Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘City-States

In social idiosyncrasies, the Devil is NOT in the Details

Note: Re-edit of “The devil is NOT in the details; (October 16, 2009)”

Details are the basis for any program execution.  Do details bring people together to communicate, dialogue, and negotiate to reach compromises?

Strong with draft details, can each organization start to sort out the differences and comprehend the big picture? Why it is never the way around in social behavior?

The main wall that separate among communities is the concrete wall mixed with myths, general concepts, and abstract notions.

I will discuss two cases, one religious and the other of political nature.

First case:

After the crucifixion of Jesus, many Christian sects were born in the Near East in the first four centuries.  Fundamentally, these sects were almost identical in applying the Jewish daily rituals or the Jewish 650 laws of “correct” conduct.

What separated these sects were abstract concepts that did not harm their peaceful coexistence in separate communities of believers: they never attacked by force one another. Actually, they tended to isolate their community from “outside” influence

Military persecutions started when the Church acquired central power in Constantinople; and entire “heretic” sects and entire communities had to flee to safety.

The Mighty Wall was erected after 325 AC when Byzantium Empire decided to adopt Christianity as the main religion of the Empire.

Thus, the central power concept of the Empire dictated that church should be centralized.  Instead of focusing in negotiating on the details that split the various sects an upper abstract superstructure on concepts was imposed.

Concepts such as the dual nature of Christ, the deity of the threes (the father, the son, and the Holy Spirit), the virginity of the mother Mary and on.  This time around, the sects were to join the Orthodox Church by force if need be: a central Empire cannot permit disunity, even on totally nonsense abstract conjectures!

Consequently, the labeled “heretic” sects had to flee beyond the eastern shores of the Euphrates River (to the Persian Sassanid Dynasty).

The Nestorian sect reached China and translated “their” Bible into the Chinese language. Many other “heretic” sects settled in the Arabian Peninsula.

The Christian-Jewish “Ebionite” sect was firmly entrenched in Mecca. The uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, Ain Warkat, was the Patriarch of this sect and Muhammad learned to read in the Aramaic Ebionite Bible.

Muhammad aided his uncle in the translation of this specific Bible into the Arabic slang of Mecca.  Thus, Islam is originally a common denominator “heretic” Christian sect, one of many Christian sects in the Arabian Peninsula. The Prophet had to delete all the abstract notions to unite the sects; it was named Islam or the belief in the One and only God.

The strong animosity of the Catholic Church of Rome against Islam was not directed at a religion such as Buddhism or Mazdean but at a new “heretic” Christian sect usurping its central power in the Near East, the Orthodox Church .

The Orthodox Church in Constantinople was more lenient with Islam because it understood its genesis and the causes for the need of this new “heresy”: for Constantinople, Islam was the oriental counterpart of Protestantism to Rome when Islam became the dominant religion in the region.

It is said: “the enemy of my enemy is my ally”; this Machiavellian principle was lost to obscurantist Catholic Church. Rome was too far away and fought Islam with the ignorance of abstract concepts.

For the Catholic Church in 1,000 AC, Islam was doubly “heretic” instead of just the counterpart to the central Orthodox Church of the Byzantine Empire: it failed to realize that if Islam spread so fast and so widely it is mainly because most the labeled Christian heretic sects quickly converted to Islam as representing their system of belief against the monopole of Constantinople.

Second case:

The other case is the concept of a Syrian Nation with well delimited natural borders including Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and part of Iraq to the west of the Tiger (Dujlat) River.

This concept was highly widespread among the people of the region as the Ottoman Empire was dying during WWI.  It was still even more alive during the mandate of France and Britain to the region (Near East) after WWI.

The people in the Syrian Nation speak one language and have the same customs and tradition.  This nation was as natural as ABC; the immigrants were first called Turks during the Ottoman Empire and then they were all called Syrians regardless of location or religion.

The main problem is that the political parties spent two critical decades proving the evident (according to the newer definitions of the West for a Nation) instead of making the effort to developing draft detailed programs on the type of political administrative structure for this nation, the social representation, and election laws.

( For example, is it a Federal structure like the USA where each mandated State is fully autonomous with local government and local parliament, or provinces tailored made to religious, ethnic, and sectarian majorities, or loosely united States with open borders, common money, central army, or centralized foreign affairs; is Syria to be a monarchy and what kind).

Instead of discussing detailed programs, political parties mushroomed with abstract concepts not based on facts or pragmatic long-term goals.

The colonial “mandated powers” of France and England had field days of “dividing to rule”.

Every sect established its political party in every potential State claiming either total independence, or seeking a pan-Arabic Nation of Arabic speaking majorities in States, or Islamic Nation. 

We watched the emergence of communist parties disclaiming the notion of affiliating to a nation, to sectarian parties claiming democracy, socialism, and progressive. The worst propaganda that was encouraged by the colonial powers is to incite citizens against the Syrian people with the objective of discrediting the word Syria and giving it a bad connotation.

Natural borders of chain of mountains, desert, or large rivers do not necessarily protect from invasions; natural borders certainly encourage people to trade and interact inside the borders.  It is the internal rough geography and terrain that protects from outside military incursions.

Once a force crosses the border then Syria is an open land all the way to Egypt. Syria, or the Near East, was continuously occupied by foreign armies: these foreign invaders had to retreat quickly or get absorbed culturally.

Whatever monuments, constructions, temples, sport arena, or scholarly works that were attributed to invading nations (Persia, Egypt, Greek, Rome, or Arab) are basically the work of the Near Eastern civilization, their scholars, their craftsmen, and their adventurous business acumen.

The City-States in the Near East (Tyr, Sidon, Byblos, Ugarit, Mary …) competed in commerce and trade but never attacked one another militarily.  In Greece, City-States frequently waged military wars against one another.  The Near Eastern people adopted defensive strategy; even Carthage in its apogee refrained to antagonize Rome militarily.

Egypt and Persia frequent invasions in the Near East did not last long.

The Greek were absorbed: what Europe claim as Greek civilization is nothing less than the civilization of the Greek translating Syrians authors who spoke Aramaic.

Rome was finally absorbed: the Roman Laws are of the legal minds from the school of Beirut and the latest Emperors were born, raised, and educated in Syria.

The Byzantine Empire was fundamentally a Near Eastern Empire.  The Arabs from the Arabian Peninsula were absorbed when Damascus was selected as Capital during the Umayyad Dynasty.

The “Arabs” were absorbed by the Persian civilization when the capital shifted to Baghdad.

The Mogul retreated quickly but established long lasting Empires in India and Afghanistan.

The Ottoman conquered this land and could not be absorbed: the Syrian people were already exhausted from many years of successive invasions, religious obscurantism, and immigration by scholars to greener pastures.

France and England retreated “officially” within two decades but kept deep footprints in the laws and the administration structure. 

Implanted colonial Israel failed to retreat on time and is now being absorbed as Near Eastern State in social behavior, regardless of Israel propaganda attempts to seeking European image.

Consequently, failing to writing a draft on a possible administrative program for the Syrian Nation opened the door to abstract concept instead of working out negotiation and dialogue on pragmatic matters that concerned the people.

You scratch one spot and it spreads: Can’t please this apartheid theocratic State of Israel

Note: an update from 2010 article. It is a virus: You scratch one spot and it spreads; (Jan. 29, 2010)

It is a virus; a sort of nasty mushroom that spreads al over your skin and inflicts crazy itching.

This itching affected me for over a month.

I finally saw a physician, not a skin specialist, in the town dispensary and she told me that she had witnessed many such cases lately.

The virus is in the air and that is how you are contaminated; many victims experienced lousy moments for many weeks.

The physician prescribed a single pill (costing $8) with effects that last for a week. Got to take another pill for a second week; that was supposed to take care of the mushroom. The physician said that without the pill the itching takes 6 weeks to subside.

In my case and with the pill I should be okay within days: I was healed the next day.

I decided for the second pill to make sure that the mushroom is dead once and for all.  I am not sure: three weeks later and I am itching; not necessarily of mushroom; but what do I know?

Itching is not the main topic of this article: it just gave me a perfect analogy.  The virus is Israel.

If you say Israel is an apartheid State because it subjugates the Palestinian people to a different set of laws of the land than the one applied to the Jews then Israel is upset.

If you say Israel is a theocratic State because it extends citizenship to any Jew who sets foot in Israel then Israel is angry.

Why,  over 600 religious laws that should govern daily life, as applied by the Pharisee during Jesus time, are still valid and harshly controlled.

The secular Jews agree that Israel is back to the Dark Age, but how to convince the US neo-conservative “Christians” that this is so?

If you say that Israel is comfortable with ghetto-like environment because it cordoned off all its frontiers by walls (frontiers that are not yet delimited in its Constitution) then Israel is appalled

If you say Israel is a Sparta State because it believes in military resolution for any contention with any neighboring State then Israel is incensed. Why?

Israel is worse than Sparta: after 3 years of forced military service the citizen has to submit to a month per year in “the reserves” service.

If you say Israel has been committing crimes against humanity since before its inception in 1948, and Gaza is the latest in evidence, then Israel rejects Goldstone’s report in all its sections.

If you say Israel has a peculiar kind of “democracy” that was called “apartheid democracy” in South Africa where laws are selectively and not equitably applied on all citizens; or if you say that the kind of democracy applied in Israel is barely a developed version of City-States democracies of Antiquity such as applied in Athens, Tyr,e or Sidon then Israel feels obfuscated.

I you say Israel refuses to grow up and abide by its responsibility as a member of the United Nations and respect UN decisions then Israel is furious: Israel constantly expects the US to cover up illegal activities with the veto power.

If you say the Arab States want peace for returning all the conquered lands in 1967 as proclaimed in 2002 Arab Summit in Beirut then Israel feels resentful and laughs it off.

If you say that Israel is a racist State because the UN declared “Zionism a form of racism” then Israel is up in arms to drop this statement.  Can you believe it?

Israel is investing money to demonstrate that Indians living in the region of Malihabad, (near Lucknow in the Uttar Pradesh), and known as Pathans Afridis are Jews from the tribe of Ephraim that lived in northern Galilee during Jesus time.

The Indian Shahnaz Ali was hired by Israel Institute of Technology to test the DNA of this “tribe” and hopefully extrapolate the results to include the Pashtoun tribes on the borders of Pakistan and Afghanistan.  Is that a form of racism? Since when any religion was based on race?

I did a rough estimate: I figured out that the Phoenicians are over one billion, give or take one standard deviation, and are spread over the five continents!

If you say that Israel is “the vastest psychiatric ward in the world with no treating personnel” then Israel is ready to lambaste the Israeli author as a schizophrenic, leftist, and probably “anti-Semitic” mole.

If you say that Israel is indeed a very, very peace loving State then Israel is infuriated because you are mocking it.  It is a virus.

No matter what you say is non receivable.

Best attitude is to censure your opinions and refrain from mentioning Israel, Jews, Judaism, Hebrew, or the Diaspora.

One term is admissible: Jews were gazed by Nazism and the number better be exact: 6 millions no less and not one over that scientifically reached number.

Repeat: Jews were gazed and not shot, poisoned, killed, trampled, or exterminated in any other form of “final solutions”.

Repeat: Exactly 6 millions or the holocaust literature would have to be republished; any number over 6 millions and Germany would be infuriated and Merkel would have to cancel the seventh nuclear submarines, built for free for the State of Israel, at Germans’ tax payer expenses; and for what use are these nuclear submarines put in service?  Maybe to support NATO policies?

It is a virus: mushroom or no mushroom you feel itching like crazy and Barack Obama and George Mitchell first of all.

Tidbits and notes posted on FB and Twitter. Part 218

Note: I take notes of books I read and comment on events and edit sentences that fit my style. I pa attention to researched documentaries and serious links I receive. The page is long and growing like crazy, and the sections I post contains a month-old events that are worth refreshing your memory

Democracy was developed in the City-States of Byblos, Sidon, Tyr, Ugarit and Mary several centuries before Athens existed.  These City-States had democracy within their city limits as Athens and Rome emulated later on.

Why within city-State limits?  Because communication and transport were limited and the administration of such a complex democratic system was not feasible at a larger magnitude at the time; thus democracy was not translated to the colonies as Greek Athens also failed to do.

We can confirm that the Near East Mediterranean region was the bedrock of all civilizations of the Mediterranean Sea in religion, philosophy, sciences, literature and arts. Regardless of genetic sources, which are an amalgamation of many nations, anyone from current States in the Near East should take pride in their ancient civilizations and their original identity as the forefathers of contemporary modern democratic civilizations in Europe and the Greater Mediterranean Sea regions.

“Young people should prove to be good sons in the family, polite and respectful in society, prudent and loyal, liking the company of good men.  After learning and applying these moral values, you feel you have energy to acquiring knowledge, then study and read.”

60 is the Number of fragrance producers (which employ 13,000 workers) based in Grasse, France—known as the “Silicon Valley of perfume.”

5% of the global population with anosmia, the inability to smell.

How to train your smelling nose? Ugo Charron: “It’s a long journey.  Aspiring perfumers typically have an undergraduate degree in chemistry, and go through 5–10 years of training and professional apprenticeships. The curricula includes advanced chemistry classes, blending, raw materials, safety regulations, storytelling, and of course, a lot of smelling. At the end of the training, a perfumer must be able to ID around 500 scents within seconds.

Electronic noses are used to detect spoiled food, gas leaks, or even knock-off perfumesNASA’s ENose is so sensitive it can sniff the difference between Pepsi and Coke.

C’est la vie qui est lourde: demandez a une femme enceinte quand le bebe appuie de ses pieds sur son diaphragm.

On Dec. 27, 155 years ago, President Abraham Lincoln ordered 38 Dakota Warriors to be hung. It was the largest mass execution in U.S. history, but this will never be talked about in any history class #Dakota38 #NeverForget
#murica

“Conveyor belt” Civilization: Tribes bordering urban and rural regions. transmitters of cultural differences, prime “intelligence gatherer or front-line intelligence agencies” for the powerful neighboring empires. They are the guides in time of wars; they guard the security of caravans crossing regions and extend facilities in water and supplies.

Le monde est plein de choses tres belles. On passe sa vie sans les connaitre. Sans un passport colonial, c’est difficile de voir toutes ces beautes: On doit se contenter des beautes locales

Les adolescent males n’aime pas la vie: la mort les comprend mieux que tout

L’histoire appartient a ceux qui la vie: tous les autres s’invitent et la raconte a chacun leu leu (fake news?)

I saw a news report from England that showed some doctors were aborting babies because they were baby girls! This shocked me so I looked into it and realised this is far from unusual, it is the norm in some countries.

Girls are targeted for abortion just because they are girls and seen of as lesser value. Abortion is wiping out thousands of girls and pro choice feminists won’t say a word. As a #prolifefeminist I speak up for girls at all stages of life. #LoveBoth #Savethe8th www.loveboth.ie ( 20 year-old Celine Murray)

UN was concerned only with the 74 White Helmets in Al Ghouta, trained by Britain and USA for fabricating fake videos

Zaman intikhabaat wa kol al ma3aassi masmou7a, ellah banaat raakissaat fi malha. Yalla, tzakaro shame3 a7mar, a7mar min woujouh al “mas2ouleen”

Minorities coloring new maps?

The Epic “Enmerkar and the Ruler of Aratta”

Note: Although the term and notion of Nation is a new fabricated idea, many minorities have jumped to the occasion to wrap themselves with aggrandized entity, going as far back as 5,000 years. They colored new maps with vast swath of lands and attributed them to their “people”. In periods where the most that was done was establishing “city-states” commensurate to feasibility of governance.

Ovig Vartabedian shared this link that I consider a representative example: Ovig believes that the colored Aratta is the ancient Armenia of current Turkey.

In front of me lies a clay tablet. Approximately 4000 years ago, an unknown Sumerian scribe inscribed cuneiform signs on it. The tablet is square, 23 x 23 cm, that is, measures less than a usual sheet of paper for a typewriter.

However, the scribe divided this tablet into twelve columns and contrived to fit more than 600 lines of a heroic poem. This poem can be called “Enmerkar and the ruler of Aratta.

Although the events described occurred almost five millennia ago, the poem sounds surprisingly modern, for it describes an international conflict that vividly recalls some of the techniques of “politics from a position of strength.”

***

Once Enmerkar, “chosen by the bright heart of Inanna,” appealed with a plea to “his mistress, the good lady”:

“My sister Inanna! Make the people of Aratta
Start artfully crafting gold and silver for Uruk and
Bring noble lapis lazuli extracted from the rocks,
So I can sit in one of these museums, in the museum of the Ancient East.”

With these treasures, the inhabitants of Aratta should have decorated the sacred temple that Inanna “chose as her home” and where Enmerkar would pray to his goddess:

“Let Aratta submit to Uruk.
Let the inhabitants of Aratta
Bring mountain stones from their heights,
So that they build a great temple, a great sanctuary.
A great sanctuary, the sanctuary of the gods,
Where they will be forced to recognize my divine laws in Kullab…”

The treasures of Aratta were needed not only to glorify Inanna. Enmerkar intended to decorate Abzu, the sacred temple of god Enki in Eredu, with precious stones for it to shine “like a bright mountain.”

Enmerkar’s intentions were noble and pleasing to the gods. After all, he wanted to subdue Aratta, which was rich in construction stone and all kinds of metals, only for the sake of the gods’ good and glory.

After listening to Enmerkar’s words, Inanna told him to follow her advice and send a wise and eloquent messenger to Aratta with “the great words of wise Inanna as an order!”

She promised Enmerkar that the people of Aratta would kneel before him, her royal brother.

Enmerkar chose a suitable messenger and passed him the prophetic words of the divine Inanna. He ordered him to pass mountains and roads leading to Aratta and repeat Inanna’s words full of threats and spells.

The emissary of Enmerkar set out on his journey and strictly followed all orders of his master, which he had received from the goddess Inanna.

“Intimidated by the might of the great mountains,
He walked along the road, trampling over the ashes.
He overcame five ridges, six ridges, seven ridges.
He looked up and approached Aratta
And joyfully entered the square of its royal palace.
He glorified the power of his king
And respectfully conveyed the words that were in his heart.”

 Here is what Enmerkar’s messenger said to the ruler of Aratta:

“Your father, my king, sent me to you,
Lord of Uruk, lord of Kullaba, sent me to you.”

After such a lofty answer to the question of the ruler of Aratta about the purpose of his arrival, the messenger of Enmerkar described the power of his master.

He called him “the great dragon of Sumer”, “a ram, whose royal power reaches the fortresses of a mountainous country.” Describing in detail the greatness and power of Enmerkar, the messenger expounded the essence of his message:

“I will put the inhabitants of this city to flight.
They will fly away like birds leaving their tree.
I will put them to flight, and they will fly away like birds fly to another nest.
I will empty Aratta.
I will destroy the city without mercy…”

Having pronounced these threats, the messenger conveyed the demand of Enmerkar, which was to obey Uruk and pay tribute.

However, the ruler of Aratta also declared himself the favorite of Inanna and said that Saint Inanna, the “queen of the heavens and the earth”, “the mistress of all divine laws,” patronized Aratta.

So he refused to yield to Enmerkar.

Then, the messenger unveiled that it had been Inanna who had promised Enmerkar domination over Aratta.

“The ruler was depressed and grieved deeply.
He did not know what to answer.
He searched for a reply for a long time.
He then looked at his feet with a darkened look and found the answer. “

***

Damaged in some places, the text on the plate makes it difficult to understand some spots that clearly contradict each other. In one section, the ruler of Aratta proposes to solve the issue by dueling two soldiers representing their countries. In another, he is ready to submit to Enmerkar, since Inanna deprived him of her mercy, “took back her word”, but on condition that Enmerkar sends him grain.

“Having listened to the answer of his messenger and having performed a series of magical rites, Enmerkar asked the goddess of wisdom, “omniscient Nidabe”, for help and advice. Then, he loaded animals with grain and sent them through seven mountains.

The caravan was led by the envoy of Enmerkar, who was commissioned to deliver a speech glorifying Enmerkar’s power and demand carnelian and lapis lazuli from the ruler of Aratta”.

From this and the next fragment of the poem, it appears that (if we correctly understand the text) in the second and third trip, the messenger was carrying a tablet with the demands of his king rather than a verbal order.

“The ruler of Aratta received the messenger in the square in front of his palace. The people of Aratta, delighted by the fact that they had received grain, agreed to give Emmerkar carnelian and instructed their elders to build a temple for him.

However, the ruler of Aratta objected. In turn, proclaiming his own power and glory, he put exactly the same conditions with the same words from the message of Enmerkar, that is, demanded carnelian and lapis lazuli.

Upon learning this, Enmekar again turned to the gods and various oracles for advice and performed all sorts of magical rites.

Then, the king of Uruk sent the third envoy to Aratta.

However, instead of an answer, he handed him his scepter. The sight of this symbol of power for some reason caused the ruler of Aratta to tremble.

Terrified, the ruler of Aratta consulted with his shatamm (adviser) and bitterly complained about the plight in which Inanna’s disgrace had set his city.

Nevertheless, although he was at first inclined to fulfill Enmerkar’s demands, later, for reasons unknown to us, he changed his mind and again suggested one of Enmerkar’s people to face his “man”. Thus, “it would become clear who was stronger”.

In response, Enmerkar sent his forth envoy to Aratta. He accepted the challenge of the ruler of Aratta but continued to demand gold, silver, and precious stones for the temple of the goddess Inanna. Otherwise, he threatened to raze Aratta.”

At this point, we find the second mention of some unknown record. As the researchers believe, Enmekar, fearing that his messenger would not be able to repeat the long a message, handed him a tablet with text.

“While the messenger waited for the answer of the ruler of Aratta, the Sumerian god of rain and thunderstorms Ishkur brought wild wheat and some other grains to Aratta.

At the sight of the wheat, the sorrowful ruler of Aratta cheered up and said that Inanna hadn’t turned away from Aratta and “hadn’t left her house of lapis lazuli.”

Because of lapses in this part of the epic and especially because of the damage to the next, it is impossible to understand the further course of events, which resulted in the people of Aratta granting gold, silver, and lapis lazuli to Inanna and bringing it all to the courtyard of the temple of the goddess in Uruk.

Excerpts from the book Belitsky Marian – “Sumerians. The Forgotten World … ” – in Russian
Excerpts Kramer Samuel – “The story begins in Sumer …” – in Russian

Note: Kingdom of Sumer is the oldest civilization in Middle-East (4,000 BC) known by archaeologists who decoded its writing. Its theology, traditions and customs spread and were adopted by the successive kingdom in the region.

Earth climate shifts every 12,000 years. So what?

Every 12,000 years, earth climate starts a new trend in weather changes, as earth approaches closer to the sun or moves away; and factoring in the position of the sun in the Milky Way galaxy.

Earth is beginning the phase of coming closer to the sun or the wet shift with abundant rain falls: The ice in the poles are melting, the land mass will shrink, the level of oceans will move upward and forcing 130 million currently living on the low coast lines to be displaced to higher grounds. The weather will become wetter , the land mass will shrink, and current deserts will revert to lush savanna in the coming climate shift.

Our current 12000-year shift is labelled the ice age: Earth was moving away from the sun and ice accumulated on the poles and lush savannas in the Sahara Desert evaporated, along with the fertile vast land masses around the river beds.

During this drying up period in the last 12000 years, it takes time for the poles to amass enough ice to reflect sun rays, but as the lakes start to dry up the process of desertification is quick.

In the first phase of the ice age, the early civilizations didn’t feel a major shift in the climate as the planet was wet and lakes and rivers were overflowing.

In the next 9,000 years, each civilization instituted stable social and political structures that withstood minor upheavals since the civilization relied on a period of abundance.

And suddenly, the drying climate felt its impact in less than 500 years on the existing social structure.

Lakes and sources of the rivers shrank and massive waves of people were displaced to greener pastures, northward and southward.

Consequently, around the year 2,300 BC, major social and political upheavals swept earth civilized regions. Centralized Pharaoh-God like institutions were questioned, monarchs were assassinated and toppled and people felt this urge for egalitarian status when facing scarcity to survive.

Grandiose tall and perfect Pyramid-like monuments around earth gave place to less awesome, smaller, and less skilled work monuments: The workforce and talented artisans had fled to other fertile regions.

Barley fields to produce the non-alcoholic beer shrank and the quantity of beer was not enough to barter with the workforce.

Powerful and war-like empires began expanding their territories to neighboring rich State-Cities along the major rivers.

For example, the empires of Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, Ashur and Persia along the Tiger River occupied city-states along the Euphrates River.

Massive exodus to the Turkish Anatolia Plateau generated the establishment of new empires such as the Hittites (Hyksos), Parthia, Medea, and the Ottoman empires.

Seafaring developed to reach further known civilizations and for trading goods and exchanging skills.

That was a period of advanced and extensive aqueduct network constructions to provide water to major cities and Capitals of empires, such as the Suspended Gardens in Nineveh during King Senharib of the Assyrian empire in current Mosul region.

The old Egyptian dynasties that built fantastic pyramids were replaced by dynasties north of the Nile River.

Dynasties on the lower Indus river moved upward the river.

And the exodus is continuing. On a larger scale with 7 billion battling for a piece of green land and scarse potable water.

Exacerbated by ugly capitalist systems willing to mass transfer entire population for raw materials under the new “soft policies” of empowering local ethnic people to massacre their neighbors. and displace them.

There are currently 50 million refugees living in abject conditions according to the UN and the number is increasing dramatically.

“Unfruitful Nostalgia”, controlled nationalism and degraded sharing of cultures…

There was a tradition, long time ago, in several City-States in the Levant. This custom was for the city council to encourage and coax unmarried males and new couples, who could not afford the life-style in the city, to buy them a one-way ticket to a far away land, to work in mines, fend for themselves and survive on their own, and eventually participate in building a new town

These “unwanted citizens”, as was the case in the modern  colonial nations, and as it’s practiced now in financially “depressed countries”, discovered  lands and transferred their knowledge, language, customs and traditions.

The world was dominated by the rule of the Elite Class of dispatching abroad the unwanted, undesirables, and untouchables.

This “civilized world” was built with the unwanted classes of people who quickly learned that “It is not where you were born, but where you live and were accepted, as one of the community member in the “New World”, that is Your Home

New City-States around the Old World were created with the knowledge and customs of the period of the current generation of unwanted caste-off people.

Not long ago, apprenticeship was the system for acquiring the skills for an artisan job. There were a few disadvantages in that system:

1. The kids lived as a slave with his master, and if the sons of the master or one of his close relatives turned out to be as talented as the slave, there were no outlet for the kid to be paid decently as a talented artisan. The Gild system would cast out the talented poorer relative and he was to move outside the city limits or be transferred to one of the “colonies”

2. After many years of slaving, it is possible that the kid showed no talent in what he was supposed to master.  Given the short life expectancy, it was difficult to change job.

There came a time when transportation were relatively accessible to return to the Homeland, and to die there, setting the stage to this Unfruitful Nostalgia.

This kind of nostalgia gave rise to Controlled Nationalism, a gathering of closed-minded citizens who refused to associate with the world communities and share with their cultures.

I want to die where I was born” generated the downhill of cultural sharing trend.

As the unwanted got it in their mind to return and confront the old system, the Old Guard decided that it would be best to control the poorer classes instead of sending them to taste freedom abroad.

Instead, The Old Guard  dispatched the poor citizens to wars of expansion under the premise that “What benefit the Elite class will trickle down to the poorer classes of the newer generations”.  

After colonizing a land, the less skilled “citizens” were sent to manage, direct, and train the promising natives in the mines and manufacturing outlet… where they spent most of their lives in foreign lands and left generations of new breeds.

The Roman Empire started the process of forcing their “civilization” on native people. The European colonial powers added insult to injury by allowing their criminals and violent prisoners to instill Law and Order on the occupied natives.

The less educated members of their elite classes were sent to “administer” the colonies, adopting the brute force and the latest techniques and vilest of ideologies in crushing the will of the natives, labeling them animals and barbarians, devoid of mankind soul that enable them to enjoy human rights.

And the ugly preemptive wars degenerated into the nastier of violence and brutality, and mankind learned to increase his brutality by a notch with every war.

Note: I wrote this post around 4 am while watching the movie Marugi or Ohuru Freedom. A 80-year old Kenyan who participated in the Mao Mao uprising against the British colonial power. The British killed his two kids and wife, and was detained in several concentration camps and was beaten and handicapped.

Marugi decided to learn to read and to joined a school with the kids after Kenya independence. He eventually was allowed to sit with the kids and was asked to deliver a speech at the UN to encourage learning and free schools for children…

Many USA and Western diplomats have described Lebanon during its civil war (1975-1991) as a special quarantine area.  This civil war was sustained by the super powers to retaining the quarantine on Lebanon (State buffer zone) in order to prevent the spread of the Middle East social and political diseases such as feudalism, sectarianism, tribalism, caste systems, and extremist ideologies (prevalent in the Arabic and Islamic States) to the surrounding Western nations. 

These diplomats failed to add the disease of apartheid which is the trademark of the State of Israel.  This quarantine lasted for more than 17 years, and in the meanwhile the USA administrations in the 80′s and 90′s created, financed and trained a potent disease in Afghanistan.

Every stated rescue mission to Lebanon was not meant for the stability and security of the Lebanese people but for the purpose of larger strategic aims in the Middle East with the land of Lebanon as a staging base.  It is the Lebanese who encouraged the other nations to look at them not as a Nation, but as anonymous people living on a piece of land that the UN admitted as a member in 1946 among the “independent” States. 

This perception was created because all the successive Lebanese governments never behaved as administering and managing a Nation but as fief hoods for sectarian leaders who rule over modern serfs.  Even after an unimaginably lengthy and terrible civil war every single monster militia leader was pardoned by a decree from the Parliament and the ferocious sectarian leaders were inducted into the successive governments and Parliaments. 

Arnold Toynbee said that for certain people history necessarily repeat itself because they are lazy students. Most probably, it seems that history repeats itself because philosophical concepts or paradigms on life, death, the nature of Gods, free will, and predestination keep repeating themselves. The Lebanese certainly are not very hot on archiving their history, and even less on reading and revisiting their past; we have the tendency to say that what is past is past and we don’t care but for the present and how to live a good life.   This saying is true for the public consumption because, on the individual level, family feuds never vanish or are forgotten or forgiven; grandchildren still hate the grandchildren of another family simply because they overheard that their grand-grand parents were in feud.

Lebanon and Palestine have suffered the same calamities of past history again and again; these two States might never had any chance for lasting peace and stability. Syria could have fallen in the same trap because it was seriously targeted by the super powers if the dictatorship in Syria didn’t manage to re-read its history and learn from past adversities at the expense of democracy; Syria did not bed with theocratic systems and tamed clerical religious powers. 

In ancient history, the City-States of inland Syria barely put a fight to a powerful invader; it is as if Syria learned to normally change skins and share in the dominion of the new Empire that displaced the former; it is as if Syria believed it was actually the new invader.

The US and the European States are creating another current “quarantine area” in the Near East: It is called Gaza.  They want to shelter the Moubarak regime of Egypt from the contamination of HAMAS!  As if the Egyptian Moslems Brotherhood was not founded around 1940, a decade before the forceful creation of the State of Israel.  They want to shelter the apartheid State of Israel from religious extremist trend; as if Zionism was not created around 1880, over a century ago before Islam got virulent in 1990.

Lions and lionesses along the Fertile Crescent ancient Empires 

Major civilizations built empires and cities along major rivers such as the Nile, Euphrates, Tiger, Indus (Pakistan), Ganges (India), and the Yellow River in China.

At the current rate of modernization and deforestations most of the aborigine tribes would disappear within a few decades.  Many civilizations have vanished but a few have managed to survive precariously so far.

The best approach to explaining the succession of civilizations and Empires in the Fertile Crescent that raided and conquered the Near East civilizations such as in Lebanon, Palestine and Syria (Phoenicia, Canaan, Aram) is the analogy of survival among the lions and lionesses.

As a young lion attains two years, after being chased out of the clan, prowls the region for lionesses to mate and establish clans of their own.  Old lions are attacked and displaced and the cubs are eaten and slaughtered by the new King to quickly attract the lioness in heat and then new progenitors are formed.  The lioness fights valiantly to preserve her cubs but ends up giving up.

Since a lion lives to be 10 years old, on average, while the lioness can outlive him by 7 years and diffuse many progenitors of her owns then the survival of these mammal carnivores is mainly due to the survival of the lionesses.  The lionesses chase and bring meat to the clan and care for the cubs.

Almost all the ancient civilizations in the Middle East, (the Nile River excluded because in Africa), were established along the Fertile Crescent of the main Rivers of Litany, Al Aassi, Euphrates and the Tiger (for example, the people inhabiting Lebanon, Syria, the southern part of Turkey, the Western part of Iran and Iraq).

The warrior Empires were Akkad, Babylon (Iraq), Assyria (Kurdestan of Iraq), Persia, Pharaonic Egypt, Hittite (Inland Turkey), Greece, Selucian, Roman, and later Byzantium, Sassanide, Arab (Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatemid), Seljuk, Crusaders, Mamelouks, and Ottomans.

The young male lions from emerging warrior Empires, during their conquests and expansion, reclaimed the civilized glory and achievements of the Near East people as their own proper.  The Near East people were constantly behaving like the lionesses: they first fight valiantly for their cubs, and when they inevitably fail against the young lions then they mate with the conquerors after the invaders had tried to kill all their progenitors.

The latest archeological discoveries located developed urban centers around the borders of Syria and Turkey that were 10,000 years old; it is these centers that later established the Sumer Kingdom in southern Iraq around 5,000 years ago.

A few citizens of City-States like Byblos, Sidon and Tyr and much later Carthage burned down their cities and then set fire on themselves to avoid servitude and surrender. While these young lions were strutting and showing off in the regions and adapting to the new civilizations, it was the constant duty of the lionesses to chase and bring the meat to the table and care for the household:  They fed and civilized the conquerors.

The Near East people were bringing the food to the tables and caring for the glamour and wants of the invaders whose sole job was to making war and killing on their war paths.

I read chapters from an Arabic book by Georges Masrou3a.  Masrouaa asked an archeologist about the Achmoun Temple in Sidon “Saida”, built around 550 BC and he replied that it was a Persian design from King Kourush I period.

Masrouaa then asked the archeologist why he claimed that it is Persian and the latter said because that is what the archeology archives claim to be.  Persia had no such Temple at Kourush’s time; even if the Persian King paid for it at the expense of the invaded people that should not be a basis to claim achievements of other civilizations.

This is the same story with the temples in Baalbak; the archeologists would claim that it was the work of the Romans since 200 BC but if this monument was of Roman style and glory then why the Romans failed to build something close to it in Rome or in Italy? 

We have the same contentions for the impressive horse track and humongous amphitheater in Tyr (500 by 200 meters) that was built before 500 BC according to Herodotus; if this amphitheater was the work and style of the Romans then why did the Roman wait another three centuries to build their Coliseum? The same goes to the Jerusalem Temple even though the architects, builders and foramens and craftsmen and master workers were from Tyre during King Hiram or “Ahiram”. 

Euclid, Zenon, Plotin, Tales, Homer, Pythagoras and scores of great thinkers were born and lived in our coastal City-States stretching from Palestine to Turkey such as Akka, Tyr, Sidon (called the eldest son of Canaan in the Bible), Beyrouth, Byblos, Ugarit, Antaqia, and so on and yet they were labeled as Greeks.  Is it simply because we were under Greek dominion that our famous thinkers should be Greeks, even if they didn’t enjoy the privileges of Greek Athens  City-State citizens? 

Scores of our famous people were labeled Romans simply because we were under Roman hegemony.  For example, the eminent legal masters, in the third century, Papinian and Olypian lived in Beyrouth (Beryt); Olympian is indeed the martyr of jurists because he adamantly refused to offer a legal opinion in favor of Emperor Caracala for the killing of his brother Jeita.

If this is the case then, why Jesus is to be simply a Jew and not Roman?  St. Paul was actually a Roman citizen that he inherited from his father and great father and yet Paul is said to be simply a Jew.  There is undoubtedly a systematic disinformation concerning the cultural heritage of the Near Eastern civilizations.

The Europeans purposely have chosen to start their civilization from Ancient Greek in 600 BC because they claimed Athens City-State to be democratic and they had to emulate the democratic system in Greek Athens.

Democracy was developed in the City-States of Byblos, Sidon, Tyr, Ugarit and Mary several centuries before Athens existed.  These City-States had democracy within their city limits as Athens and Rome emulated later on because communication and transport were limited and the administration of such a complex democratic system was not feasible at a larger magnitude at the time.   Thus, democracy was not translated to the colonies as Greek Athens also failed to do.

Theaters via their verbal communications in plays were the main medium for spreading democracy and the clashing of ideas of various opposition groups; plays created a citizen consciousness that is different from immediate civic consciousness of oratorical speeches.  The Near Eastern civilizations were ahead of Athens several centuries in theater plays; Athens got the attention because a few of its written literatures were preserved and translated.  For example, Aeschylus wrote over 90 works but only seven of his tragedies remained to prove the dynamics of Athens’ democratic system.

Although the City-States in the Levant developed commercial empires they never built theocratic warrior Empires because their citizens focused on civilized endeavors and opted in armed struggles to just defending their central Cities. Athens managed to defend its civilization outside its City limits and even asked the cooperation of other Greek City-States like Sparta and the famous Thebes that the Phoenicians had built centuries before Athens existed and which Alexander erased completely before launching his Asian campaign.

We can confirm that the Near East region was the bedrock of all the civilizations around the Mediterranean Sea in religion, philosophy, sciences, literature and arts.

Regardless of genetic sources, which are an amalgamation of many nations and which is not that important for the purpose of this article, anyone from current States in the Near East should take pride in their ancient civilizations and their original identity as the forefathers of contemporary modern democratic civilizations in Europe and the Greater Mediterranean Sea regions.

Note:   Currently, we still have the ethnic Saamis (Norway and Finland), Inuits (Siberia, Alaska, and Canada), Ainous (Japan), Indians (USA and Canada), Zapotec (Mexico), Mosquitos (Nicaragua), Quiches (Guatemala), Cunas (Panama), Yanomamis and Guaranis (Brazil), Galibis and Akawaios (Guyana), Paez ans Guambianos (Colombia), Waoranis (Equator), Amueshas (Peru), Chimanes (Bolivia), Araucans (Chili), Touaregs and Bororos (Sahel in Northern Africa), Tigres (Ethiopia and Somalia), Dinkas (Sudan), Masais (Kenya and Tanzania), Pygmees (Zaire), Sans or Bushmen (Namibia and Botswana), Kalingas (Philippines), Kachins and Rohingas (Myanmar or Birmani), Hmongs (Laos), Santals and Gonds (India), Punans (Malaysia), Uzbeks and Tadjiks (Afghanistan), Aborigines (Australia), Maoris (New Zealand), Papous (New Guinea).

The barbaric Catholic Church;(October 13, 2009)

There is a resurgence of Islamophobia in France couched under the pretext of discovering the origins of European civilization as a combination of Greek and Christian cultures. It would be worthwhile to set the historical facts straight for any meaningful reply.

By 324 AC, the Roman Emperor Constantine had defeated the three other co-Emperors and is the sole ruler of the Mediterranean Sea Empire, including England, France, northern Africa, Egypt, Turkey, and the Near East to the Euphrates River. Emperor Constantine ordered the Bishops of all the Christian sects in his Empire (they were a dozen at least) to meet in Nicea (Turkey) to adopt a unifying “dogma” for a central Orthodox Church based in Constantinople. By a slight majority, bishops who agreed to Constantine’s radical abstract dogma (he was a new convert) started to persecute the “heretic” Christian sects who fled to the western side of the Euphrates River that was under Persia Empire.

From 325 AC to around 700 AC there was a Christian Empire dominated by Byzantium with Capital in Constantinople. This empire was to the east of the Euphrates River, crossing Turkey, Syria, and Iraq, all the way to England and including North Africa. To the west of the Euphrates River there was a Persian Empire, mostly under the Sassanid Dynasty.  For four centuries, the Christians of the Orient under the central power of the Church of Constantinople shied rational thinking and sciences were halted.

The Arabic Empire, around 650 AC, did not conquer the western part of Turkey which remained with the Byzantium Empire until 1450 when the Ottoman Sultan Muhammad 2 entered Constantinople and spread all the way to the borders of Vienna in Austria. The Christians of the Orient, especially the heretic sects, converted to Islam that represented a pragmatic common denominator religion away from the Orthodox Church. Rational thinking got a boost; translation of foreign knowledge and Greek manuscripts to the Syriac and Arabic languages got underway; it was about time.

In around 1000 a major schism in Christianity split the Catholic Church of Rome with the Christian Orthodox Church of Constantinople. Actually, the initial Crusade campaigns had for objective to conquer Constantinople and coerce the Orthodox Church into uniting with Rome. That is what took place and Constantinople was ransacked and burned before the Crusading forces marched on toward Jerusalem. The other successive Crusading incursions had for objective to capture Egypt and free the spice routes directly to Europe without paying taxes to the Moslem Kingdoms along the maritime and land caravan routes.

The Koran was translated in Constantinople in the 9th century. It was translated in Toledo (Spain) in the 12th century but was not disseminated in Europe.  Europe got aware of Islam’s concept of decentralized religious power in the 16th century when printing made it feasible; this was the period when the Catholic Church of Rome experienced its decline on holding on absolute religious and civilian power.

Thus, from 325 to 1450 Europe was Christian.  Why Greek civilization, if Europe insists on taking the source of its culture from antique Greece, was not prevalent during over 11 centuries?  Why Europe remained barbaric till the 15th century?  Is it because the Christian dogma of Rome was barbaric and refused other civilizations and cultures to infiltrate Europe?

Certainly the Christian clerics were at least bilingual, mostly Latin and Greek, and consequently, if Greece had any culture it would have been translated into Latin. Some would give the lame excuse that the scholars in Europe, mostly the clerics, could read the Greek manuscripts in their original forms and had no need to translate any manuscripts into Latin or other live languages; this would be another proof that the Catholic Church of Rome was barbaric and refused philosophical and scientific disciplines to penetrate into Europe.

Europe experienced a demographic surge around 1000 AC; it is after getting in contact with the Near East culture and civilization (under Arabic/Islamic kingdoms) during the Crusading campaigns that culture entered Europe from the open door.  Even after the total defeat of the Crusaders in 1200 the Near East culture permeation would continue via Andalusia in southern Spain. The Arabic/Moslem civilization in Spain was the main source for the transfer of sciences into Europe until the “Christian” Spanish monarchs conquered completely Spain in around 1400 and chased out Moslems and Jews from its territory.

Greece after Aristotle did not produce much in culture.  It was just a brilliant century for the City-State of Athens during Pericles period, as so many glorious periods for a dozen other City-States that dotted the Mediterranean shores and the Euphrates River, from Mary, Harran, Edessa, Ugarit, Tripoli, Byblos, Beirut, Sidon, Tyr, and much later Alexandria, Antiochus, and Ephesus, and on that scholars and archeologists have to start focusing on for the origins of civilizations.  The proof is that the Byzantium Empire that was established in Greece for over 11 centuries is no where mentioned as source for any worthwhile civilization.

Macedonian warriors under Alexander conquered the Near East.  It is not because the Near East people, from Alexandria, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, and coastal Turkey, who assimilated the Greek language and spread their own culture and civilization in the Greek language that Europe has to claim its civilization to Greece. Europe should not.

It is the Near East culture and civilization that assimilated the languages of the various conquerors (Mesopotamians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs from the Arabic Peninsula, Ottomans from the Turkish Plateau, and the most recent French colonialism, and English colonialism) that absorbed and disseminated the fundamental cultures and civilizations to its neighboring environment.

It is not because of the invasion of nomadic warriors from the Arabic Peninsula that Arabic civilization should be labeled Arab.  Why the Mogul Empires that lasted longer than many Empires and stretched much further than many are not given any civilization?  It is a shame that Europe still feels the urge to attribute civilization to military conquering warriors.

Europe would have remained barbaric if it was not superseded as a superpower by the USA and Russia after WWII. The recent colonial dominations and the slaughtering of indigent people is a striking proof.  The single streak that the USA inherited mostly from Europe is its barbaric pre-emptive wars against smaller nations and its racist tendency for hegemony whenever the chance knocks.

Thus, the break up of the “heretic” protestant sects with the Catholic Church of Rome opened the way for Europe’s renaissance and the transfer of Islamic scientific discoveries and scientific methods with sound mathematical discipline. Strong with new sciences the “heretic” Protestant sects created models of nationalism to civilize the “barbarians” of the world.  Renaissance of Europe turned out not to be driven toward humanitarian purposes but based on exclusive nationalism proprietary that exhibited its brutal and ugly racist behavior for many decades.

After the 18th century, Papal Rome tried hastily to catch up with the scientific trend and put up a face of progress and the conservator of scientific investigation.  This obscurantist religious central power initiated and backed all European invasions; it supervised the extermination of aborigines under the guise of “Christianize” the pagan barbarians.

Note: I use shock titles to lure readers; those who patronize my blog comprehend that my posts are highly rational: They are the work of much analysis and reflection. I have no zeal to dwell into religions of any kinds. I would like readers to refer to my recent post “Damascus saved the Greek culture and language”.

The devil is NOT in the details; (October 16, 2009)

 

            Details are what bring people together to communicate, dialogue, and negotiate to reach compromises.  The main wall that separate among communities is the concrete wall mixed with myths, general concepts, and abstract notions.  Strong with draft details each organization can start to sort out the differences and comprehend the big picture; it is never the way around in social behavior. I will discuss two cases, one religious and the other of political nature.

            After the crucifixion of Jesus many Christian sects were born in the Near East in the first four centuries.  Fundamentally, these sects were almost identical in applying the Jewish daily rituals or the Jewish 650 laws of “correct” conduct. What separated these sects were abstract concepts that did not harm their peaceful coexistence in separate communities of believers: they never attacked by force one another; military persecutions started when the Church acquired central power in Constantinople; whole “heretic” sects and entire communities had to flee to safety. 

            Thus, The Mighty Wall was erected after 325 AC when Byzantium Empire decided to adopt Christianity as the main religion of the Empire.  Thus, the central power concept of the Empire dictated that church should be centralized.  Instead of focusing in negotiating on the details that split the various sects an upper abstract super-structure on concepts was imposed; concepts such as the dual nature of Christ, the deity of the threes (the father, the son, and the Holy Spirit), the virginity of the mother Mary and on.  This time around, the sects were to join the Orthodox Church by force if need be: a central Empire cannot permit disunity, even on totally nonsense abstract conjectures!

            Consequently, the labeled “heretic” sects had to flee beyond the eastern shores of the Euphrates River (to the Persia Sassanide Dynasty).  The Nestourian sect reached China and translated “their” Bible into the Chinese language. Many other “heretic” sects settled in the Arabic Peninsula; the Christian-Jewish “Ebionite” sect was firmly entrenched in Mecca; the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, Ain Warkat, was the Patriarch of this sect and Muhammad learned to read in the Aramaic Ebionite Bible; Muhammad aided his uncle in the translation of this specific Bible into the Arabic slang of Mecca.  Thus, Islam is originally a common denominator “heretic” Christian sect, one of many Christian sects in the Arabic Peninsula; the Prophet had to delete all the abstract notions to unite the sects; it was named Islam or the belief in the One and only God.

            The strong animosity of the Catholic Church of Rome against Islam was not directed at a religion such as Buddhism or Mazdean but at a new “heretic” Christian sect usurping its central power in the Near East. The Orthodox Church in Constantinople was more lenient with Islam because it understood its genesis and the causes for the need of this new “heresy”; for Constantinople Islam was the oriental counterpart of Protestantism to Rome when Islam became the dominant religion in the region. 

            It is said: “the enemy of my enemy is my ally”; this Machiavellian principle was lost to obscurantist Catholic Church. Rome was too far away and fought Islam with the ignorance of abstract concepts. For the Catholic Church in 1,000 AC, Islam was doubly “heretic” instead of just the counterpart to the central Orthodox Church of the Byzantium Empire: it failed to realize that if Islam spread so fast and so widely it is mainly because most the labeled Christian heretic sects quickly converted to Islam as representing their system of belief against the monopole of Constantinople.

 

            The other case is the concept of a Syrian Nation with well delimited natural borders including Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and part of Iraq to the west of the Tiger (Dujlat) River. This concept was highly widespread among the people of the region as the Ottoman Empire was dying during WWI.  It was still even more alive during the mandate of France and Britain to the region (Near East) after WWI. The people in the Syrian Nation speak one language and have the same customs and tradition.  This nation was as natural as ABC; the immigrants were first called Turks during the Ottoman Empire and then they were all called Syrians regardless of location or religion.

            The main problem is that the political parties spent two critical decades proving the evident (according to the newer definitions of the West for a Nation) instead of making the effort to developing draft detailed programs on the type of political administrative structure for this nation, the social representation, and election laws; (for example, is it a Federal structure like the USA where each mandated State is fully autonomous with local government and local parliament, or provinces tailored made to religious, ethnic, and sectarian majorities, or loosely united States with open borders, common money, central army, or centralized foreign affairs; is Syria to be a monarchy and what kind). 

            Instead of discussing detailed programs, political parties mushroomed with abstract concepts not based on facts or pragmatic long-term goals. The colonial “mandated powers” of France and England had field days of “dividing to rule”.  Every sect established its political party in every potential State claiming either total independence, or seeking a pan-Arabic Nation of Arabic speaking majorities in States, or Islamic Nation.  We watched the emergence of communist parties disclaiming the notion of affiliating to a nation, to sectarian parties claiming democracy, socialism, and progressive. The worst propaganda that was encouraged by the colonial powers is to incite citizens against the Syrian people with the objective of discrediting the word Syria and giving it a bad connotation.

              Natural borders of chain of mountains, desert, or large rivers do not necessarily protect from invasions; natural borders certainly encourage people to trade and interact inside the borders.  It is the internal rough geography and terrain that protects from outside military incursions.  Once a force crosses the border then Syria is an open land all the way to Egypt. Syria, or the Near East, was continuously occupied by foreign armies: these foreign invaders had to retreat quickly or get absorbed culturally. Whatever monuments, constructions, temples, sport arena, or scholarly works that were attributed to invading nations (Persia, Egypt, Greek, Rome, or Arab) are basically the work of the Near Eastern civilization, their scholars, their craftsmen, and their adventurous business acumen.

            The City-States in the Near East (Tyr, Sidon, Byblos, Ugharit, Mary …) competed in commerce and trade but never attacked one another militarily.  In Greece, City-States frequently waged military wars against one another.  The Near Eastern people adopted defensive strategy; even Carthage in its apogee refrained to antagonize Rome militarily.

            Egypt and Persia frequent invasions in the Near East did not last long.  The Greek were absorbed: what Europe claim as Greek civilization is nothing less than the civilization of the Greek writing Syrians who spoke Aramaic.  Rome was finally absorbed: the Roman Laws are of the legal minds from the school of Beirut and the latest Emperors were born, raised, and educated in Syria. The Byzantium Empire was fundamentally a Near Eastern Empire.  The Arabs from the Arabic Peninsula were absorbed when Damascus was selected as Capital during the Umayyad Dynasty; the Arabs were absorbed by the Persian civilization when the capital shifted to Baghdad.  The Mogul retreated quickly but established long lasting Empires in India and Afghanistan. The Ottoman conquered this land and could not be absorbed: the Syrian people were already exhausted from many years of successive invasions, religious obscurantism, and immigration by scholars to greener pastures.  France and England retreated within two decades.  Israel failed to retreat on time and is now being absorbed as Near Eastern regardless of Israel attempts to seeking European image.

            Consequently, failing to writing a draft on a possible administrative program for the Syrian Nation opened the door to abstract concept instead of working out negotiation and dialogue on pragmatic matters that concerned the people.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

July 2020
M T W T F S S
 12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
2728293031  

Blog Stats

  • 1,398,184 hits

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.adonisbouh@gmail.com

Join 745 other followers

%d bloggers like this: