Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘cosmology

The Void exists, and is mighty powerful: Called Black Force

There is this constant tag of war between the Void and the relentless tendency of particles to filling the Void. It is this interaction that set particles in motion.

The greater the void, the more perturbed are the particles. Within an atom, the void, proportionally to the tiny particles, is vaster than the macro universe. Quantum mechanics states: “You cannot measure accurately and simultaneously the location and the moment (time) of a particle in an atom”  Basically any measuring instrument, however non intrusiveness it is, will disturb the environment in an atom…

Particles in motion are what create Time and Space.

Time and Space and tightly connected within a constraint that physicists agree on: The speed of light (300,000 km per second) must remain constant and invariant, regardless of the source, the intensity of the source, its direction, how matters behave…

Consequently, Time and Space are not immutable: They vary, change, transform, deform… The physicists conceptualize space as a net. A heavy object forms a dish-shaped hole in the space network. A lighter object that comes close to the vicinity of the heavier object would rotate in a trajectory around the edge of the dish: The heavier the object, the deeper is the trajectory around the edge of the dish…Gravity force is thus explained as the particular trajectory established by the two objects in the Space-Time reference.

Locally, within a galaxy, the Void exerts its power within the constraint of constant speed of the light.

Outside the galaxy, the void has a much higher force that set galaxies expanding, away from one another in the universe, at increased acceleration rates. This evidence is called the Universe Expansion.

There are cases where two galaxies are close to one another, for example our Milky Way and the larger Andromeda. Our galaxy is attracted within the edge of the dish of Andromeda. However, the set of this couple of galaxies is expanding in the universe, away from the other galaxies…

Eventually, and inevitably, a large void, a Black Hole is created.

In the environ of a Black Hole, there is no light: Light is absorbed as it approaches the Hole, and the notion of Time-Space is irrelevant.  There is total darkness, total silence, and nothing that can be used as point of reference.

A Black Hole is a total void that attracts all the particles, converging to fill this huge void.

Once this vacuum is filled and matter concentrates, the Black Hole reaches a state of high energy and explodes in a Big Bang, ejecting particles back into the universe, and expanding galaxies rush to fill the void of the nascent Black Hole, and the cycle resumes…

Every Black Hole is a potential universe in the making. Every universe is a potential creators of a Black Hole.

We had our Big Bang. And many other Big Bangs are taking place in this vast universe

The vastest monuments on earth can be reduced to a grain of matter, matter that was constituted by the Bosons of Higgs.

The Void Exists, and is mighty powerful.

Note: How can the notion that “gravity is explained by the particular trajectory of two bodies” account for the fact that there is a neutral zone where gravity effects are nullified?

“A short history of nearly everything” by Bill Bryson

Astronomy and cosmology

Around 1930, Vesto Slipher was taking spectrographic readings of distant stars at the Lowell Observatory in Arizona and discovered signs of a Doppler shift toward red, which meant that the stars were moving away.

Annie Jump Cannon, known as one of the “Computers” in the 1920′s at Harvard and who was studying photographic plates of stars and making computation, devised a system of stellar classifications still in use today.

Another Computer specialist at Harvard, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, noticed that a type of star as a Cepheid such as the Pole Star pulsated with a regular rhythm because they are dying giant red star.  Leavitt realized that by comparing the relative magnitude of Cepheids at different points in the sky you could work out where they were in relations to each other in relative distances.

Edwin Hubble began to measure selected points in space and showed in 1923 that M31 was a galaxy at least 900,000 light years away. Hubble inferred in 1930 that galaxies are moving away from us in all directions and that the further away the faster they were moving.

Stephen Hawking said if the universe was static it would collapse in upon itself and would have made the whole cosmos intolerably hot.  It was the Belgian priest-scholar Georges Lemaitre who suggested that the universe began as a geometrical point, a “primeval atom”, which burst into glory and had been moving apart ever since.

In 1965, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson spent a year trying to shut out a persistent background noise when trying to make use of a large communication antenna owned by Bell Laboratory in New Jersey.  They phoned Robert Dicke at Princeton who was pursuing an idea suggested by George Gamow, a Russian astrophysicist, in the 1940s that if you looked deep enough into space you should find some cosmic background radiation in the form of microwaves reaching Earth originating from the Big Bang.

In 1934 the journal Physical Review published a concise abstract of a presentation that was conducted by Fritz Zwicky and Walter Baade.  Bade was responsible for most of the mathematical sweeping up.  This abstract provided the first reference to supernovae as neutron stars where all the other matters, even electrons, collapsed to the sort of densities found in the core of atoms; no light would penetrate that neutron star or Black Hole star.

A spoonful of a Black Hole star mass would weight 90 billion kilograms.

Very few supernovas explode but when they do then they release enormous amount of energy and matters that keep our universe alive and warm.

Cosmic rays are theorized to be consequences of the explosions of supernovas.

Robert Oppenheimer got all the credit five years later.  Now, if supernovae exploded at a distance less than 500 light years, then Earth is a goner; fortunately, in our near galaxies not a star is at least ten times bigger than our sun to form supernovae.

In 1987, Saul Perlmutter at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory used charge-coupled devices, like an excellent digital camera, and wrote a sophisticated program so that the powerful computer would systematically search for supernovas through the thousands of pictures.

Reverend Robert Evans in Australia searches the sky every night using a 16-inch telescope hunting for supernovae and he managed to locate 36 supernovas as of 2003.  How we recognize supernovae?  It is a black star and when we notice light in this dark location then we know a supernova has exploded.  Suppose that you spay salt randomly on 1500 black tables and then you add an extra grain; this is how Robert Evans has the knack of discovering supernovae.

It was Fred Hoyle who coined the term Big Bang in 1952 to express his exasperation of this theory because he favored a steady-state theory.  Hoyle realized that if stars imploded, such as supernovas, they would liberate huge amount of heat in the range of 100 million degrees which favor the formation of heavy elements from carbon onward in a process known as nucleo-synthesis.  His theory explained the existence of heavy elements, at least on Earth, since Big Bangs only releases the lighter elements only.  One of Hoyle’s collaborators W.A. Fowler received a Nobel Prize for this discovery.

Frank Drake, a professor at Cornell, worked out in 1960 an equation designed to calculate the chances of advanced life existing in the cosmos.  There might be millions of intelligent life forms in the cosmos but there are no ways of communicating with them because if any one of these advanced species, say 200 light years away, detects a signal from Earth then it would be looking at humans during the time of the American Revolution with horses and white wigs.

How Earth got to exists? Reginald Daly in the 1940s offered this explanation: about 4.6 billion years ago, 99.99% of the dust and gases swirling wildly in the universe went to making the Sun.

Out of the leftover materials the planets started to assemble in endless random permutations.  In just 200 million years the Earth was essentially formed.  An object the size of mars crashed into Earth and formed the companion Moon from the crust of Earth, thus the fact that there are no heavy elements on the Moon that constitute the core of Earth.

When Earth was about one third of its present size, its atmosphere was leaden with noxious gases like carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane and sulfur. The carbon dioxide formed a greenhouse effect that prevented Earth from freezing because the Sun was still significantly dimmer and could not heat Earth efficiently.

Comets, meteorites and other galactic debris pelted Earth for a long time while creating water to fill the oceans.

Black hole: Generator of galaxies

David Elbaz, astrophysicist at Saclay and using the two huge telescopes on earth and also Hubble, guided his telescopes to a lonely star HE 0450-2958 that is far away from any galaxy.  This star is brighter a thousand billion folds than our solar system and is 3 billion light-year away.  This is a quasar star.

The most recent theory in cosmology describes how galaxies and light were formed.  The process is as follow:

You have a most dense black hole (imagine earth reduced to the size of a thimble) that absorbs all kinds of matters, gazes, and light. The matters are circling and revolving around the black hole at high rotating speed and ejecting plasma (gluon) from the two magnetic poles.  The jets of plasma reach distances surpassing 22 thousand light-year and at speed over thousands km/s.

This phenomenon of jets from a quasar star spewing plasma into space creates young stars that ultimately form a galaxy. In a sense, a galaxy is fundamentally circling a black hole that it created. Thus, black holes are the origin of the universe and light; though its initial function is to absorb whatever matters and light come close to it gravitational pull.

If it took 13.7 billion years for our current earth to exist, dating from a supposed Big Bang; and if it took 11.2 billion years for life to start on earth; and if that required 9 billion years for the birth of the solar system and 1.7 billion years to form our Milky Way galaxy, then you have an idea how long it takes a quasar star to create a galaxy.

Yes, for 100 million years after the Big Bang the universe was in the Age of total Darkness before the first galaxy was created.

I have two questions:

First, if as we are told the universe is expanding fast, then black holes are also shifting away.  To where are black holes moving?  What is attracting black holes? Are there anti-matter black holes?

Second, if universe is formed of matters then how mankind created moralities and ethics?


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

September 2020
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