groups expand into closed-knit community, additional and more substantial reasons emerge to sticking together: and mainly to confront and oppose out-group communities.

And the members of the group receive a disproportionate amount of support for their views.

In-group members tend to view the out-group as pretty similar, the “homogeneity bias

There are over a billion Chinese and you declare that you cannot distinguish between two of the same gender.

Stereotypes and prejudices stem from this In-group bias.

Organizational blindness of in-group members working in the same institution is a known behavior.

Basically, mankind survived adopting most of the in-group biases and behaviors, and individual disconnects were minimal when facing insurmountable barriers.

For example, why do you feel that you have to lay down your life (like going to war and volunteering in the armed forces) for a random group more of a “pseudo kinship“?

Do you believe that male animals know that intercourse will generate babies when they engage in mating activities?

Or the “virgin female” know that this mating will end up giving a litter of same-kind of species?

Possibly, it may dawn on the older males and experienced females after they see the litters, again and again, that they had something to do with the outcome.

I conjecture that it was the same for mankind many thousand years ago.

By observing animals they knew how to release their sexual desires

Most probably, the males naturally used the anus, believing that’s how it should be done.

And fresh females didn’t feel much sensation, except feeling the need for an urgent bowel movement.

Until non-virgin females guided the “new guy on the block” to the right hole.

They fucked left and right, females, males and animals…

Do you think that early mankind knew that intercourse results in babies?

It is a 9-month gestation anyway, a long-time to maturity, and the female engaged in intercourse with many other males, coerced or voluntarily.

I guess the elected of appointed shaman knew how babies come, and he did a good job increasing the tribe, and keeping this secret from everyone except his favorite son or the one he decided to inherit the job.

Could that be one of the main factors that mankind share the same genes in the 5 continents?

Should mankind stick to ancestral traditions that are no longer valid and out of the subject matter?

What are error taxonomies, and other taxonomies in Human Factors in Engineering?

Article #12, written in April 9, 2005)

May you allow me just a side explanation on experimentation, to set the foundations first?

Psychologists, sociologists and marketing graduates are trained to apply various experimentation methods and not just cause and effect designs.

There are many statistical packages oriented to providing dimensions and models to the set of data dumped into the experiment, so that a preliminary understanding of the system behavior is comprehended qualitatively.

Every applied science has gone through many qualitative models or schema, using various qualitative methods, before attempting to quantify their models.

Many chairmen of engineering departments, especially those who have no understanding of the disciple of Human Factors in engineering and would never touch this body of knowledge and methods with a long pole, ask me to concentrate my courses on the quantitative aspects.

That hint sends immediate shiver through my rebellious spirit and I am tempted to ask them “what taxonomy of methods are you using in teaching engineering courses?”

What taxonomies Human Factors have to conceive?  How about the classification of human errors when operating a system, their frequencies and consequences on the safety of operators and system performance?

Human Factors professionals attempted to establish various error taxonomies, some within a specific context, during their study and analysis of errors that might be committed in the operation of nuclear power plants for example, and other taxonomy that are out of any specific context.

One alternative classification of human errors is based on human behavior and the level of comprehension. Mainly, skill-based, or rule-based or knowledge-based behavioral patterns.

This taxonomy identifies 13 types of errors and discriminates among the stages and strength of controlled routines in the mind that precipitate the occurrence of an error, whether during execution of a task, omitting steps, changing the order of steps, sequence of steps, timing errors, inadequate analysis or decision-making.

With a strong knowledge of the behavior of a system, provided that the mental model is not deficient, applying the rules consistently most of the errors will be concentrated on the level of skill achieved in performing a job.

Another taxonomy rely on the theory of information processing and it is a literal transcription of the experimental processes; mainly, observation of a system status, choice of hypothesis, testing of hypothesis, choice of goal, choice of procedure and execution of procedure.  Basically, this taxonomy may answer the problems in the rule-based and knowledge–based behavior.

It is useful to specify in the final steps of taxonomy whether an error is of omission or of commission.  I suggest that the errors of commission be also fine tuned to differentiate among errors of sequence, the kind of sequence, and timing of the execution.

There are alternative strategies for reducing human errors by either training, selection of the appropriate applicants, or redesigning a system to fit the capabilities of end users and/or taking care of his limitations by preventive designs, exclusion designs, and fail-safe designs.




September 2020

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