Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘British Empire

How the British Empire managed to occupy the “Jewel Crown” India? Simple…

The British Empire, under its trading consortium of “Company of the Orient in India“, managed to militarily displace the French company in south-east India.

The British dominion started after the victory of Plassey in June 23, 1757.

Before the arrival of the British, the powerful and splendid Mogul Empire that dominated India, and current Pakistan and Afghanistan for over 250 years (the descendant of Timor Lank).

By the 18th century, Mogul Empire was nominally in power:The various States were ruled by local Maharajah, kings, rana, and Shahs….

In 1737, the Persian Nader Shah entered Delhi and transferred the famous Peacock (Paon) throne to Persia. and the famous diamond crown Koh-i-noor. This throne is currently in the palace of Golestan at Tehran.

Ten years later, the Afghan Ahmad Shah Durani entered also Delhi and annexed the northern Indian regions. For the next 30 years, warlords (Muslim and Hindu) carved out “independent States”.

In 1788, another Afghan invader Ghulam Kadir blinded the eyes of the reigning emperor Shah Alam for refusing to deliver the location of the treasure.

Many Mahrattes filled the void and occupied Delhi and it was pandemonium for 15 years.

In 1803, England was trying hard to topple the French First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte and was facing a long protracted war against this “people State” that damaged the old aristocratic and royal structure. And England wanted plenty of money to resume this war.

The British Empire stepped in India, entered Delhi and “restored order” and got the treasures. How the British managed to rule most of India within a century, except the northern State of Awadh, current Uttra Pradesh province?

The strategy is to sign treaties with Mogul local emperors, administering the State, controlling the budget, and allowing the emperors to be splendid masters in their restrictive palaces and citadels.And why the local leaders would agree to such binding treaties? Simple

Basically, all these kingdoms were fragile and unstable, and frequently deposed or displaced by local warlords. The best strategy for these Maharajah was to sign an alliance with the British and secure their hold on power.

Consequently, the pretenders to any throne had to negotiate with the British General Resident in Calcutta, through the State Resident, if any change is to be successful. And the local rajahs paid their dues to maintain their power over the other contending taluqdars and nawabs in their State

It was through the direct engagement with local emperors and promises to safeguard their power in their own States that the British managed to occupy all of India within a century from 1756 to 1856. The British annexed two-third of India and three-fourth of the population.

Now it was the turn to directly annex the last richest northern State of Awadh, with capital Lucknow.

In 1856, England was having hard time dislodging the Russians from the port city of Sevastopol on the Black Sea. The French, British, and Turkish alliance suffered large casualties for three years, and mainly from diseases.

Her Majesty Victoria needed money badly, and the State of Awadh was next in line to be directly occupied. Wajid Ali Shah was the reigning king.

This intervention generated two years of popular uprising in all the norther and central States, and Hazrat Mahal was the soul of the revolution. The real name of this queen was Muhammadi and she was the fourth wife of the kind and got him a son Bisjis Qadar. That’s the follow up story.

Every time London needed money badly, the British governor, residing in Calcutta, would claim a clause in the treaty was not fulfilled, and the State was occupied. Lands “belonging” to rajahs and taluqdar were “distributed” to the people, taxes raised, and then real estate and traders stepped in to repurchase the lands for cheap and pay the required easy money to the British Governor and his Resident in a State. Palaces and their treasuries were confiscated… More on the atrocities committed by the British invaders in the next book review.

The dominion of the British was not mainly due to its organized army or its better weapons.

1. The British army, 12,000 strong, was annihilated after three years of confrontation in Afghanistan in 1842. The British tried again a few decades later and was crushed again.

2. The British army was unable to control the Waziristan provinces (in current western Pakistan) and had to draw a fictional border line, the Durant Line along the mountain chain tops, to separate the new Pakistan State and Afghanistan. This is the same province that prevented the Macedonian Alexander the “Great” from crossing through.

3. The British army was mainly constituted of Sikhs (hateful of everything called Islam), Gurkhas from Nepal, and the Indian cipays soldiers who were never promoted to any officer ranks, even after decades of services and engaging in many battles.

4. When the British confiscated the lands of the rajjahs… these feudal lords instigated the peasants to revolt against the infidel occupying forces until the General Governor returned most of the lands.

Fact is, the maharajahs feared their people far more than the British forces and they were allied with the colonial power against their wretched people…

Note: Post inspired from the French book “In the City of Gold and Silver” by Kenize Mourad

Where are the very few countries that British Empire forgot to invaded?

At the height of the British Empire, almost three quarter of the atlas was coloured pink, showing the extent of British rule…

Stuart Laycock, who has previously published books on Roman history, began the unusual quest after being asked by his 11-year-old son, Frederick, how many countries the British had invaded.

After almost two years of research Stuart said he was shocked by the answer. “I was absolutely staggered when I reached the total. I like to think I have a relatively good general knowledge. But there are places where it hadn’t occurred to me that these things had ever happened. It shocked me.

From about the 200 currently recognized States, Britain has invaded all but 22 countries in the world in its long and colourful history, new research has found.

Britain has invaded all but 22 countries in the world in its long and colourful history, new research has found

21 of the 22 countries that have NOT been invaded by Britain

A new study has found that at various times the British have invaded almost 90 per cent of the countries around the globe.

The analysis of the histories of the almost 200 countries in the world found only 22 which have never experienced an invasion by the British.

Among this select group of nations are far-off destinations such as Guatemala, Tajikistan and the Marshall Islands, as well some slightly closer to home, such as Luxembourg.

Stuart Laycock, the author, has worked his way around the globe, through each country alphabetically, researching its history to establish whether, at any point, they have experienced an incursion by Britain.

Only a comparatively small proportion of the total in Mr Laycock’s list of invaded states actually formed an official part of the empire.

The remainder have been included because the British were found to have achieved some sort of military presence in the territory – however transitory – either through force, the threat of force, negotiation or payment.

Incursions by British pirates, privateers or armed explorers have also been included, provided they were operating with the approval of their government.

Many countries which once formed part of the Spanish empire and seem to have little historical connection with the UK, such as Costa Rica, Ecuador and El Salvador, make the list because of the repeated raids they suffered from state-sanctioned British sailors.

Among some of the perhaps surprising entries on the list are:

* Cuba, where in 1741, a force under Admiral Edward Vernon stormed ashore at Guantánamo Bay. He renamed it Cumberland Bay, before being forced to withdraw in the face of hostile locals and an outbreak of disease among his men. Twenty one years later, Havana and a large part of the island fell to the British after a bloody siege, only to be handed back to the Spanish in 1763, along with another unlikely British possession, the Philippines, in exchange for Florida and Minorca.

*Iceland, invaded in 1940 by the British after the neutral nation refused to enter the war on the Allies side. The invasion force, of 745 marines, met with strong protest from the Iceland government, but no resistance.

* Vietnam, which has experienced repeated incursions by the British since the seventeenth century. The most recent – from 1945 to 1946 – saw the British fight a campaign for control of the country against communists, in a war that has been overshadowed by later conflicts involving first the French and then Americans.

It is thought to be the first time such a list has been compiled.

Laylock resumed: “Other countries could write similar books – but they would be much shorter. I don’t think anyone could match this, although the Americans had a later start and have been working hard on it in the twentieth century.”

The only other nation which has achieved anything approaching the British total, Mr Laycock said, is France – which also holds the unfortunate record for having endured the most British invasions. “I realise people may argue with some of my reasons, but it is intended to prompt debate,” he added.

He believes the actual figure may well be higher and is inviting the public to get in touch to provide evidence of other invasions.

In the case of Mongolia, for instance – one of the 22 nations “not invaded”, according to the book – he believes it possible that there could have been a British invasion, but could find no direct proof.

The country was caught up in the turmoil following the Russian Revolution, in which the British and other powers intervened. Mr Laycock found evidence of a British military mission in Russia approximately 50 miles from the Mongolian border, but could not establish whether it got any closer.

The research lists countries based on their current national boundaries and names. Many of the invasions took place when these did not apply.

The research covered the 192 other UN member states as well as the Vatican City and Kosovo, which are not member states, but are recognised by the UK government as independent states.

The earliest invasion launched from these islands was an incursion into Gaul – now France – at the end of the second century. Clodius Albinus led an army, thought to include many Britons, across the Channel in an attempt to seize the imperial throne. The force was defeated in 197 at Lyon.

Mr Laycock added: “One one level, for the British, it is quite amazing and quite humbling, that this is all part of our history, but clearly there are parts of our history that we are less proud of. The book is not intended as any kind of moral judgment on our history or our empire. It is meant as a light-hearted bit of fun.”

The countries that were Never been invaded by the British:

Andorra, Belarus, Bolivia, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Republic of Guatemala, Ivory Coast, Kyrgyzstan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Mali, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Mongolia, Paraguay, Sao Tome and Principe, Sweden, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Vatican City

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Guevara the Arab: Al Kassam (1871-1935)

Have you heard of these homemade missiles Al Kassam that the resistance in Gaza launch on the nearest Israeli colonies? Particularly when Israel kill leaders using drones or fighter jets to bomb public institutions, schools, hospitals…?

Have you heard of the military wing of Hamas in Gaza called Al Kassam Brigade?

Ezzeldin Al Kassam was born in this small Syrian village of Jabli in the district of Lattakieh. In the last 20 years of his life, Al Kassam was leading groups of fighters against the colonial powers of France (in Syria), England (in Palestine) and Italy (in Libya) during the Omar Al Mokhtar mass uprising that started in 1911.

At the age of 14, Ak Kassam was sent by his father to Egypt to study at the famous religious university of Al Azhar. He witnessed the mass uprising lead by Arabi Pasha against the military occupation of the British of Egypt, and was immersed in the liberal interpretation of the Islam religion at that period.

He returned to his hometown a religious sheikh and Imam of the Mosque Al Mansouri and confronted the feudal landlords.

In 1912, Ezzeldin established a school, teaching kids in the morning and the adults late in the afternoon.

He assembled a  group ofSyrian revolutiopnaries, trained them and led them to fight the Italian occupiers in Lybia, alongside the national leader Omar Al Mokhtar.

When the French troops, mandated to occupy Syria and Lebanon, landed in 1918, Ak Kassam was ready to to engage in guerrila operations. He took refuge with his insurgents in the forteress of Zion in the Lattakieh district.

Between 1919 and 1920, Al Kassam allied with the resistance heros of Ibrahim Hanano, Saleh Ali, and Omar Bitar…The small Syrian army was defeated by the French troops at the battle of Maysaloun in 1920, and the Independence of Syria was shelved for over 15 years.

Al Kassam was sentenced to be executed in absentia, and he fled to Haifa in Palestine.

By 1925, Al Kassam became chairman of the Islamic Youth Association and the Imam of the Mosque Al Istiklal (independence) in Haifa.

In 1929, the Zionist jews were planning to burn down the Mosque, and Ezzeldin refused to demand from the British protection, stating: “This Mosque will be protected by our blood...”

The mass desobediance movement of Al Kassam was waged in two fronts: First, against the British occupiers, and second, against the increased immigration of the Jews into Palestine.

In August 1929, the Zionists tried to occupy the western wall (the lamentation wall) of the Mosque Al Aqsa in Jerusalem, called the Al Brak Wall (in honor of the name of the horse of Prophet Muhammad). This incident led to many casualties and more violent activities began at a wider scales.

From 1929 to 1935, Ak Kassam organized his insurgents into 5 secret branches: 1. The religious leaders with the task of connecting with the masses and peasants, 2. the branch for supplying arms and ammunition, 3. the branch for military training, 4. the branch for gathering intelligence on the movement of the british and the Zionists, and 5. the Foreign political communication branch…

On a December night of 1935, Al Kassam lead 25 of his fighters to the hills of Yo3bod in order to disseminate the spirit of mass uprising. The British were in waiting and ambushed the guerrilas and assassinated them. Al Kassam had warned the Mufti of Jerusalem Haj Amin Husseini of his intention and the reply was that “the conditions are not ripe for a mass disobedience uprising…”

After the killing of Al Kassam, a monster mass disobedience uprising engulfed all of Palestine against the British for 3 full years, from 1936-to 1939. The British Empire had to dispatch 100, 000 soldiers to quell this uprising, committing all kinds of atrocities and applying new torture methods that the Nazi in Germany emulated unchanged…

Discriminated against on all sides: Palestinians with Israel passport

How could you figure out this paradox: An Arab State (probably Qatar) invited two Jewish Israeli swimmers to participate in a sport event, and denied a Palestinian scholar (see not) to attend a scientific conference on the ground that his passport is Israeli?

In 1948, only about 150,000 Palestinians steadfastly remained and held on their land while Israel was pursuing its policy of “transferring” all Palestinians from Palestine, by all means available, including genocide and erasing entire villages…

Those 150,000 Palestinians living within the State of Israel suffered all kinds of discrimination, humiliations and indignities and they are currently around 1.5 million or 20% of Israel total population. 

Mind you that the Jews in Palestine during the British mandated power over Palestine were less than 20% before WWII, and the Zionist organization pressured the British Empire never to engage in any democratic election in Palestine, as long as the Jews are in the minority. The British failure to conduct even municipal election lead to a mass civil disobedience that lasted 4 years (1935-1938) and prompted Britain to dispatch 100,000 soldiers to put down this intifada.

It is these Palestinians who supposedly enjoy the same civil rights as the Jews in Israel that worry greatly the racist and apartheid State of Israel.  The radical Jewish right wings want a totally Jewish State and abhor the existence of those “Arabs” in their midst. In the last decade, there has been a frenetic flurry of apartheid laws, enacted by the Knesset, in order to restrict the civil rights of the Israeli Palestinians, and threaten them of massive transfer to the Palestinian State if the UN decides for an independent Palestinian State…

The “Israeli Arabs” as the Zionists would like to discriminate against the Israeli Palestinians know their rights as Israeli citizens and keep demanding their entitled rights from the Justice system and the Israeli institutions.

For example, the “Israeli Palestinians” launched the “Homeland Day” on March 30, 1976 and conducted civil disobedience to resist any further expropriation of their properties.  Plenty of blood was shed as the Israeli army intervened violently. The “Homeland Day” is celebrated every year by Palestinians all over the world.

The “Israeli Palestinians” participated in the “1987 Intifada” (civil disobedience), which was organized by the Palestinians in the occupied territories of West Bank and Gaza, and the Israeli police force quelled the peaceful demonstrations of the “Israeli Palestinians” in the norther cities and towns and dozens were killed and injured. Actually, the “Homeland Day” is basically celebrated to keep the memory of the martyred Israeli Palestinians who fell by the Israeli police on that day.

Israel wanted to transfer all Palestinians from Israel, but time was pressing and the western States needed to keep a “sample of Palestinians” within Israel to demonstrate that the UN resolution of 1948 of two homelands was still on the books.  Without a sample of Palestinians within the State of Israel, it would have been totally untenable to keep supporting an apartheid system and claim Israel as the “sole democracy” in the Middle-East.

I knew one Israeli Palestinian (labelled Palestinians of 1948 by the “Arabs”) during my graduate study in the USA, and he was very sad, aloof, and perturbed. Kind of not knowing who he really is: an arab, an Israeli, an enemy to the “Arabs”, a spy to the Israeli government…Basically, the problem was “How am I perceived by the “Arabs” around me and by the Jews?”

Is is an outrage that Arab States and “Arabs” in general tend to discriminate against the Israeli Palestinians, instead of viewing them as their main ally to rectify harms done in the last 6 decades…

Note: Marwan Duwairy, a Palestinian Israeli and a social psychology researcher, is the scholar who was discriminated against by an Arab State. The university of Columbia (USA) had publihed his book in 2006 on social therapy and has been invited by many scientific conferences to give speeches. He currently resides in Israel.

Just men wearing daggers as symbol of manhood: Yemen

There is a devastating civil war in Yemen: Is it of any concern to the UN? 

The UN did it again!  Civil wars in non-oil producing Arab States are left to run its natural steam until the State is bankrupt and ready to be picked up at salvage price.

The UN tends to get busy for years in collateral world problems when civil wars strike Arab States. Occasionally, the UN demonstrates lukewarm attempts for a resolution in oil producing States as long as it is under control.

Lebanon experienced 17 years of civil war.  Morocco still has a civil war in south Sahara for 4 decades.  Sudan has been suffering of a rampant civil war for four decades.  Algeria is experiencing a resurgence of a devastating civil war that started in 1990 because Europe refused to accept a democratically elected Islamic majority in the parliament.  Iraq was totally neglected while Saddam Hussein was decimating the Chiaas and Kurds in Iraq for three decades, even after the US coalition forced the Iraqi troops out of Kuwait.  Somalia never got out of its miseries for four decades so far.  Mauritania is rope jumping from one military coup to another. The other Arab States are in constant low level civil wars overshadowed by dictators, one party, oligarchic, and monarchic regimes.

A week ago, a few trucks were allowed to cross Saudi borders carrying tents and necessary medicines to stem rampant diseases where hundred thousands of refugees huddle in refugee camps on the high plateau of North-West Yemen, by the borders with Saudi Arabia that closed its borders and chased out any infiltration of refugees.

The most disheartening feeling is that you don’t see field reporting of this civil war by the western media.

The written accounts are from second hand sources and decades old. They abridge the problem by stating it is a tribal matter. They feel comfortable blaming Iran; then how this land locked region in the mountains of Yemen can be supplied by Iran needs to be clarified.

The western media is easily convinced that Al Qaeda moved from Saudi Arabia and was ordered to infiltrate the Somali refugee camps in South Yemen; then how Al Qaeda got to be located in a region of North West Yemen with Chiaa Yazdi population is irrelevant.

The population of North West Yemen forms the third of the total and it is Yezdi Chiia that agrees to seven Imams and not 12 as in Iran; the Yazdi sect does not care that much about the coming of a “hidden” Mahdi to unite and save Islam.

The western media want you to believe that this war, which effectively started in 2004, is a succession problem to prevent the son of current President Abdallah Saleh from inheriting the power. Actually Saleh’s son is the head of the Presidential Guard which has been recently involved in the war after the regular army failed to bring a clear cut victory.

Yemen was a backward States even in the 60’s.  South Yemen had a Marxist regime backed by the Egyptian troops of Jamal Abdel Nasser against North Yemen ruled by an ancient Yazdi Imam; a hereditary regime labeled the “Royalists” and backed by Saudi Arabia.

After the Soviet Union disintegrated, Yemen unified in 1990.  Since then, South Yemen and North West Yemen were deprived of the central State financial and economic distribution of wealth.  President Saleh could present the image of a “progressist” leader as long as Yemen was out of the screen and nobody cared about this bankrupt State.

Yemen is on the verge of being divided into three separate autonomous States, the South, North West, and Sanaa the Capital.

The problems in the Horn of Africa have migrated its endemic instability into Yemen; refugees from Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Sudan have been flocking into the southern shores of Yemen for same climate.  Heavy influx of contraband products are keeping the people of these two regions precariously afloat. The deal between Hillary Clinton and Israel foreign affairs Levny to patrol the Indian Ocean was not just meant for Gaza but mainly to prepare President Saleh for his 2009 campaign against the rebels in North Yemen by monitoring contraband arms shipments.

Saudi Arabia, during the duo power brokers of Prince Sultan and Neyef (respectively Ministers of Defense and the Interior) did their best to destabilize Yemen on account of fighting the spread of the Chiaa sect in the Arabic Peninsula. Yemen has no natural resources to count on and the population is addicted to “Qat” that they chew on at lunch time for hours.

Yemen was the most prosperous region in the Arabic Peninsula for millennia; land caravans started from Taez and then passed by Maareb from which town the caravans split to either Mecca (then to Aqaba and Syria) or took the direction to Persia and Iraq. All kinds of perfume, seasoning, and textile landed by sea from India and South East Asia; incense were produced from a special tree grown in Yemen and Hadramout. The British Empire didn’t care about this region; all that it wanted to secure were sea ports for commerce and to defend the entrances of the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea to Egypt.

The UN is inheriting the same lax attitude of the British Empire; as long as the US bases are secured in this region then the hell with the people. Qatar arranged for reconciliation in 2007 and Saudi Arabia interfered to fail it. Archaic tribes fighting one another wearing daggers as symbol of manhood are all that there is in Yemen.

Saudi Arabia is involved in this war and using its airforce to stem the “rebel hawthees“; it blocked the satellites in the Arab world that cover this civil war.  Is CNN willing to come to the rescue for the world communities to get coverage of the mass massacres going on in this poor country?

Devastating civil war in Yemen: Is it of any concern to the UN? (Oct. 27, 2009)

The UN did it again!  Civil wars in non-oil producing Arab States are left to run its natural steam until the State is bankrupt and ready to be picked up at salvage price.

The UN tends to get busy for years in collateral world problems when civil wars strike any non oil-producing Arab States.  Occasionally, the UN demonstrates lukewarm attempts for a resolution in oil producing States as long as it is under control.

Lebanon experienced 17 years of civil war.  Morocco still has a civil war in south Sahara for three decades.  Sudan has been suffering of a rampant civil war for four decades.  Algeria is experiencing a resurgence of a devastating civil war that started in 1990 because Europe refused to accept a democratically elected Islamic majority in the parliament.  Iraq was totally neglected while Saddam Hussein was decimating the Shias and Kurds in Iraq for three decades, even after the US coalition forced the Iraqi troops out of Kuwait.  Somalia never got out of its miseries for four decades so far.  Mauritania is rope jumping from one military coup to another. The other Arab States are in constant low-level civil wars overshadowed by dictators, one party, oligarchic, and monarchic regimes.

A week ago, a few trucks were allowed to cross Saudi borders to Yemen carrying tents and necessary medicines to stem rampant diseases where hundred thousands of refugees huddle in refugee camps on the high plateau of North-West Yemen, by the borders with Saudi Arabia that closed its borders and chased out any infiltration of refugees.

The most disheartening feeling is that you don’t see field reporting of this civil war by the western media.  The written accounts are from second-hand sources and decades old. They abridge the problem by stating it is a tribal matter. They feel comfortable blaming Iran; then how this land locked region can be supplied by Iran needs to be clarified. The western media is easily convinced that Al Qaeda moved from Saudi Arabia and was ordered to infiltrate the Somali refugee camps in South Yemen; then how Al Qaeda got to be located in a region of North West Yemen with Shia Yazdi population is irrelevant.

The population of North West Yemen forms the third of the total and it is Yezdi Chiia that agrees to seven Imams and not 12 as in Iran; the Yazdi sect does not care that much about the coming of a “hidden” Mahdi to unite and save Islam.  The western media want you to believe that this war, which effectively started in 2004, is a succession problem to prevent the son of current President Abdallah Saleh from inheriting the power. Actually Saleh’s son is the head of the Presidential Guard which has been recently involved in the war after the regular army failed to bring a clear-cut victory.

Yemen was a backward States even in the 60’s.  South Yemen had a Marxist regime backed by the Egyptian troops of Jamal Abdel Nasser against North Yemen ruled by an ancient Yazdi Imam; a hereditary regime labeled the “Royalists” and backed by Saudi Arabia. After the Soviet Union disintegrated Yemen unified in 1990.  Since then, South Yemen and North West Yemen were deprived of the central State financial and economic distribution of wealth.  President Saleh could present the image of a “progressist” leader as long as Yemen was out of the screen and nobody cared about this bankrupt State.

Yemen is on the verge of being divided into three separate autonomous States, the South, North West, and Sanaa the Capital.  The problems in the Horn of Africa have migrated its endemic instability into Yemen; refugees from Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Sudan have been flocking into the southern shores of Yemen for same climate.  Heavy influx of contraband products are keeping the people of these two regions precariously afloat. The deal between Hillary Clinton and Israel foreign affairs Levny to patrol the Indian Ocean was not just meant for Gaza but mainly to prepare President Saleh for his 2009 campaign against the rebels in North Yemen by monitoring contraband arms shipments to the “hawssy” rebel.

Saudi Arabia, during the duo power brokers of Prince Sultan and Neyef (respectively Ministers of Defense and the Interior) did their best to destabilize Yemen on account of fighting the spread of the Shia sect in the Arabic Peninsula. Yemen has no natural resources to count on and the population is addicted to “Qat” that they chew on at lunch time for hours.

Yemen was the most prosperous region in the Arabic Peninsula for millennia.  Land caravans started from Taez and then passed by Maareb from which town the caravans split to either Mecca (then to Aqaba and Syria) or took the direction to Persia and Iraq. All kinds of perfume, seasoning, and textile landed by sea from India and South East Asia; incense was produced from a special tree grown in Yemen and Hadramout. The British Empire didn’t care about this region; all that it wanted to secure were sea ports for commerce and to defend the entrances of the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea to Egypt.

The UN is inheriting the same lax attitude of the British Empire; as long as the US bases are secured in this region then the hell with the people. Qatar arranged for reconciliation in 2007 and Saudi Arabia interfered to fail it. Archaic tribes fighting one another wearing daggers as symbol of manhood are all that there is in Yemen.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

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