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Posts Tagged ‘Black hole

Notes and tidbits on FB and Twitter. Part 55

La joie de vivre est liée a un sentiment d’avoir réussi. Si seulement on pouvait abaisser la barre de ce qu’on considére “Réussir”

Pourquoi écrire si on se croit supérieur aux romans qu’on écrit?

It is Not worth reading the fundamentally “rootless” authors: They cannot worry about any society. Worst, those “rootlessly” living in their own country

Si on sent que le roman envoie des signes de prévisibilité de l’avenir de l’histoire, alors on avance difficilement dans la lecture, on s’ennui.

Les characters et les passions doivent etre décrite comme des entités Libre, pretes a tout moment d’actes imprévisibles.

Le romancier n’a pas le droit d’abandonner le terrain de la bataille.

Considerer la “conscience” comme un Black Hole qui rejette tout ce qui ne tient pas debout et essaie de s’introduire dedans. Question: comment les premieres idees furent introduites? A t-on cree notre Black Hole par nous meme?

L’intentionalité est la conscience qui ne peut exister que relier a d’autre chose que soi.

“Toute conscience est consciente de quelque chose” de la haine, la crainte, sympathie, ce qui parait amiable,  les reactions subjectives

Ces maniaques intelligents et raides, digne et toujours humiliés dans l’enfer du raisonnement, se moquent de tout et ne cessent de se justifier dans des confessions truquées qui laissent apparaitre des désarrois sans recours.

Day 28. Palestinian prisoners, 1,700 of them, on hunger strike. Israel again detained administratively 8 Palestinian youths. Intimidation tactics

C’était mathematique: les enfants de USA faisaient trembler leurs méres, les méres terrorisaient leurs maris.

L’infantilism de la politique Americaine s’expliquait de ces liens: les hauts placés exhibaient leurs familles et leurs rejetons pour obtenir plus de voix. (Observations of Louise Weiss on her 3-month tour sponsored by Foreign Affairs association in 1925)

Senator Borah de l’Idaho, USA (in 1925), á peine débarassé de ses Indiens, commencait a dénombrer ses interets communs avec l’ensemble du pays

Comme la harangue du sénateur Borah de l’Idaho (1925) valait á peine pour un sheriff de Western, il me parut plus raisonable de ne point lui répondre (Louise Weiss)

An age difference of 24 years among couples is problematic for many when the woman is the older one, as with new French President Macron. In the USA, Macron would have been defeated for just this factor.

Soon, all sciences will fall in desuetude because of AI robots. Psychology will survive: everyone thinks he is a psychologist

Nothing but this daily repetition of parents to their growing ups children “Come visit me for 5 min every day” may make a difference to your loneliness in old age

When the other children come to visit the old mother once a month for 5 min, ho,ho, ho ka2anno ejo min al safar. Bte7taar keef tashteshon

Par definition, toute énigme a sa solution. Pourquoi les solutions se font si rares aux milles énigmes qui nous tracassent? Même ces rares solutions paraissent subjectives

Avant le début et après la fin, nous ne savons rien.

What insomnia can generate in Black Matter hypotheses

If astrophysicists can say: “We know nothing about Black Matters. But we know it Exist”, then I am entitled to forward a few hypotheses on that matter

Black Matters essentially fill the intergalactic spaces.

It’s main purpose is to delay the pull of the larger galaxy of smaller ones by reducing the accelerated attraction. Eventually, black matter infiltrates and invade galactic space to fill the void.

It then generates these phenomena:

1) It plays the catalyst for enhancing the explosion of supernova by preventing it from naturally dissipating surplus energy to it environment.

The dissipated energy from the explosion transform portion of black matter into live matter that reach planets in the form of gamma rays.

2) It accelerates the dying process of White Star by playing the buffer zone for Not allowing external sources of energy to come in.

The consequent Dwarf Star is invaded with black matter and become the hub for a nascent Black Hole


Where information are never erased? Black Hole

Shred a document, and you can piece it back together. Burn a book, and you could theoretically do the same.

But send into a black hole, and it’s lost forever. Not correct.

That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained.

Black holes don’t erase information, scientists say

 Charlotte Hsu posted this April 2, 2015

An artist’s impression shows the surroundings of a supermassive black hole at the heart of the active galaxy NGC 3783 in the southern constellation of Centaurus.
A new University at Buffalo study finds that — contrary to what some physicists …more

The “information loss paradox” in black holes—a problem that has plagued physics for nearly 40 years—may not exist. (Maybe because mathematically, Black Holes cannot exist?)

Read more at:

A new  study at University at Buffalo finds that — contrary to what some physicists , shows that this perspective may not be correct.

“According to our work, information isn’t lost once it enters a black hole,” says Dejan Stojkovic, PhD, associate professor of physics at the University at Buffalo. “It doesn’t just disappear.”

Stojkovic’s new study, “Radiation from a Collapsing Object is Manifestly Unitary,” appeared on March 17 in Physical Review Letters, with UB PhD student Anshul Saini as co-author.

The paper outlines how interactions between particles emitted by a black hole can reveal information about what lies within, such as characteristics of the object that formed the black hole to begin with, and characteristics of the matter and energy drawn inside.

This is an important discovery, Stojkovic says, because even physicists who believed information was not lost in black holes have struggled to show, mathematically, how this happens.

His new paper presents explicit calculations demonstrating how information is preserved, he says.

The research marks a significant step toward solving the “information loss paradox,” a problem that has plagued physics for almost 40 years, since Stephen Hawking first proposed that black holes could radiate energy and evaporate over time.

This posed a huge problem for the field of physics because it meant that information inside a black hole could be permanently lost when the black hole disappeared—a violation of quantum mechanics, which states that information must be conserved.

Information hidden in particle interactions

In the 1970s, Hawking proposed that black holes were capable of radiating particles, and that the energy lost through this process would cause the black holes to shrink and eventually disappear. Hawking further concluded that the particles emitted by a black hole would provide no clues about what lay inside, meaning that any information held within a black hole would be completely lost once the entity evaporated.

Though Hawking later said he was wrong and that information could escape from black holes, the subject of whether and how it’s possible to recover information from a black hole has remained a topic of debate.

Stojkovic and Saini’s new paper helps to clarify the story.

Instead of looking only at the particles a black hole emits, the study also takes into account the subtle interactions between the particles. By doing so, the research finds that it is possible for an observer standing outside of a black hole to recover information about what lies within.

Interactions between particles can range from gravitational attraction to the exchange of mediators like photons between . Such “correlations” have long been known to exist, but many scientists discounted them as unimportant in the past.

“These correlations were often ignored in related calculations since they were thought to be small and not capable of making a significant difference,” Stojkovic says.

“Our explicit calculations show that though the correlations start off very small, they grow in time and become large enough to change the outcome.”

Read more at:

 Black Holes: Facts, Theory and Definition

So far, what physicists and astrophysics scientist claim is that:

1. Black holes are some of the strangest and most fascinating objects found in outer space.

2. They are objects of extreme density,

3. with such strong gravitational attraction that even light cannot escape from their grasp if it comes near enough.

Albert Einstein first predicted black holes in 1916 with his general theory of relativity.

The term “black hole” was coined in 1967 by American astronomer John Wheeler, and the first one was discovered in 1971.


Supermassive may be the result of hundreds or thousands of tiny black holes that merge together.

Large gas clouds could also be responsible, collapsing together and rapidly accreting mass.

A third option is the collapse of a stellar cluster, a group of stars all falling together.

Intermediate black holes – stuck in the middle

Scientists once thought black holes came in only small and large sizes, but recent research has revealed the possibility for the existence of midsize, or intermediate, black holes.

Such bodies could form when stars in a cluster collide in a chain reaction. Several of these forming in the same region could eventually fall together in the center of a galaxy and create a supermassive black hole.

Black hole theory — how they tick

Black holes are incredibly massive, but cover only a small region.

Because of the relationship between mass and gravity, this means they have an extremely powerful gravitational force. Virtually nothing can escape from them — under classical physics, even light is trapped by a black hole.

Such a strong pull creates an observational problem when it comes to black holes — scientists can’t “see” them the way they can see stars and other objects in space.

Instead, scientists must rely on the radiation that is emitted as dust and gas are drawn into the dense creatures. Supermassive black holes, lying in the center of a galaxy, may find themselves shrouded by the dust and gas thick around them, which can block the tell-tale emissions.

Sometimes as matter is drawn toward a black hole, it ricochets off of the event horizon and is hurled outward, rather than being tugged into the maw.

Bright jets of material traveling at near-relativistic speeds are created. Although the black hole itself remains unseen, these powerful jets can be viewed from great distances.

Black holes have three “layers” — the outer and inner event horizon and the singularity.

The event horizon of a black hole is the boundary around the mouth of the black hole where light loses its ability to escape. Once a particle crosses the event horizon, it cannot leave.

Gravity is constant across the event horizon.

The inner region of a black hole, where its mass lies, is known as its singularity, the single point in space-time where the mass of the black hole is concentrated.

Under the classical mechanics of physics, nothing can escape from a black hole.

However, things shift slightly when quantum mechanics are added to the equation. Under quantum mechanics, for every particle, there is an antiparticle, a particle with the same mass and opposite electric charge. When they meet, particle-antiparticle pairs can annihilate one another.

If a particle-antiparticle pair is created just beyond the reach of the event horizon of a black hole, it is possible to have one drawn into the black hole itself while the other is ejected. The result is that the event horizon of the black hole has been reduced and black holes can decay, a process that is rejected under classical mechanics.

Scientists are still working to understand the equations by which black holes function.

Interesting facts about black holes

  • If you fell into a black hole, gravity would stretch you out like spaghetti. Don’t worry; your death would come before you reached singularity.
  • Black holes do not “suck.” Suction is caused by pulling something into a vacuum, which the massive black hole definitely is not. Instead, objects fall into them.
  • The first object considered to be a black hole is Cygnus X-1. Rockets carrying Geiger counters discovered 8 new x-ray sources. In 1971, scientists detected radio emission coming from Cygnus X-1, and a massive hidden companion was found and identified as a black hole.
  • Cygnus X-1 was the subject of a 1974 friendly wager between Stephen Hawking and a fellow physicist Kip Thorne, with Hawking betting that the source was not a black hole. In 1990, he conceded defeat. [VIDEO: Final Nail in Stephen Hawking’s Cygnus X-1 Bet?]
  • Miniature black holes may have formed immediately after the Big Bang. Rapidly expanding space may have squeezed some regions into tiny, dense black holes less massive than the sun.
  • If a star passes too close to a black hole, it can be torn apart.
  • Astronomers estimate there are anywhere from 10 million to a billion stellar black holes, with masses roughly thrice that of the sun, in the Milky Way.
  • The interesting relationship between string theory and black holes gives rise to more types of massive giants than found under conventional classical mechanics.



Monster black hole discovered at cosmic dawn

Scientists have discovered the brightest quasar in the early universe, powered by the most massive black hole yet known at that time.

The international team led by astronomers from Peking University in China and from the University of Arizona announce their findings in the scientific journal Nature on Feb. 26.

The discovery of this quasar, named SDSS J0100+2802, marks an important step in understanding how quasars, the most powerful objects in the universe, have evolved from the earliest epoch, only 900 million years after the Big Bang, which is thought to have happened 13.7 billion years ago.

The quasar, with its central black hole mass of 12 billion solar masses and the luminosity of 420 trillion suns, is at a distance of 12.8 billion light-years from Earth.

The discovery of this ultraluminous quasar also presents a major puzzle to the theory of black hole growth at early universe, according to Xiaohui Fan, Regents’ Professor of Astronomy at the UA’s Steward Observatory, who co-authored the study.

“How can a quasar so luminous, and a black hole so massive, form so early in the history of the universe, at an era soon after the earliest stars and galaxies have just emerged?” Fan said. “And what is the relationship between this monster black hole and its surrounding environment, including its host galaxy?

“This ultraluminous quasar with its supermassive black hole provides a unique laboratory to the study of the mass assembly and galaxy formation around the most massive in the early universe.”

The quasar dates from a time close to the end of an important cosmic event that astronomers referred to as the “epoch of reionization”: the cosmic dawn when light from the earliest generations of galaxies and quasars is thought to have ended the “cosmic dark ages” and transformed the universe into how we see it today.

Discovered in 1963, quasars are the most powerful objects beyond our Milky Way galaxy, beaming vast amounts of energy across space as the in their center sucks in matter from its surroundings. Thanks to the new generation of digital sky surveys, astronomers have discovered more than 200,000 quasars, with ages ranging from 0.7 billion years after the Big Bang to today.

The newly discovered quasar SDSS J0100+2802 is the one with the most massive black hole and the highest luminosity among all known distant quasars. The background photo, provided by Yunnan Observatory, shows the dome of the 2.4meter telescope …more

Shining with the equivalent of 420 trillion suns, the new quasar is seven times brighter than the most distant quasar known (which is 13 billion years away). It harbors a black hole with mass of 12 billion solar masses, proving it to be the most luminous quasar with the most among all the known high redshift (very distant) quasars.

“By comparison, our own Milky Way galaxy has a black hole with a mass of only 4 million at its center; the black hole that powers this new quasar is 3,000 time heavier,” Fan said.

Feige Wang, a doctoral student from Peking University who is supervised jointly by Fan and Prof. Xue-Bing Wu at Peking University, the study’s lead author, initially spotted this quasar for further study.

“This quasar was first discovered by our 2.4-meter Lijiang Telescope in Yunnan, China, making it the only quasar ever discovered by a 2-meter telescope at such distance, and we’re very proud of it,” Wang said.

“The ultraluminous nature of this quasar will allow us to make unprecedented measurements of the temperature, ionization state and metal content of the intergalactic medium at the epoch of reionization.”

Following the initial discovery, two telescopes in southern Arizona did the heavy lifting in determining the distance and mass of the black hole: the 8.4-meter Large Binocular Telescope, or LBT, on Mount Graham and the 6.5-meter Multiple Mirror Telescope, or MMT, on Mount Hopkins. Additional observations with the 6.5-meter Magellan Telescope in Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and the 8.2-meter Gemini North Telescope in Mauna Kea, Hawaii, confirmed the results.

“This quasar is very unique,” said Xue-Bing Wu, a professor of the Department of Astronomy, School of Physics at Peking University and the associate director of the Kavli Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics. “Just like the brightest lighthouse in the distant universe, its glowing light will help us to probe more about the early universe.”

Wu leads a team that has developed a method to effectively select quasars in the distant universe based on optical and near-infrared photometric data, in particular using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and NASA’s Wide-Field Infrared Explorer, or WISE, satellite.

“This is a great accomplishment for the LBT,” said Fan, who chairs the LBT Scientific Advisory Committee and also discovered the previous record holders for the most massive black hole in the , about a fourth of the size of the newly discovered object.

“The especially sensitive optical and infrared spectrographs of the LBT provided the early assessment of both the distance of the quasars and the mass of the black hole at the quasar’s center.”

For Christian Veillet, director of the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, or LBTO, this discovery demonstrates both the power of international collaborations and the benefit of using a variety of facilities spread throughout the world.

“This result is particularly gratifying for LBTO, which is well on its way to full nighttime operations,” Veillet said. “While in this case the authors used two different instruments in series, one for visible light spectroscopy and one for near-infrared imaging, LBTO will soon offer a pair of instruments that can be used simultaneously, effectively doubling the number of observations possible in clear skies and ultimately creating even more exciting science.”

To further unveil the nature of this remarkable quasar, and to shed light on the physical processes that led to the formation of the earliest supermassive black holes, the research team will carry out further investigations on this quasar with more international telescopes, including the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Telescope

Read more at:



Pictures that may Make you Re-Evaluate your Entire Existence

THE Universe, Earth. Man 

It’s pretty safe to assume that there are some black holes out there. Here’s the size of a black hole compared with Earth’s orbit, just to terrify you:

D. Benningfield/K. Gebhardt/StarDate / Via

So if you’re ever feeling upset about your favorite show being canceled or the fact that they play Christmas music way too early — just remember…

This is your home.

By Andrew Z. Colvin (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 ( or GFDL (], via Wikimedia Commons

This is what happens when you zoom out from your home to your solar system.

And this is what happens when you zoom out farther…

By Andrew Z. Colvin (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 ( or GFDL (], via Wikimedia Commons

And farther…

By Andrew Z. Colvin (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 ( or GFDL (], via Wikimedia Commons

Keep going…

By Andrew Z. Colvin (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 ( or GFDL (], via Wikimedia Commons

Just a little bit farther…

By Andrew Z. Colvin (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 ( or GFDL (], via Wikimedia Commons

Almost there…

By Andrew Z. Colvin (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 ( or GFDL (], via Wikimedia Commons

And here it is. Here’s everything in the observable universe, and here’s your place in it. Just a tiny little ant in a giant jar.

And here it is. Here's everything in the observable universe, and here's your place in it. Just a tiny little ant in a giant jar.

2. And this is where you live in your neighborhood, the solar system.

Here’s the distance, to scale, between the Earth and the moon. Doesn’t look too far, does it?

THINK AGAIN. Inside that distance you can fit every planet in our solar system, nice and neatly.

PerplexingPotato / Via

Let’s talk about planets. That little green smudge is North America on Jupiter.

NASA / John Brady / Via

Here’s the size of Earth (well, six Earths) compared with Saturn:

NASA / John Brady / Via

And just for good measure, here’s what Saturn’s rings would look like if they were around Earth:

Ron Miller / Via

This right here is a comet. We just landed a probe on one of those bad boys. Here’s what one looks like compared with Los Angeles:

This right here is a comet. We just landed a probe on one of those bad boys. Here's what one looks like compared with Los Angeles:

Let’s step back a bit. Here’s the size of Earth compared with the size of our sun. Terrifying, right?

Let's step back a bit. Here's the size of Earth compared with the size of our sun. Terrifying, right?

Which means that there are ones much, much bigger than little wimpy sun. Just look at how tiny and insignificant our sun is:

Our sun probably gets its lunch money stolen.

Here’s another look. The biggest star, VY Canis Majoris, is 1,000,000,000 times bigger than our sun:


But none of those compares to the size of a galaxy. In fact, if you shrunk the Sun down to the size of a white blood cell and shrunk the Milky Way Galaxy down using the same scale, the Milky Way would be the size of the United States:

That’s because the Milky Way Galaxy is huge. This is where you live inside there:

But this is all you ever see:

(That’s not a picture of the Milky Way, but you get the idea.)

But even our galaxy is a little runt compared with some others. Here’s the Milky Way compared to IC 1011, 350 million light years away from Earth:

Just THINK about all that could be inside there.

Let’s think bigger. In JUST this picture taken by the Hubble telescope, there are thousands and thousands of galaxies, each containing millions of stars, each with their own planets.

Here’s one of the galaxies pictured, UDF 423. This galaxy is 10 BILLION light years away. When you look at this picture, you are looking billions of years into the past.

Some of the other galaxies are thought to have formed only a few hundred million years AFTER the Big Bang.

And just keep this in mind — that’s a picture of a very small, small part of the universe. It’s just an insignificant fraction of the night sky.

You know, it’s pretty safe to assume that there are some black holes out there. Here’s the size of a black hole compared with Earth’s orbit, just to terrify you:

D. Benningfield/K. Gebhardt/StarDate / Via

The Void exists, and is mighty powerful: Called Black Force

There is this constant tag of war between the Void and the relentless tendency of particles to filling the Void. It is this interaction that set particles in motion.

The greater the void, the more perturbed are the particles. Within an atom, the void, proportionally to the tiny particles, is vaster than the macro universe. Quantum mechanics states: “You cannot measure accurately and simultaneously the location and the moment (time) of a particle in an atom”  Basically any measuring instrument, however non intrusiveness it is, will disturb the environment in an atom…

Particles in motion are what create Time and Space.

Time and Space and tightly connected within a constraint that physicists agree on: The speed of light (300,000 km per second) must remain constant and invariant, regardless of the source, the intensity of the source, its direction, how matters behave…

Consequently, Time and Space are not immutable: They vary, change, transform, deform… The physicists conceptualize space as a net. A heavy object forms a dish-shaped hole in the space network. A lighter object that comes close to the vicinity of the heavier object would rotate in a trajectory around the edge of the dish: The heavier the object, the deeper is the trajectory around the edge of the dish…Gravity force is thus explained as the particular trajectory established by the two objects in the Space-Time reference.

Locally, within a galaxy, the Void exerts its power within the constraint of constant speed of the light.

Outside the galaxy, the void has a much higher force that set galaxies expanding, away from one another in the universe, at increased acceleration rates. This evidence is called the Universe Expansion.

There are cases where two galaxies are close to one another, for example our Milky Way and the larger Andromeda. Our galaxy is attracted within the edge of the dish of Andromeda. However, the set of this couple of galaxies is expanding in the universe, away from the other galaxies…

Eventually, and inevitably, a large void, a Black Hole is created.

In the environ of a Black Hole, there is no light: Light is absorbed as it approaches the Hole, and the notion of Time-Space is irrelevant.  There is total darkness, total silence, and nothing that can be used as point of reference.

A Black Hole is a total void that attracts all the particles, converging to fill this huge void.

Once this vacuum is filled and matter concentrates, the Black Hole reaches a state of high energy and explodes in a Big Bang, ejecting particles back into the universe, and expanding galaxies rush to fill the void of the nascent Black Hole, and the cycle resumes…

Every Black Hole is a potential universe in the making. Every universe is a potential creators of a Black Hole.

We had our Big Bang. And many other Big Bangs are taking place in this vast universe

The vastest monuments on earth can be reduced to a grain of matter, matter that was constituted by the Bosons of Higgs.

The Void Exists, and is mighty powerful.

Note: How can the notion that “gravity is explained by the particular trajectory of two bodies” account for the fact that there is a neutral zone where gravity effects are nullified?

Black hole: Generator of galaxies

David Elbaz, astrophysicist at Saclay and using the two huge telescopes on earth and also Hubble, guided his telescopes to a lonely star HE 0450-2958 that is far away from any galaxy.  This star is brighter a thousand billion folds than our solar system and is 3 billion light-year away.  This is a quasar star.

The most recent theory in cosmology describes how galaxies and light were formed.  The process is as follow:

You have a most dense black hole (imagine earth reduced to the size of a thimble) that absorbs all kinds of matters, gazes, and light. The matters are circling and revolving around the black hole at high rotating speed and ejecting plasma (gluon) from the two magnetic poles.  The jets of plasma reach distances surpassing 22 thousand light-year and at speed over thousands km/s.

This phenomenon of jets from a quasar star spewing plasma into space creates young stars that ultimately form a galaxy. In a sense, a galaxy is fundamentally circling a black hole that it created. Thus, black holes are the origin of the universe and light; though its initial function is to absorb whatever matters and light come close to it gravitational pull.

If it took 13.7 billion years for our current earth to exist, dating from a supposed Big Bang; and if it took 11.2 billion years for life to start on earth; and if that required 9 billion years for the birth of the solar system and 1.7 billion years to form our Milky Way galaxy, then you have an idea how long it takes a quasar star to create a galaxy.

Yes, for 100 million years after the Big Bang the universe was in the Age of total Darkness before the first galaxy was created.

I have two questions:

First, if as we are told the universe is expanding fast, then black holes are also shifting away.  To where are black holes moving?  What is attracting black holes? Are there anti-matter black holes?

Second, if universe is formed of matters then how mankind created moralities and ethics?




September 2020

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