Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘design

Design is basic to all human activity.

“All men are designers. All that we do, almost all the time, is design, for design is basic to all human activity.

The planning and patterning of any act towards a desired, foreseeable end constitutes the design process.

Any attempt to separate design, to make it a thing-by-itself, works counter to the inherent value, of design as the primary underlying matrix of life.

Design is com- posing an epic poem, executing a mural, painting a masterpiece, writing a concerto. But design is also cleaning and reorganizing a desk drawer, pulling an impacted tooth, baking an apple pie, choosing sides for a back-lot baseball game, and educating a child.

Design is the conscious effort to impose meaningful order.” – Victor Papaneck

A few people place Information Theory/technology at the center of all sciences and knowledge. I prefer to locate Design in the center.

Designing require vast general knowledge and an experimental mind to fine-tune and frequently re-design what targeted certain species, genders, ethnic idiosyncrasies.

We indeed need to recognize that we have to get interested in psychology, sociology, geography, history… and every discipline that affect our comprehension of “ How to design and who are our target users

The more we are involved with what people want, the more we focus on the health and safety of the users (mentally, physically and emotionally) of what we design.

The moment we consider ourselves ” a professional” in design, the more we get alienated from the target user and intention of the design. Thus, connectivity and communication with the larger segments of the population insure better receptivity to our designs.

Unfortunately, the skills and knowledge of how to design experiments is badly lacking in curriculum: These skills do Not come naturally and require many periods of initiation of what are the causes, the catalysts, the controlling variables and the interdependence of variables affecting outcomes.

Note: It would have been a great purpose to publish our day-dreaming projects, with details. Precising the kinds of disciplines required to fine-tune the planning and execution of the project, along with the proper people ready to take on the project full-time..

Designer Philippe Starck — with no pretty slides to show — spends 18 minutes reaching for the very roots of the question “Why design?” Listen carefully for one perfect mantra for all of us, genius or not.

Philippe Starck. Designer. Designs deluxe objects and posh condos and hotels around the world. Always witty and engaged, he takes special delight in rethinking everyday objects. Full bio

Filmed March 2007

You will understand nothing with my type of English. It’s good for you because you can have a break after all these fantastic people. I must tell you I am like that, not very comfortable, because usually, in life, I think my job is absolutely useless.

I mean, I feel useless. Now after Carolyn, and all the other guys, I feel like shit. And definitively, I don’t know why I am here, but — you know the nightmare you can have, like you are an impostor, you arrive at the opera, and they push you, “You must sing!” I don’t know. (Laughter)

1:06 So, because I have nothing to show, nothing to say, we shall try to speak about something else. We can start, if you want, by understanding — it’s just to start, it’s not interesting, but — how I work.

When somebody comes to me and ask for what I am known for, I mean, yes, lemon squeezer, toilet brush, toothpick, beautiful toilet seats, and why not — a toothbrush? I don’t try to design the toothbrush. I don’t try to say, “Oh, that will be a beautiful object,” or something like that. That doesn’t interest me.

there is different types of design.

The one, we can call it the cynical design, that means the design invented by Raymond Loewy in the ’50s, who said, what is ugly is a bad sale, la laideur se vend mal, which is terrible. It means the design must be just the weapon for marketing, for producer to make product more sexy, like that, they sell more: it’s shit, it’s obsolete, it’s ridiculous. I call that the cynical design. (In that period products had quality and durability) 

there is the narcissistic design: it’s a fantastic designer who designs only for other fantastic designers. (Laughter)

And, there is people like me, who try to deserve to exist, and who are so ashamed to make this useless job, who try to do it in another way, and they try, I try, to not make the object (Not) for the object but for the result, for the profit for the human being, the person who will use it.

If we take the toothbrush — I don’t think about the toothbrush. I think, “What will be the effect of the brush in the mouth?” And to understand what will be the effect of the toothbrush in the mouth, I must imagine: Who owns this mouth? What is the life of the owner of this mouth? In what society [does] this guy live? What civilization creates this society? What animal species creates this civilization? When I arrive — and I take one minute, I am not so intelligent — when I arrive at the level of animal species, that becomes real interesting.

 I have strictly no power to change anything. But when I come back, I can understand why I shall not do it, because today to not do it, it’s more positive than do it, or how I shall do it.

But to come back, where I am at the animal species, there is things to see, there is the big challenge. The big challenge in front of us. Because there is not a human production which exists outside of what I call “the big image.”

The big image is our story, our poetry, our romanticism. Our poetry is our mutation, our life. We must remember, and we can see that in any book of my son of 10 years old, that life appears four billion years ago, around — four billion point two?

 I’m a designer, that’s all, of Christmas gifts. And before, there was this soup, called “soupe primordiale,” this first soup — bloop bloop bloop — sort of dirty mud, no life, nothing. So then — pshoo-shoo — lightning — pshoo — arrive — pshoo-shoo — makes life — bloop bloop — and that dies.

Some million years after — pshoo-shoo, bloop-bloop — ah, wake up! At the end, finally, that succeeds, and life appears. We were so stupid. The most stupid bacteria. Even, I think, we copy our way to reproduce, you know what I mean, and something of — oh no, forget it.

After, we become a fish; after, we become a frog; after, we become a monkey; after, we become what we are today: a super-monkey, and the fun is, the super-monkey we are today, is at half of the story.

Can you imagine? From that stupid bacteria to us, with a microphone, with a computer, with an iPod: four billion years. And we know, and especially Carolyn knows, that when the sun will implode, the earth will burn, explode, I don’t know what, and this is scheduled in four billion years? Yes, she said, something like that.

OK, that means we are at half of the story. Fantastic! It’s a beauty! Can you imagine? It’s very symbolic. Because the bacteria we was had no idea of what we are today. And today, we have no idea of what we shall be in four billion years. And this territory is fantastic.

That is our poetry. That is our beautiful story. It’s our romanticism. Mu-ta-tion.

We are mutants. And if we don’t deeply understand, if we don’t integrate that we are mutants, we completely miss the story.

Because every generation thinks we are the final one. We have a way to look at Earth like that, you know, “I am the man. The final man. You know, we mutate during four billion years before, but now, because it’s me, we stop. Fin. (Laughter) For the end, for the eternity, it is one with a red jacket. Something like that. I am not sure of that. (Laughter) Because that is our intelligence of mutation and things like that. There is so many things to do; it’s so fresh.

And here is something: nobody is obliged to be a genius, but everybody is obliged to participate.

And to participate, for a mutant, there is a minimum of exercise, a minimum of sport. We can say that. The first, if you want — there is so many — but one which is very easy to do, is the duty of vision. I can explain you. I shall try. If you walk like that, it’s OK, it’s OK, you can walk, but perhaps, because you walk with the eyes like that, you will not see, oh, there is a hole. And you will fall, and you will die. Dangerous.

8:46 That’s why, perhaps, you will try to have this angle of vision. OK, I can see, if I found something, up, up, and they continue, up up up. I raise the angle of vision, but it’s still very — selfish, selfish, egoiste — yes, selfish. You, you survive. It’s OK.

If you raise the level of your eyes a little more you go, “I see you, oh my God you are here, how are you, I can help you, I can design for you a new toothbrush, new toilet brush,” something like that.

I live in society; I live in community. It’s OK. You start to be in the territory of intelligence, we can say. From this level, the more you can raise this angle of view, the more you will be important for the society. The more you will rise, the more you will be important for the civilization. The more you will rise, to see far and high, like that, the more you will be important for the story of our mutation.

That means intelligent people are in this angle. That is intelligence. From this to here, it’s genius. Ptolemy, Eratosthenes, Einstein, things like that. Nobody’s obliged to be a genius. It’s better, but nobody.

Take care, in this training, to be a good mutant. There is some danger, there is some trap.

One trap: the vertical. Because at the vertical of us, if you look like that, “Ah! my God, there is God. Ah! God!” God is a trap. God is the answer when we don’t know the answer. That means, when your brain is not big enough, when you don’t understand, you go, “Ah, it’s God, it’s God.” That’s ridiculous. That’s why — jump, like that? No, don’t jump. Come back. Because, after, there is another trap. If you look like that, you look to the past, or you look inside if you are very flexible, inside yourself. It’s called schizophrenia, and you are dead also.

That’s why every morning, now, because you are a good mutant, you will raise your angle of view. Out, more of the horizontal. You are an intelligence. Never forget — like that, like that. It’s very, very, very important. What, what else we can say about that? Why do that? It’s because we — if we look from far, we see our line of evolution.

This line of evolution is clearly positive. From far, this line looks very smooth, like that. But if you take a lens, like that, this line is ack, ack, ack, ack, ack. Like that. It’s made of light and shadow. We can say light is civilization, shadow is barbaria. And it’s very important to know where we are. Because some cycle, there is a spot in the cycle, and you have not the same duty in the different parts of the cycle.

That means, we can imagine — I don’t say it was fantastic, but in the ’80s, there was not too much war, like that, it was — we can imagine that the civilization can become civilized. In this case, people like me are acceptable.

We can say, “It’s luxurious time.” We have time to think, we have time to speak about art and things like that. It’s OK. We are in the light. But sometimes, like today, we fall, we fall so fast, so fast to shadow, we fall so fast to barbaria.

With many face of barbaria. Because it’s not, the barbaria we have today, it’s perhaps not the barbaria we think.

There is different type of barbaria. That’s why we must adapt. That means, when barbaria is back, forget the beautiful chairs, forget the beautiful hotel, forget design, even — I’m sorry to say — forget art. Forget all that. There is priority; there is urgency. You must go back to politics, you must go back to radicalization, I’m sorry if that’s not very English. You must go back to fight, to battle.

That’s why today I’m so ashamed to make this job. That’s why I am here, to try to do it the best possible.

But I know that even I do it the best possible — that’s why I’m the best — it’s nothing. Because it’s not the right time. That’s why I say that. I say that, because, I repeat, nothing exist if it’s not in the good reason, the reason of our beautiful dream, of this civilization.

And because we must all work to finish this story. Because the scenario of this civilization — about love, progress, and things like that — it’s OK, but there is so many different, other scenarios of other civilizations.

This scenario, of this civilization, was about becoming powerful, intelligent, like this idea we have invented, this concept of God. We are God now. We are. It’s almost done. We have just to finish the story. That is very, very important. And when you don’t understand really what’s happened, you cannot go and fight and work and build and things like that. You go to the future back, back, back, back, like that. And you can fall, and it’s very dangerous. No, you must really understand that.

15:39 Because we have almost finished, I’ll repeat this story. And the beauty of this, in perhaps 50 years, 60 years, we can finish completely this civilization, and offer to our children the possibility to invent a new story, a new poetry, a new romanticism.

With billions of people who have been born, worked, lived and died before us, these people who have worked so much, we have now bring beautiful things, beautiful gifts, we know so many things. We can say to our children, OK, done, that was our story. That passed.

Now you have a duty: invent a new story. Invent a new poetry. The only rule is, we have not to have any idea about the next story. We give you white pages. Invent. We give you the best tools, the best tools, and now, do it. That’s why I continue to work, even if it’s for toilet brush.

Patsy Z shared this link
Designer Philippe Starck — with no pretty slides to show — spends 18 minutes reaching for the very roots of the question “Why design?” Listen carefully for one perfect mantra for all of us, genius or not.
ted.com

Design: Got necessarily be evidence-based. Design is basically relevant to a human factors need

Note: Finally, an article that explicitly mentions Human Factors in Design

Dr Dan Jenkins leads the human factors and research team at DCA Design International, working on a range of projects in domains including medical, transport, consumer goods and industrial products.

Lisa Baker is a Chartered Ergonomist of the CIEHF and senior human factors researcher at DCA Design International.

Here, in advance of an interactive workshop they will present at Design Council, they discuss the necessity of designing from a strong evidence base.

Design is rarely a solitary exercise.

Despite perceptions brought about and perpetuated by celebrity designers, most products are developed by teams.

The reason is that many products, like planes, trains or automobiles, are simply too complex to be designed by one person alone. (And the more complex the system the worse in safety)

Even if they had the time, very few individuals have the required breadth and depth of skills, knowledge and attitude required to consider all aspects of the design.

For products of any notable complexity, the idea that a single individual could fully research the product, it’s context of use and commercial market, develop a concept, engineer it, test it, select materials and suppliers, and manage production transfer is simply a fantasy.

When it comes to working in teams, it’s not enough to be confident in one’s own convictions. If the best designs are to be developed, it is imperative that each member of the team is able to explain the rationale for the decisions they make and convince others.

The most beautiful products, like works of art, elicit physiological responses: upon first sight, pupils dilate and heart rate quickens.

The strongest brands can have the same impact.

Users often place greater trust in these objects, they care for them and take time to use them effectively.

But initial responses can also be fickle.

How do we ensure that users not only remain engaged with products but can also use them to enhance system performance? Or simply put, how do we create beautiful things that also work beautifully?

Evidence-based design is a key component in developing better things. It’s a philosophy that’s critical for ensuring the team have a common objective and rationale for decision making when working in large multidisciplinary teams.

And Measurement is a critical part of this.

This kind of approach is something that a select few do intuitively. They create compelling arguments for a vision of the future and they have the authority or the gravitas to set a course that others follow.

For most though, some form of systematic structure usually helps.

Fortunately, the human factors tool kit is jam-packed with methods and techniques ready to be used.

These methods range from ethnography and contextual enquiry to more data driven approaches that are able to quantify aspects of system performance such as efficiency, effectiveness, resilience, intuitiveness, usability and inclusiveness.

These approaches can also form the basis for ideation, providing inspiration and information for product improvements.

Ultimately a concise, well-supported argument for change is critical in ensuring that human factors are considered and communicated to a wide range of stakeholders.

This may include those within the design team as well as end users, regulators, maintenance staff, sales and marketing, as well as those involved with construction and decommissioning.

This way we can ensure that we are designing products and services that go beyond initial aesthetic appeal to enhance wider system performance.


A useful chart that maps the key factors in ensuring a strong evidence base for ergonomic design.


Dan Jenkins and Lisa Baker will be presenting an interactive workshop on these ideas at the Ergonomic Design Awards on 22 September at the Design Council. The workshop will introduce a range of human factors tools and explain how they can be used to build, inform, and present a compelling business case for change that leads to better products and greater system performance.

A second workshop will also be presented which examines how designers can ensure inclusivity into later life, and how we design for physical issues of ageing and cognitive impairments such as dementia, for example.

Find out more about these workshops or, alternatively, please contact James Walton on 07736 893 347 or at j.walton@ergonomics.org.uk

More to read on Human Factors designs

  1. On interfaces https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2009/05/17/what-other-interfaces-do-you-design%e2%80%9d/
  2. Message of HF discipline https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2009/07/10/what-message-has-the-human-factors-profession-been-sending/
  3. How HF fits in Engineering curriculum? https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2009/06/17/fitting-human-factors-in-the-engineering-curriculum/
  4. Taxonomy of methods in HF https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2009/06/10/an-exercise-taxonomy-of-methods/
Dr Dan Jenkins leads the human factors and research team at DCA Design International, working on a range of projects in domains including medical, transport, consumer goods and industrial products. Lisa Baker is a Chartered…
designcouncil.org.uk

 

People-centred research:

the first step for design and innovation

–>

“The only important thing about design is how it relates to people.”  – Victor Papaneck

(Why? It could as well relate to other animal species)

Joanna Choukeir Hojeili posted a summary of her design

At Uscreates, we care about people. We don’t believe in innovation for innovation’s sake, but innovation that makes people’s lives easier and better.

First and foremost, we need to understand the problems and challenges that people face. We are fortunate enough to be working closely with Nesta and the Open Data Institute on their exciting Open Data Challenge, a series of seven challenge prizes to generate innovative and sustainable open data solutions to social problems.

Our role has been to ensure that the teams of innovative products and services are centred on the needs of the people who matter for the challenge. To help with this, we spoke to a diverse group of people and organisations, conducted qualitative research, and offered people-centered mentoring and advice to the teams.

We are happy to share all the insight we gathered around each challenge here, with the hope of inspiring anyone who works within these areas to create meaningful and targeted innovation. The insight is collated in concise, actionable, shareable and visual mini-reports.

It communicates information in the form of segments, personas, journey maps, barriers and drivers, circles of influence, and inspirational ideas.

So far, the challenge themes have been Food, Housing, Energy, and Education. We will be adding to the list as Nesta and the ODI announce more challenges.

Get in touch if you have any questions about the mini-reports, or would like to discuss similar challenges and ideas.

Food Open Data Challenge icon

 

Food

A research mini-report on promoting healthy eating, sustainable food, and secure food chains.

We spoke to over 40 key stakeholders; from diverse consumers, small-scale producers, multi-brand producers, and farmers, to specialist and online retailers, supermarkets, restaurants and cafes. We also interviewed public health specialists, food publications and the Food Standards Agency.

Download the Food mini-report here

Housing Open Data Challenge icon

 

Housing

A research mini-report to understand how private tenants, social tenants and local housing allowance recipients can get the best out of renting.

We spoke to low, moderate and high-income tenants, landlords, letting agents, local authorities, and housing associations. We also spoke to other relevant organisations such as the Citizen’s Advice Bureau, housing charities and consultancies, and campaign groups such as Generation Rent.

Download the Housing mini-report here

Energy Open Data Challenge icon

 

Energy

A research mini-report on group buying energy, community-based energy efficiency, and micro-generation of energy.

We spoke to local residents, community energy projects, energy-related not-for-profit organisations, local authorities, local businesses, and energy experts, researchers and academics.

Download the Energy mini-report here

Education Open Data Challenge Icon

 

Education

A research mini-report on giving parents and their children choice around their schools and subjects, and engaging parents in their children’s education.

The report includes insights from families whose children attend both primary and secondary school, teachers and local authorities.

Download the Education mini-report here

Read: https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2012/03/02/a-democratic-design-the-product-the-behavior-or-the-process-in-design/

 

Making shorts out of headdress designs: Like Palestinian keffiyeh

ZARA makes shorts out of stolen Palestinian kuffiyeh design

The kuffiyeh, typically slung over the shoulders and around the neck, (and used as a headdress too by men) is recognized around the world as a symbol of Palestinian resistance against Zionist Israeli occupation and oppression.

(The Palestian keffiyeh has black dots, the Jordanian has red dots)

 

To fashion retailer ZARA, the kuffiyeh is a design best worn around the hips, over the butt, and between the legs.

Printed shorts are all the rage this season, prompting ZARA to release a line of shorts printed with all kinds of colorful and unique patterns.

Of the 6 designs for sale on the company’s website, five of them have floral patterns. The sixth is a mock-up of the Palestinian kuffiyeh.

Both the product and the webpage it is featured on lack any context concerning the origin of the design or its connection to Palestinian history and identity.

The cultural appropriation of the kuffiyeh — be it in any form — is offensive not just to Palestinians but to all indigenous peoples who hold onto such designs as a sign of national, cultural, or historical identity.

Although television show producers and American military officers appropriate the kuffiyeh as a trademark way of identifying “terrorists” for audiences to stare at or soldiers to shoot at, ZARA’s appropriation of the kuffiyeh is yet another affront to the collective identity of a people struggling for an end to Israel’s occupation and a start to the observance, accommodation, and protection of their natural human rights.

Further inspection of ZARA’s designs reveals that cultural appropriation is no foreign game to them.

The fashion line currently sells Aztec-inspired clothing, such as this dress that makes absolutely no reference to the culture and history represented by this design, and this kaftan that is not attributed to the North African region from which it comes.

With ZARA commercializing these historically and culturally significant designs without offering any context, credit, or hint of sensitivity, the company is openly and willingly telling consumers that cultural sensitivity is secondary to fashion and that ultimately, disrespecting and stealing from the oftentimes tragic narratives of entire populations is acceptable if it can rake in a profit.

Human Factors in Design

The term Design is all the rage.

Any professional in any field feels it imperative to add Design in the title.

Engineers, graphic professionals, photographers, dancers, environmentalists, climatologists, scientists… they all claim to be designers first.

And this is very refreshing.

Have you heard of this new field of Design Anthropology? https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2012/02/06/design-anthropology-why-are-there-designs-not-meant-for-human/

Dori Tunstall said in an interview with  Debbie Millman:

Design translate values into tangible experiences…Design can help make values such as equality, democracy, fairness, integration, connection…(values that we have lost to some extent), more tangible and express how we can use them to make the world a better place…”

Looks like Tunstall expanded the term design to overlap with the political realm of Congress jobs, law makers, political parties, election laws…

It is about time that everyone “think design” when undertaking any project or program

Anything we do is basically designed, explicitly or implicitly: Either we are generating products and programs for mankind, or it is mankind who is in charge of executing, controlling and managing what has been conceived.

So long as human are directly involved in using a product or a program, any design must explicitly study and research the safety, health, and mistakes that the operators and users will encounter.

Must as well that the design be as explicit in the attributes of health, safe usage, errors that might generate serious consequences, materially, mentally or physically.

Four decade ago, there was a field of study called Human Factors.

The term Human Factors was considered too general to be taken seriously in Engineering.

The implicit understanding was that “Of course, when an engineer designs anything, it is the human who is targeted….”

However, besides applying standards and mathematical formulas, engineers are the least concerned directly with the safety, health of users: The standards are supposed to take care of these superfluous attributes…

And who are the people concerned in setting standards?

Standards are arrived at in a consensus process between the politicians and the business people, and rarely the concerned users and consumers are invited to participate in the debate, except in later sessions when standards are already drafted…

And how explicitly experiments were designed to allow users to test, and give feedback to any kinds of standards, handed down from successive standard sets…?

Countless engineers and scientists are directly engaged in putting rovers on Mars and launching shuttles and… and the human in the project is taken for granted…

If you ask them whether they have human factors engineers in their teams, they don’t understand what you mean.

The project is supposed to be an engineering project, and “where the hell did you bring this human thing in the picture?”

Anything that is designed must consider the health, safety, and how a person from various ages, genders, and ethnic idiosyncracies might use the product or the program

Take all the time in design process. People are not supposed to be used as ginea pigs for any redesigned process… after countless lawsuits, pains, suffering…

This is a preliminary draft. Any input and replies?

Note: https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2008/10/04/whats-that-concept-of-human-factors-in-design/

Article 31, December 18, 2005

 “A seminar on a multidisciplinary view of design”

The term “designing” is so commonly used that its al encompassing scope has lamentably shrunken in the mind of graduating engineers. This talk attempts to restore the true meaning of design as a multidisciplinary concept that draw its value from the cooperation and inputs of many practitioners in a team. This is a scenario of a seminar targeting freshmen engineers who will ultimately be involved in submitting design projects; it is meant to orient engineers for a procedure that might provide their design projects the necessary substance for becoming marketable and effective in reducing the pitfalls in having to redesign. The ultimate purpose is to providing the correct designing behavior from the first year.

Answering the following questions might be the basis of acquiring a proper behavior in design projects which should be carried over in their engineering careers; many of these questions are never formally asked in the engineering curriculum.

Q1. What is the primary job of an engineer?   What does design means?  How do you perceive designing to look like?

A1. The discussion should be reopened after setting the tone for the talk and warming up the audience to alternative requirements of good design.

Q2. To whom are you designing?  What category of people? Who are your target users? Engineer, consumers, support personnel, operators?

A2. Generate from audience potential design projects as explicit examples to develop on that idea.

Q3. What are your primary criteria in designing?  Error free application product? Who commit errors?  Can a machine do errors?

A3.  Need to explicitly emphasize that error in the design and usage is the primary criterion and which encompass the other more familiar engineering and business criteria

Q4. How can we categorize errors?  Had any exposure to error taxonomy? Who is at fault when an error is committed or an accident occurs?

A4. Provide a short summary of different error taxonomies; the whole administrative and managerial procedures and hierarchy of the enterprise need to be investigated.

Q5. Can you foresee errors, near accidents, accidents in your design? 

A5. Take a range oven for example, expose the foreseeable errors and accidents in the design, babies misuse and the display and control idiosyncrasy.

Q6. Can we practically account for errors without specific task taxonomy?

A6. Generate a discussion on tasks and be specific on a selected job.

Q7. Do you view yourself as responsible for designing interfaces to your design projects depending on the target users? Would you relinquish your responsibilities for being in the team assigned to designing an interface for your design project? What kinds of interfaces are needed for your design to be used efficiently?

A7. Discuss the various interfaces attached to any design and as prolongement to marketable designs.

Q8. How engineers solve problems?  Searching for the applicable formulas? Can you figure out the magnitude of the answer?  Have you memorized the allowable range for your answers from the given data and restriction imposed in the problem after solving so many exercises? Have you memorize the dimensions of your design problem?

A8.  Figure out the magnitude and the range of the answers before attempting to solve a question; solve algebraically your equations before inputting data; have a good grasp of all the relevant independent variables.

Q9. What are the factors or independent variables that may affect your design project? How can we account for the interactions among the factors?

A9. Offer an exposition to design of experiments

Q10. Have you been exposed to reading research papers? Can you understand, analyze and interpret the research paper data? Can you have an opinion as to the validity of an experiment? Would you accept the results of any peer reviewed article as facts that may be readily applied to your design projects?

A10.  Explain the need to be familiar with the procedures and ways of understanding research articles as a continuing education requirement.

Q11. Do you expect to be in charged of designing any new product or program or procedures in your career? Do you view most of your job career as a series of supporting responsibilities; like just applying already designed programs and procedures?

Q12. Are you ready to take elective courses in psychology, sociology, marketing, business targeted to learning how to design experiments and know more about the capabilities, limitations and behavioral trends of target users? Are you planning to go for graduate studies and do you know what elective courses might suit you better in your career?

A12.  Taking multidisciplinary courses enhances communication among design team members and more importantly encourages reading research papers in other disciplines related to improving a design project. Designing is a vast and complex concept that requires years of practice and patience to encompass several social science disciplines.

Q13. Can you guess what should have been my profession?

A13.  My discipline is Industrial engineering with a major in Human Factors oriented toward designing interfaces for products and systems. Consequently, my major required taking multidisciplinary courses in marketing, psychology and econometrics and mostly targeting various methodologies for designing experiments, collecting data and statistically analyzing gathered data in order to predict system’s behavior.


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