Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘colonialism

Connecting a few dots: Colonialism and Blood Money in Africa. Part 2.

You may start with part 1, if you wish https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2012/07/14/part-1-on-africa-and-blood-money/

Part 2 concerns the consequences of Colonialism on the African people (with slight editing and rearrangement of the original source):

Africa is almost 4 times the size of the United States of America in land size and in all kinds of riches, especially in raw materials such as platinum, cobalt, uranium, tantalum, gold, diamonds and oil…

Africa was destroyed by imperialist Europe and is still being destroyed by Europe. The effects of colonialism past and present are visible all over Africa.

Africa has suffered the worst genocide and holocaust at the hands of the architects of slavery and colonialism. What is called “European Renaissance” was the worst darkness for Africa’s people.

Armed with the technology of the gun and the compass that it copied from China, Europe became a menace for Africa against her spears. So-called “civilized” Europe and claiming to be “Christian” came up with the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. There was massive loss of African population and skills.

A few historians have estimated that the Gold Coast (today’s Ghana) alone, lost over 2 million of its people to slavery over four hundred years.

What would have been Britain’s level of development had millions of her people been put to work as slaves out of their country over a period of four centuries?

As if slavery had not already done enough damage to Africa’s people, European leaders met in Germany from December 1884 to February 1885 at the imperialist Berlin Conference.

The Belgian King Leopold stated the purpose of the Berlin Conference as “How we should divide among ourselves this magnificent African cake.”

Africa was thus plunged into another human tragedy.

The Berlin Treaty of February 26, 1885, of the European imperialists sliced Africa into “Portuguese Africa”, “British Africa”, “German Africa”, “Italian Africa,” “Spanish Africa”, “French Africa” and “Belgian Africa.” There was no Africa left for Africans except Ethiopia, encircled by paupers of land dispossessed people who were now the reservoir of cheap native labor for their dispossessors.

Somalia, a tiny African country, had the misfortune of becoming “British Somaliland”, “Italian Somaliland”, and “French Somaliland.” Colonial brutality on the colonized Africans knew no bounds.

Here are a few examples of atrocities committed against Africans by colonialists.

A British philosopher, Bertrand Russell wrote about some of these colonial atrocities perpetrated by Belgium in the Congo in the name of “Western Christian Civilisation.” Russell wrote:

“Each village was ordered by the authorities to collect and bring in a certain amount of rubber – as much as the men could bring in by neglecting all work for their own maintenance. If they failed to bring the required amount, their women were taken away and kept as hostages…in the harems of colonial government employees. If this method failed…troops were sent to the village to spread terror, if necessary by killing some of the men…they were ordered to bring one right hand amputated from an African victim for every cartridge used.” (Introduction To African Civilisations, John G. Jackson 310-311)

The result of these atrocities according to Sir H.H. Johnston was the reduction of the population in the Congo from twenty million to nine million people in fifteen years.

The worst genocide also occurred in Namibia in 1904.

Namibia was then a German colony. The Herero people resisted German colonialism. A well armed army under General Lothar von Trotha defeated the people in Herero at the Battle of Waterberg.

The German colonial aggressors drove these Africans from their land to the desert where there was no water. Over 70% of the Herero population died of dehydration in that desert.

In South Africa, the Khoisan people were exterminated by colonialists after being hunted like animals and dispossessed of their land.

Colonised Africans were treated not only as sub-humans, they were denied basic rights such as education and the right to land for decent housing, farming, mining and fishing. Colonial functionaries were honoured for barbaric actions and atrocities.  For example:

The British government honoured its colonial officials such as “Sir Andries Stockkenstrom“. Stockkenstrom had earlier said:

“The question of robbing natives of their land is not whether it is right or wrong to plunder their land, massacre and exterminate the Hottentots, the Kaffirs…the simple question is will it PAY? But if the Bible and the missionary stands in the way of this one thousand per cent profit…If in short, they cannot promote the great work of converting a nation of shop-keepers into a nation of millionaires,…gun powder will produce a more efficient gospel for the purpose of our system of civilization.” (R.U. Kenny, Piet Retief, Cape Town and Pretoria: Human and Reason, 1976 page 77)

When introducing inferior education for African mental enslavement in South Africa, Hendrik F. Verwoerd, that arch implementer of apartheid colonialism, said:

“There is no place for him (the African) in the European community above the level of certain forms of labour. Until now, he (the African) has been subjected to a school system which drew him away from his community and misled him by showing him the green pastures of the European society where he is not allowed to graze.” (‘Apartheid: The Story Of A Dispossessed People, Motsoko Pheko page 150 Marram Books London 1984)

Slavery and colonialism enriched Europe and reduced Africa to abject poverty. The riches of Africa and her raw materials fueled the economies of imperialist countries. The British Prime Minister, Sir Winston Churchill bore testimony to this fact when he said:

“Our possession of the West Indies gave us the strength, the support, but especially the capital, the wealth, at the time when no other European nations possessed such reserve, which enabled us to come through the great struggles of the Napoleonic Wars. The keen competition of commerce in the 18th and 19th centuries enabled us not only to acquire this appendage of possessions which we have, but also to lay the foundations of that commercial and financial leadership which when the world was young,…enabled us to make our great position in the world.” (‘The Long Road To Humanity’, by Stanton A. Coblentz page 325 and Introduction To African Civilizations John G. Jackson page 306)

It was against this background of genocide in the name of “European civilization  that Africans in the Diaspora who had been shipped from Africa and enslaved in the West Indies and in the Americas realized that the solution to Africa’s people both at home and abroad was Pan-Africanism…To be followed on part 3

Note:  Part 2 is another section of a long reply letter by Nalliah Thayahbaran, in reply to my post https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2012/06/29/mania-of-rebranding-africa-disaster-vogue-of-italy/

Part 1. Africa. Connecting the dots: Colonialism, Zionism and Blood Money

Part one is a general review of the history of Africa and its written languages (with slight editing and rearrangement):

“Africa is almost four times the size of the United States of America in land size and in all kinds of riches, especially in raw materials such as platinum, cobalt, uranium, tantalum, gold, diamonds, oil…

There is hardly an agricultural product that cannot be grown in Africa. Africa’s arable land for food security is reported to be the largest in the world. But Africa’s riches including her human resources have been brutally looted by imperialist countries for centuries and still are, even under supposedly liberated Africa.

To this minute, Africa’s natural wealth are fuelling the economies of imperialist countries. Africans remain the poorest people in the world amidst their own riches in their own African Continent

Africa was destroyed by imperialist Europe and is still being destroyed by Europe. The effects of colonialism past and present are visible all over Africa.

Africa is maybe the Mother of Humanity. Ancestors of Africa built the pyramids which even in this 21st century no one can reproduce.

Africans built the city of Memphis in ancient Egypt in 3100 B.C. Greeks built Athens in 1200 B.C. The Romans built Rome in 1000 B.C. Up to the 14th century A.D. Africa was ahead of Europe or on par with Europe militarily.

The Romans used spears and Africans used spears in war.

Earlier educated Greeks received their education in Africa, to be precise in Mizraim (ancient Egypt). Africans invented writing. It was Hieroglyphics before 3000 B.C. and Hieratic alphabet shortly after this. Demotic writing was developed about 6OO B.C., while a Kushite script was used in 300 B.C.

Other African scripts were Merotic, Coptic, Amharic, Sabean, G’eez, Nsibidi of Nigeria and Mende of Mali. There were many others such as the Twi alphabet of the Twi people of Ghana.

Africa remains the privileged source of the manifestations of intense human creativity.

The “Atlantic” Ocean was called the Ethiopian Sea as late as 1626, and the “Indian” Ocean the Azanian Sea.

The Azanian civilisation, has a long history. The people of Azania (colonialists called it “South Africa”) mined gold and copper in Mapungubwe as early as the 9th century. Azania like Kush, Mizraim, Egypt, Kemet, Ethiopia means Blackman’s country or continent.

In 1930, excavations at Mapungubwe in the area of Limpopo River revealed skeletal remains of people who became known as ancient Azanians. These Africans were also referred to as Kushites or descendants of Kush.

In 1990, Dr. Gert Viljoen who was F.W. de Klerk’s Minister of Constitutional Affairs gave reasons why his apartheid colonialist regime would not negotiate with those African revolutionaries who subscribed to the Azanian school of thought.

Africa has suffered the worst genocide and holocaust at the hands of the architects of slavery and colonialism. What is called “European Renaissance” was the worst darkness for Africa’s people.

Armed with the technology of the gun and the compass that it copied from China, Europe became a menace for Africa against her spears. So-called “civilised” Europe also claiming to be “Christian” came up with the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade.

There was massive loss of African population and skills. Some historians have estimated that the Gold Coast (today’s Ghana) alone, lost over 2 million of its people to slavery for four hundred years.

What would have been Britain’s level of development had millions of her people been put to work as slaves out of their country over a period of four centuries?

As if slavery had not already done enough damage to Africa’s people, European leaders met in Germany from December 1884 to February 1885 at the imperialist Berlin Conference.

The Belgian King Leopold stated the purpose of the Berlin Conference as “How we should divide among ourselves this magnificent African cake.”

Africa was thus plunged into another human tragedy.

Through the Berlin Treaty of February 26, 1885, the European imperialists sliced Africa into “Portuguese Africa”, “British Africa”, “German Africa”, “Italian Africa,” “Spanish Africa”, “French Africa” and “Belgian Africa.”

There was no Africa left for Africans except Ethiopia (until Mussolini of Italy conquered it), encircled by paupers of land dispossessed people who were now the reservoir of cheap native labor for their dispossessors.

Part 2 will describe the colonial devastation of the African people

Note: The first part, out of four, was sent in reply to my post https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2012/06/29/mania-of-rebranding-africa-disaster-vogue-of-italy/ by Nalliah Thayahbaran under “Colonialism, Zionism and Africa”

Today offspring are tomorrow monsters; 

            The optimist Biosphere/Earth has its own stabilizing mechanism; it is indifferent to power-avid pessimist man. This unattached earth/biosphere mechanism may burn, suffocate, or drown man and it would not even notice or care for its existence.   

            Through the ages earth/biosphere underwent changes and man either thrived and developed or died consequent to the environmental changes.  All the time, man got curious about his environment and wanted to understand and then uncover the mysteries of that power surrounding him and controlling his life cycle. By the bye, man formulated general laws of nature; then, before he could fathom a tiny portion of the complex mysteries and the multiple interactions among the sparse and conditioned laws this impatient and anxious man endeavored to modify and transform nature to his own wants and restricted interests.

            Man wants to alter earth and the biosphere with the tacit understanding that he will not be affected. Man keeps forgetting, intentionally, that he is what he is because of earth and biosphere. Man can alter earth and biosphere; biosphere will, imperturbably, react at its own pace; the offspring of today are the monsters of tomorrow; if the monster is permitted to exist at all.

            The Western “modern” mind insisted that “the genesis of man (species and child development) is a process of primarily interacting with things; human interactions are a secondary and not a significant factor”.  In fact, most early scientist and researchers lived in their islands of palaces or laboratories with little contact with people.  They were intent on mastering their material environment.  Ayn Rand’s writings incarnated the mentality of the individual attribute of spirit and intelligence. She wrote: “The spirit is an individual attribute. Collective brain does not exist.  Man living in relation to others has no reality.”  Ayn Rand was expressing the prevalent pre-supposition at the turn of the century and she was formulating their radical consequences.

            Jules Verne stories of individualistic heroes and his successors of visionaries, explorers, adventurers, exploiters, and colonial expansionists refused to admit limitations to their intelligence and undertaking power.  They had grand “destiny” to impose and prove: man is born to reign and dominate and not to complain. Something broke then we fix it. Something blocked expansion then we erased it: there are always solutions to difficulties. There are no inherent problems to the enterprising man; as Napoleon said “Impossible is not in my vocabulary”.

            Jules Verne never missed a good shooting spree story at savages; in “Five weeks in balloon” they are shooting at the African negros from the top of a balloon; in “The children of captain Grant” they are shooting at will on Maoris in New Guinea from the top of rocky hills; in “The travel around the world in 80 days” they are killing the Sioux Indians from the doors of moving wagons; in “From Earth to the moon” they are annihilating the Seminole Indians; in “Mathias Sandorf” the savage Senoussis of Libya are exterminated.      

            Colonialism was initiated and undertaken by “democratically” elected government; thus fascism, Nazism, and communism have nothing to do with the spirit of “modernizing” the “barbaric” people. Our current modern man is typified by “Hot Air” Charles Branson; I don’t means his cross Atlantic, Pacific, or around the world balloons and airliners but gases emanating from his ass hole. The Western heroes are children who do not want to be rebuffed from the game: the entire planet is their game land. “When we were children, we were told not to feel afraid or cry: it was shameful. It was a time, and still is pretty much, when growing up meant to vanquish fear; to live in the delusion of the all conquering man.”

            Human intelligence and know how are intrinsically community intelligence. It is the community that initiates man to things and behavior.  Man needs at least 16 years of inter-communal aid and secure before he gets aware of his individuality and begins to revolt and seek a semblance of independence.

            We are at a junction when man is capable of envisioning a limited earth (weight, circumference, volume, and extractable minerals) and limits to the biosphere (thickness, density, and constituents).  There are intersections at several levels of consciousness. We are beginning to comprehend the limitations of technology to containing the power of nature such as tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, and changing climates; the catastrophic consequences of mastering nuclear energy (Chernobyl is a striking example); the long term problems of gigantic projects such as deviating rivers, and building monster dams.  We realize that our survival is intrinsically linked to the biosphere.  It is a junction of the meeting of man’s brain with the limits of biosphere and our recognition that biosphere is much more complex and that it has indeed engendered our kind of intelligence.

            We are harassed with the dictum “Science is neutral; experiments are unbiased”. One of the urgent tasks of the United Nations is to investigate how science and research are financed or funded.  Everything has a political direction and I contend that sciences, research, and technologies are primarily driven by deep pocket political interest groups.  We can no longer keep fighting those biased and politically oriented “research” results instead of focusing on the reality of earth/biosphere degradations.

Note: read my follow up post “The illusion of knowing…”

Today offspring are tomorrow monsters; (September 18, 2009)

 

            The optimist Biosphere/Earth has its own stabilizing mechanism; it is indifferent to power-avid pessimist man. This unattached earth/biosphere mechanism may burn, suffocate, or drown man and it would not even notice or care for its existence.   

            Through the ages earth/biosphere underwent changes and man either thrived and developed or died consequent to the environmental changes.  All the time, man got curious about his environment and wanted to understand and then uncover the mysteries of that power surrounding him and controlling his life cycle. By the bye, man formulated general laws of nature; then, before he could fathom a tiny portion of the complex mysteries and the multiple interactions among the sparse and conditioned laws this impatient and anxious man endeavored to modify and transform nature to his own wants and restricted interests.

            Man wants to alter earth and the biosphere with the tacit understanding that he will not be affected. Man keeps forgetting, intentionally, that he is what he is because of earth and biosphere. Man can alter earth and biosphere; biosphere will, imperturbably, react at its own pace; the offspring of today are the monsters of tomorrow; if the monster is permitted to exist at all.

            The Western “modern” mind insisted that “the genesis of man (species and child development) is a process of primarily interacting with things; human interactions are a secondary and not a significant factor”.  In fact, most early scientist and researchers lived in their islands of palaces or laboratories with little contact with people.  They were intent on mastering their material environment.  Ayn Rand’s writings incarnated the mentality of the individual attribute of spirit and intelligence. She wrote: “The spirit is an individual attribute. Collective brain does not exist.  Man living in relation to others has no reality.”  Ayn Rand was expressing the prevalent pre-supposition at the turn of the century and she was formulating their radical consequences.

            Jules Verne stories of individualistic heroes and his successors of visionaries, explorers, adventurers, exploiters, and colonial expansionists refused to admit limitations to their intelligence and undertaking power.  They had grand “destiny” to impose and prove: man is born to reign and dominate and not to complain. Something broke then we fix it. Something blocked expansion then we erased it: there are always solutions to difficulties. There are no inherent problems to the enterprising man; as Napoleon said “Impossible is not in my vocabulary”.

            Jules Verne never missed a good shooting spree story at savages; in “Five weeks in balloon” they are shooting at the African negros from the top of a balloon; in “The children of captain Grant” they are shooting at will on Maoris in New Guinea from the top of rocky hills; in “The travel around the world in 80 days” they are killing the Sioux Indians from the doors of moving wagons; in “From Earth to the moon” they are annihilating the Seminole Indians; in “Mathias Sandorf” the savage Senoussis of Libya are exterminated.     

            Colonialism was initiated and undertaken by “democratically” elected government; thus fascism, Nazism, and communism have nothing to do with the spirit of “modernizing” the “barbaric” people. Our current modern man is typified by “Hot Air” Charles Branson; I don’t means his cross Atlantic, Pacific, or around the world balloons and airliners but gases emanating from his ass hole. The Western heroes are children who do not want to be rebuffed from the game: the entire planet is their game land. “When we were children, we were told not to feel afraid or cry: it was shameful. It was a time, and still is pretty much, when growing up meant to vanquish fear; to live in the delusion of the all conquering man.”

            Human intelligence and know how are intrinsically community intelligence. It is the community that initiates man to things and behavior.  Man needs at least 16 years of inter-communal aid and secure before he gets aware of his individuality and begins to revolt and seek a semblance of independence.

            We are at a junction when man is capable of envisioning a limited earth (weight, circumference, volume, and extractable minerals) and limits to the biosphere (thickness, density, and constituents).  There are intersections at several levels of consciousness. We are beginning to comprehend the limitations of technology to containing the power of nature such as tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, and changing climates; the catastrophic consequences of mastering nuclear energy (Chernobyl is a striking example); the long term problems of gigantic projects such as deviating rivers, and building monster dams.  We realize that our survival is intrinsically linked to the biosphere.  It is a junction of the meeting of man’s brain with the limits of biosphere and our recognition that biosphere is much more complex and that it has indeed engendered our kind of intelligence.

            We are harassed with the dictum “Science is neutral; experiments are unbiased”. One of the urgent tasks of the United Nations is to investigate how science and research are financed or funded.  Everything has a political direction and I contend that sciences, research, and technologies are primarily driven by deep pocket political interest groups.  We can no longer keep fighting those biased and politically oriented “research” results instead of focusing on the reality of earth/biosphere degradations.

Value-adding civilizations (October 14, 2008)

 

The hard working populations are generally those who had to battle for survival out of hunger throughout history because of geographical locations and weather conditions and who tended to develop their intelligence the fastest in inventiveness and dareness in all field of discoveries.  For the exploiters the hungrier the populations the better their value-added work.

 

Colonial powers preferred to invest in territories of hungry populations who are used to work hard for survival.  The colonies of lush vegetations and populations not valuing the need to work for survival where left unperturbed in expanding the colonial peculiar values and the colonizers just installed their posts and ports infrastructures for exporting the valuable natural raw materials. Hard working people add values to whatever the colonizers exploited.  Amelie Nothomb explains why the island of Vanuatu or New Hebrides was left in peace and was shared by both France and England conjointly without animosity.  Even today, Vanuatu is spared the rush for tourism industry.  Vanuatu has abundance in natural edible vegetation and varieties of fishes. Thus, the natives never had any need to cultivate lands or work for survival; they are never hungry for food: all they have to do is extend an arm and pick out bananas, coconuts or gather fish and oysters while swimming for relaxation. Consequently, the colonial powers could not make use of the natives who are not hungry for food or work or anything for that matter and have no inkling to seek anything.

On the other hand, the first question a Chinese asks his neighbor is “Have you eaten?”  The Chinese discovered almost everything, thought of everything, comprehended everything and dared everything.  The culinary art in China has reached an unequal level in refinement simply because the Chinese learned to eat anything that could be edible.  The reason for the successes of the Chinese is that they had been always famished for food and millions died of hunger in their uninterrupted past history.

England did what was necessary to retain India under its dominion.  England needed the hard working vast population Indians to add value to its economy instead of relying solely on piracy and conquering neighboring countries.  England decided to just retain maritime ports in Yemen, Oman and the Arab Peninsula instead of spreading its “values” and knowledge.  Even today, the USA cares only for the oil of the producing Arab Peninsula and exploiting their sovereign funds!

Take for example the history of the USA. The first “pilgrims” had to work hard the first decade to survive.  Then they realized that the indigene “Indians” didn’t care much for work: they waited for the hunting seasons and transported their domiciles. The “pilgrims” decided that they have no use of the Indians for exploitation and exterminated them at every opportunity to expand their lands.  The US Administrations didn’t massacre the Mexicans outright in Texas, California, New Mexico, Arizona, and Florida: they exploited them to the hilt.  The USA experienced the most productive periods when the governments opted for isolationism and had to rely on their proper hard work.  Everytime the US opened its borders for fresh hard working immigrants, manually and mentally, the US population gradually relinquished the hard work for fast riches in financial embezzlement schemes.

The Near Eastern populations of Syria and Palestine and especially the Lebanese share the same characteristics with the Chinese: they had to grow food out of rocks in their tiny land! They are constantly hungry and always “want” something. There are tenfold more Lebanese immigrants throughout the world than in Lebanon proper. The culinary art in Lebanon used to be the healthiest, the sanest and the tastiest.  They also discovered almost everything and every land in past history.  All the regional warrior Empires, like the Turks, Babylonians, Assyrians, Persians, and Egyptians expanded first thing into the Near East territory to exploit the hard working populations and export them to their Kingdoms as slaves and skilled professionals.  The new colonizers such as England, France and lately the USA built universities first thing in the Near East.  Presently, the brain power of the immigrants from the Near East rank first in these colonial States commensurate to their original populations. They ranked first in Egypt before the revolution of Jamal Abdul Nasser.  They ranked first in Saudi Arabia before the oil boom.

Season of Migration to the North, by Tayeb Saleh (August 10, 2006)

Tayyeb Salih is a Sudanese writer and his book was translated into English by Denys Johnson-Davis.

It is a small novel but powerful, intense, and gripping.  The narrator is a fresh graduate from Britain, earned a PhD in English literature, and returned home after 7 years of absence.  I shall refer to him as the educated man.

The author meets the hero of this story Mustafa Said who has settled his village during his leave.  Mustafa is a Sudanese genius whose brain is like a knife for assimilating all kind of topics and sciences, whose memory is like a sponge in retaining whatever he read, but whose emotions and feelings are as cold as ice.  He grew up to be a robust and very handsome man, his face had Arabic features but his hair was African.

Mustafa lost his father, a rich camel merchant, when a toddler and his stern-faced mother left him to live an independent life, barely emotionally caring for him.  When Mustafa left his mother in order to join an English Middle School in Cairo on a grant she did not raise any fuss and simply told him: “Had your father lived he would have liked your decision. This is your life and you are free to do with it as you wish”.

No tears and no kisses accompanied the farewell.  When Mustafa landed in Cairo, he was taken over by the English Robinsons who were childless.  Mrs. Robinson used to tell him: “Mr. Saeed, you’re a person devoid of a sense of fun. Can’t you forget your intellect?

Mustafa’s mother seemed to have on her face like a thick mask, as though her face was the surface of the sea in order to hide her emotions.  Although the novel never mentioned how Mustafa’s father died, I am under the impression from Mustafa’s sexual drives and cold feelings that his mother, a slave by origin, might have killed his father out of jealousy in a neat fashion that removed any suspicions, and then wrapped herself up within a cocoon of cold sensitivities and distanced herself from any social life.

It might be conjectured that she eliminated him because he and his tribe helped free the English Governor Slatin Pasha escape when he was the prisoner of the Khalifa El-Taaishi.

Mustafa left to London around 1910 and turned to be the jock of all trades in accumulating knowledge from economics, to poetry, to engineering, to drawing, and anything that he set his mind into.

He spent his life in London teaching at universities and wooing the English young girls and married women, pursuing them and offering them expensive gifts until they were reduced to slaves, completely in love with his beautiful dark complexion and mesmerized by his innumerable lies about the life in Sudan, Africa and the desert.

Jean Morris set her eyes on him and drove him mad with love and hatred for three years before she asked him to marry her.  When he pursued her she would avoid him and when Mustafa avoided her she would track him down and rekindle his desires.  Jean managed to drive Mustafa’s girlfriends to commit suicide because they believed that they could not compete with Jean for Mustafa’s strong emotions toward her.

One night, during the period when Mustafa avoided her for two weeks, Jean barged into his apartment, heaped filthy curses upon Anna, Mustafa’s girl friend, and drove her out crying.  Jean took off all her clothes and stood naked by the door.  Mustafa approached her and she commanded him saying: “Give me this expensive Wedgwood vase and you can have me“.  She took the priceless vase and smashed it on the ground.  Then, she asked for his rare Arab manuscript and shredded it to pieces.

Jean pointed to his silken Isphahan prayer-rug.  The rug was a gift from his adoptive mother Mrs. Robinson when he was in Cairo and it was the most valuable thing he owned.  And Jean proceeded to throw the rug in the fire-place.  As Mustafa wrapped his arms around her waist Jean jabbed him between his thighs by her knees and left.

After 3 years of chasing each other Jean told him: “I am tired of your pursuing me and of my running before you. Marry me.”  The got married and she would not let him approach her in bed.  She tried hard to raise his suspicions about her extra marital affairs and flirt shamelessly with every Tom in town but I believe that she didn’t care much about sex, at least not with men.  They went through periods of murderous emotional wars for every time he would hit her she would respond by slapping him back and digging her nails into his face.

On a February dark evening, the temperature 10 degrees below zero, when pipes were frozen and the whole city was a field of ice, Mustafa walked from the station to his house carrying his overcoat over his arm, his blood boiling and transpiring profusely.  He found Jean stark naked on the bed, her thighs wide ajar, waiting for him.

His glances over each part of her body overwhelmed her.  Mustafa raised his dagger and she kissed the blade.  He put the blade-edge between her breast and she twined her legs round his back.  He slowly pressed the dagger deeper and deeper in her flesh while she was saying: “Darling, I thought you would never do this.  I almost gave up hope of you.  Come with me. Don’t let me go alone. I love you, my darling.”  He believed her while she was dying.

Mustafa was sentenced to 7 years prison term.  When he was released before the breaking of the Second World War, he wandered about all Europe before returning to Sudan and settling down in remote village by the Nile.  He married Hosna, a local girl, bigot two sons, farmed his land, raised cattle, and shared responsibilities in the communal projects and committees.

One year, the Nile had a strong flood, the like of it happens once every 20 years, and many in the village died.  Mustafa was considered dead too because his body was not found.  Mustafa is a fine swimmer and I believe that the call of the season of migration to the European north was more powerful than settling down.

A couple of weeks before the flood, he left a sealed envelop to his wife to be delivered to an acquaintance of his in the village, a young PhD graduate in English literature from London.  The letter asked the educated man to be the guardian of his family and to care for it.  A rich old man from the village of seventy who was madly in love with her and who was much married and much divorced asked the narrator to convince Hosna to marry him.

Hosna refused to remarry and told the educated man, who was married and from a tribe that don’t take more than one wife, that she would kill her husband and then kill herself if one is forced upon her.

While the educated man was back in Khartoum, as a civil servant in the education ministry, Hosna was forced by her father to marry the old man.  Hosna had asked the father of the educated man to ask his son to marry her, just because she wanted to live as an independent woman and would not be of any trouble as his second wife.

The father of the narrator resented that woman who took the liberty to taking her affairs in her own hands and denied her request.  The educated man received an urgent cable.  When he arrived Hosna had killed her husband and then killed herself after the old man tried to rape her and had bitten off one of her nipples.

Many of Mustafa’s classmates and the younger generation who lived in Britain recollected that he was an outstanding person, who was the first Sudanese to marry an English woman, to get the British citizenship, to teach at English universities and be given the nickname of “The black English”.

A few of them went as far as affirming that he was an English secret agent, the darling of the English left movement during the pre-war period, and that he belonged to the Fabian school of economics which did not rely on statistics and facts but on general principles of justice, equality, and socialism.

The narrator used the key given to him by Mustafa to open the iron door of the special room of Mustafa that nobody entered or could enter.  It was a modern spacious room with a queen size bed, an up-to-date bathroom, paintings and large mirrors over the walls; just a carbon copy of the design of Mustafa’s apartment in London.  Shelves of thousands of English books from all kind of literature and science were filling the room from floor to ceiling.  Mustafa was in the process of writing several books and did draw the figures of many of the village people.

The novel broached on the effects of colonialism on the Sudan. The British opened roads and rivers to ship armies and weapons first, then they enticed some young Sudanese children to learn the English language, basic reading and writing skills and arithmetic in order to fill minor clerical posts in the government.

They in fact showed favor to nonentities to occupy the highest positions in the colonial period.  When Mahmoud Wad Ahmed, a Sudanese patriotic leader was defeated and brought in shackles to the British High Governor of colonial Sudan, the British General Kitchener said to Muhammad: “Why have you come to my country to lay waste and plunder?”

A dialogue between the educated Sudanese Mansour and Richard the English teacher might be a typical example that is related to the colonial effects on the developing countries:

Mansour: “You transmitted to us the disease of your capitalist economy.  What did you give us in exchange but a handful of capitalist companies that drew our blood and still do?

Richard: “All this is to show that you cannot manage to live without us.  You used to complain about colonialism and when we left, you then create the legend of neo-colonialism. It seems that our presence, in an open or undercover form, is as indispensable to you as air and water.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

July 2020
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