Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘“community method”

The European Union (EU) describes Modern Europe; (Nov. 7, 2009)

The European Union is the most striking political and social achievement in the 20th century.  The backbones of most of the UN peace keeping forces around the world are European contingents; the EU is the highest contributor in humanitarian budgets and for reforming obsolete public institutions in the under-developed States.

This post will cover a few statistics and then a short description of the EU administrative and legislative institutions.  The follow up post will cover what is working, then analyzing what need to be ironed out, and then how the world community is expecting modern Europe to lead.

The founding six States are Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, and tiny Luxemburg; that was in 1951 with the objective of regulating the industrial output of coal and steel and resolving differences on egalitarian terms instead of purely diplomatic processes using the “community method”.  The treaty for Agricultural Common Policy (PAC) intended to insure food sufficiency was signed in 1962 which encourage exportation.  Total suppression of tariff on borders was abolished in 1968. As Nixon floated the dollars and de-linked it from gold in 1972, the EU of the Six created a mechanism to reducing fluctuation among the six States and called the “European monetary snake”.  In 1973, Denmark, Ireland and Britain were included in the union.  The European Parliament was elected by the universal vote in 1979 by the nine States.

By 1986, Spain, Portugal, and Greece adhered to the union of the 12 States and a unique market is launched for free circulation of goods, people, capitals and services. The fall of the Berlin Wall enhanced this union to expand into the east. The treaty of Maastricht opens the way for a unified monetary system; it expands the power of the European Parliament and contemplates extending foreign policies and defense to the union institutions.

In 1995, Sweden, Austria, and Finland enter the union of the 18 States. The accord of Schengen of 1995 eliminates borders’ controls among the citizens.  In 1999, 11 States adopt the Euro for common money which was introduced on the market in 2002.   By 2004, eight central European States join the EU; they are: Estonia, Hungry, Latonia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Cyprus.  In 2007 there was a serious proposal for a European Constitution.

The founding Six States constitute about 50% of the EU population of 330 millions of the 27 current States; over 55% of its total economy amounting to 10 trillion euros.  Germany contains 16.5 % in population, followed by France 13%, then Italy 12%, then Spain 9%.   The economy of Germany represents 20%, France 15.5%, Italy 12.5% and then Spain 9% of the total.  England and France are about equal in population and economy.

The EU established institutions for the union such as The Commission, The European Council, the Council of Ministers, the European Parliament (all located in Brussels), and the Court of Justice. The EU is NOT a Federal State; it is a much better political concept that preserves higher democratic representations and elaborate dialogues that enrich the cultural content of any joint agreement among the States. The institutions are being developed and elaborated toward a more effective executive power in times of emergencies such as defense, finance, and foreign policies.  Currently, the EU has a unified security system and unified money with open borders.

The Commission is constituted by representatives of each States; the members are nominated by each State and it is up to the European Parliament to confirm nominated members; the President of the Commission is selected by the European Council and there is a trend to reducing the numbers for efficient collective work; it has weak executive power.

The Council of Ministers has legislative power and may reject the initiatives of the Commission. The presidency rotates among States every semester.  The voting power of each minister is proportional to the State’s population.

The deputies of the European Parliament are elected based on distinct election laws in each States.  The Parliament shares with the Council of Ministers the legislative responsibilities.

The European Council is represented by the States’ government Chiefs; it has the power of selecting the target objectives for the Commission. The High representatives for foreign policies and common security are members in the Commission.

Each State has a justice in the Court of Justice located in Luxemburg.  The jurisprudence of this Court supercedes State’s jurisprudence in matters proper to its competence.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

May 2020
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