Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Black Holes

Lucubration and conjectures in Cosmology

I am bombarded lately with streams of documentaries about the Universe, its creation, White Dwarfs, Black Holes, Neutron Stars, Big Bang, Expansion of the universe…

Apparently, our Sun demise is to be reduced to a White Dwarf.

Actually, these documentaries implicitly are related to our current universe we live in.

And I assume that the Big bang is meant to explains our current universe, as if there are no other existing universes (No see: Forget it)

Although I have an MS in physics and had taken courses in nuclear physics, relativity, quantum mechanics, atomic physics, and a lab in the half-lives of radioactive materials… I feel that I need to construct my own model due to the confusion in the various stories.

What set me into developing this conjecture was the existence of organic molecules in the universe.

Kind of these molecules got attached to asteroids and other solid bodies wandering around the sun and eventually crossing our atmosphere and a few of them smashing on earth and giving life.

And I wondered: “Exclusive Fusion processes could not generate organic matters. There must have existed a series of fission processes before the Big Bang, or later on among the solid bodies in the universe”

I learned how denser chemicals transform from hydrogen and helium, but I cannot fathom how organic molecule can be created by these hot fusion processes among the core of the atoms.

Here is my story:

  1. There are many universes.
  2. Two or three universes clashing to create a new universe do Not necessarily disintegrate: They still exist along side the new universe.
  3. Black Holes are representatives of the other existing universes and may play like a passage-way (worm) from this universe to the other universes. Black Holes conglomerate according to the rule of affinity of same matters from the original universe.
  4. There are no beginning or end in the creation of the universe: Just a series of cycles from mainly a dark universe (constituted mostly of dense matters) into a universe with lights (lighter matters)
  5. I might as conceive of an initial phase of denser universes that collided and created lighter masses by fission processes. The lighter masses created light by fusions processes.
  6. The expansion of our universe is meant to go and meet the other universes in order to start a new phase of creation of other universes.
  7. The origin of the universe is but a conjecture to satisfy our logical mind in forming mental model of our surrounding
  8.  There are no reasons why earth should be the only place for living organisms
  9. Other planets could have environments that sustain other various living organisms, Not necessarily identical to us.

 

Where information are never erased? Black Hole

Shred a document, and you can piece it back together. Burn a book, and you could theoretically do the same.

But send into a black hole, and it’s lost forever. Not correct.

That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained.

Black holes don’t erase information, scientists say

 Charlotte Hsu posted this April 2, 2015

An artist’s impression shows the surroundings of a supermassive black hole at the heart of the active galaxy NGC 3783 in the southern constellation of Centaurus.
A new University at Buffalo study finds that — contrary to what some physicists …more

The “information loss paradox” in black holes—a problem that has plagued physics for nearly 40 years—may not exist. (Maybe because mathematically, Black Holes cannot exist?)

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2015-04-black-holes-dont-erase-scientists.html#jCp

A new  study at University at Buffalo finds that — contrary to what some physicists , shows that this perspective may not be correct.

“According to our work, information isn’t lost once it enters a black hole,” says Dejan Stojkovic, PhD, associate professor of physics at the University at Buffalo. “It doesn’t just disappear.”

Stojkovic’s new study, “Radiation from a Collapsing Object is Manifestly Unitary,” appeared on March 17 in Physical Review Letters, with UB PhD student Anshul Saini as co-author.

The paper outlines how interactions between particles emitted by a black hole can reveal information about what lies within, such as characteristics of the object that formed the black hole to begin with, and characteristics of the matter and energy drawn inside.

This is an important discovery, Stojkovic says, because even physicists who believed information was not lost in black holes have struggled to show, mathematically, how this happens.

His new paper presents explicit calculations demonstrating how information is preserved, he says.

The research marks a significant step toward solving the “information loss paradox,” a problem that has plagued physics for almost 40 years, since Stephen Hawking first proposed that black holes could radiate energy and evaporate over time.

This posed a huge problem for the field of physics because it meant that information inside a black hole could be permanently lost when the black hole disappeared—a violation of quantum mechanics, which states that information must be conserved.

Information hidden in particle interactions

In the 1970s, Hawking proposed that black holes were capable of radiating particles, and that the energy lost through this process would cause the black holes to shrink and eventually disappear. Hawking further concluded that the particles emitted by a black hole would provide no clues about what lay inside, meaning that any information held within a black hole would be completely lost once the entity evaporated.

Though Hawking later said he was wrong and that information could escape from black holes, the subject of whether and how it’s possible to recover information from a black hole has remained a topic of debate.

Stojkovic and Saini’s new paper helps to clarify the story.

Instead of looking only at the particles a black hole emits, the study also takes into account the subtle interactions between the particles. By doing so, the research finds that it is possible for an observer standing outside of a black hole to recover information about what lies within.

Interactions between particles can range from gravitational attraction to the exchange of mediators like photons between . Such “correlations” have long been known to exist, but many scientists discounted them as unimportant in the past.

“These correlations were often ignored in related calculations since they were thought to be small and not capable of making a significant difference,” Stojkovic says.

“Our explicit calculations show that though the correlations start off very small, they grow in time and become large enough to change the outcome.”

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2015-04-black-holes-dont-erase-scientists.html#jCp

 Black Holes: Facts, Theory and Definition

So far, what physicists and astrophysics scientist claim is that:

1. Black holes are some of the strangest and most fascinating objects found in outer space.

2. They are objects of extreme density,

3. with such strong gravitational attraction that even light cannot escape from their grasp if it comes near enough.

Albert Einstein first predicted black holes in 1916 with his general theory of relativity.

The term “black hole” was coined in 1967 by American astronomer John Wheeler, and the first one was discovered in 1971.

 

Supermassive may be the result of hundreds or thousands of tiny black holes that merge together.

Large gas clouds could also be responsible, collapsing together and rapidly accreting mass.

A third option is the collapse of a stellar cluster, a group of stars all falling together.

Intermediate black holes – stuck in the middle

Scientists once thought black holes came in only small and large sizes, but recent research has revealed the possibility for the existence of midsize, or intermediate, black holes.

Such bodies could form when stars in a cluster collide in a chain reaction. Several of these forming in the same region could eventually fall together in the center of a galaxy and create a supermassive black hole.

Black hole theory — how they tick

Black holes are incredibly massive, but cover only a small region.

Because of the relationship between mass and gravity, this means they have an extremely powerful gravitational force. Virtually nothing can escape from them — under classical physics, even light is trapped by a black hole.

Such a strong pull creates an observational problem when it comes to black holes — scientists can’t “see” them the way they can see stars and other objects in space.

Instead, scientists must rely on the radiation that is emitted as dust and gas are drawn into the dense creatures. Supermassive black holes, lying in the center of a galaxy, may find themselves shrouded by the dust and gas thick around them, which can block the tell-tale emissions.

Sometimes as matter is drawn toward a black hole, it ricochets off of the event horizon and is hurled outward, rather than being tugged into the maw.

Bright jets of material traveling at near-relativistic speeds are created. Although the black hole itself remains unseen, these powerful jets can be viewed from great distances.

Black holes have three “layers” — the outer and inner event horizon and the singularity.

The event horizon of a black hole is the boundary around the mouth of the black hole where light loses its ability to escape. Once a particle crosses the event horizon, it cannot leave.

Gravity is constant across the event horizon.

The inner region of a black hole, where its mass lies, is known as its singularity, the single point in space-time where the mass of the black hole is concentrated.

Under the classical mechanics of physics, nothing can escape from a black hole.

However, things shift slightly when quantum mechanics are added to the equation. Under quantum mechanics, for every particle, there is an antiparticle, a particle with the same mass and opposite electric charge. When they meet, particle-antiparticle pairs can annihilate one another.

If a particle-antiparticle pair is created just beyond the reach of the event horizon of a black hole, it is possible to have one drawn into the black hole itself while the other is ejected. The result is that the event horizon of the black hole has been reduced and black holes can decay, a process that is rejected under classical mechanics.

Scientists are still working to understand the equations by which black holes function.

Interesting facts about black holes

  • If you fell into a black hole, gravity would stretch you out like spaghetti. Don’t worry; your death would come before you reached singularity.
  • Black holes do not “suck.” Suction is caused by pulling something into a vacuum, which the massive black hole definitely is not. Instead, objects fall into them.
  • The first object considered to be a black hole is Cygnus X-1. Rockets carrying Geiger counters discovered 8 new x-ray sources. In 1971, scientists detected radio emission coming from Cygnus X-1, and a massive hidden companion was found and identified as a black hole.
  • Cygnus X-1 was the subject of a 1974 friendly wager between Stephen Hawking and a fellow physicist Kip Thorne, with Hawking betting that the source was not a black hole. In 1990, he conceded defeat. [VIDEO: Final Nail in Stephen Hawking’s Cygnus X-1 Bet?]
  • Miniature black holes may have formed immediately after the Big Bang. Rapidly expanding space may have squeezed some regions into tiny, dense black holes less massive than the sun.
  • If a star passes too close to a black hole, it can be torn apart.
  • Astronomers estimate there are anywhere from 10 million to a billion stellar black holes, with masses roughly thrice that of the sun, in the Milky Way.
  • The interesting relationship between string theory and black holes gives rise to more types of massive giants than found under conventional classical mechanics.

 


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

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