Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Electricite du Liban

Diesel generator of electricity? Compounding health risk

Lebanon is accustomed to a chronic energy problem. Public power outage is a daily occurrence across the entire tiny country. In urban centers, the hum of diesel generators is the background noise for residents who rely on them to sustain a precarious continuity in electricity.

In the 20’s, Lebanon exported electricity to Syria and Jordan. In the 21st century, Lebanon relies on private providers firing up Diesel generators to supply the need in electricity, at high added cost and high health risk.

We joke in Lebanon that this private system is meant as a war strategy so that Israel will be impotent to reduce Lebanon in total darkness, since the public power is on for about 4 hours a day.

Andrew Bossone published in Nature Middle East

Diesel generators are widespread across the country to cover periods of electricity downtime.© Andrew Bossone

“A study by researchers at the American University of Beirut (AUB) has found that the concentration of potent atmospheric pollutants spiked in urban areas of Lebanon at peak times for diesel generator use.

The pollutants, a class of gases called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that result from burning fossil fuels, are known carcinogens and teratogens. Beirut’s air pollution is nearly twice the safe limit set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of 12 micrograms per cubic metre.

The study monitored 184 buildings and 109 generators in the Hamra area of Beirut minute by minute for about two weeks at each site over the course of a year.

The team used PAH monitors to record air quality and analyzed the data by constructing a 3D model simulating air flow and pollutant distribution. It determined that about 40% of the PAH in the atmosphere in Hamra came from generators.

Alan Shihadeh, lead author of the study, said: “I expect that in other areas with dense urban morphologies, we will see even higher PAH levels in the air resulting from diesel generators.” He warned that the country’s continued reliance on diesel generators would lead to higher rates of cancer and respiratory and heart diseases.

Expensive alternative

“The last thing we need is to place diesel generators outside our bedrooms and offices.”

Lebanon’s decrepit power generation, transmission and distribution system has failed to keep pace with a huge increase in electricity consumption over the last two decades. The country’s power insecurity is also a legacy of the 15-year civil war that decimated its infrastructure. The problem was exacerbated by Israeli attacks in 2006 that targeted power stations.

The state electricity company, Electricite du Liban, can only produce about half the power required. In Beirut, electricity is suspended on a daily schedule of three hours between 6am-6pm. Outside the capital the cuts may be for the entire 12 hours. Residents currently have no option but to fill the gap with generators.

Habib Battah, a journalist and the author of the blog says a better solution would be the production of public power, rather than individuals finding ad-hoc solutions. Battah adds that the high prices charged for privately generated electricity is creating social divides where the poor cannot afford it.

A study published in 2011 by AUB chemist Najat Saliba, who co-authored the study, found that 93% of Beirut’s inhabitants were exposed to dangerous air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, at levels 50% higher than the limits recommended as safe by the World Health Organization (WHO).

The 2011 study – which also found airborne particulate matter was double that recommended by WHO – measured the impact of vehicle emissions. This study is the first to examine how diesel generators contribute to pollution.

“Beirut already suffers from high levels of air pollution,” says Shihadeh. “The last thing we need is to place diesel generators outside our bedrooms and offices.”

In total darkness, as the dark invade the nights, as electricity is ancient history: Lebanon and Cynthia Choucair

Anyone living in Lebanon, for even a few days, will be surprised to learn that the Lebanese endure a dysfunctional electricity regime, and no one was able to counter these dinausors ruling this pseudo-State, and plundering the treasury.

Before the 2006 war, only the Capital Beirut enjoyed more or less 24-hour electricity, on the ground that the rich Gulf emirs and the wealthy Lebanese lived in Beirut, while other parts of the country got just a few hours of power a day from Electricite du Liban.

To fill in the gaps, the country’s better-off minority own generators or else pay for access to someone else’s device.

This week, storm Olga coming from Russia flooded all Lebanon and for an entire week the public electricity was an ancient history.

Not only all electrical infrastructure needs repair, but the employees and workers and repairmen decided to go on strike for unpaid retroactive promises.

Jim Quilty published on Jan, 9, 2013 in the Daily Star under Lebanon is not a Rahbani play

BEIRUT:  After July 2006 with the bombing of Israel of all the infrastructure for 33 days this “electrical” dysfunction was democratized a little, so that now Beirutis shared a tad bit a regular schedule of only daily 3-hour blackouts.

Many entrepreneurs make a living liberating kilowatt hours from the national grid and doling them out, for a price, to those in need.

And if you can’t afford these fruits of the informal economy, you go without. (We pay two electrical bills and have to be thankful for rediscovering that electrical light is a facility)

Enter Cynthia Choucair, the Lebanese filmmaker whose feature-length documentary “Powerless” had its world premiere last month at the Dubai International Film Festival, where it screened out of competition.

This enlightening, acerbic and often quite amusing television-friendly doc finds 4 compelling characters in the haywire of the country’s chaotic electrical system.

The star of the show is the late Jamal Chkifi, a fifty-something 7ayy al-Sellom resident. He was left bereft when his Romanian wife, no longer able to tolerate the power cuts, abandoned him and took their two children with her.

Though he’s a vision of impoverishment, Chkifi isn’t simply a victim. He made history a few years back, being the first Lebanese citizen to file a lawsuit against Electricite du Liban, charging that the state-owned utility is responsible for his losing his family. He died last February, before the court could make a ruling.

Complementing Chkifi’s court action are Rami al-Amine, a television journalist who covered Chkifi’s story, and Chadi Nachabe, an anti-corruption activist who is himself destined for politics.

Rounding out this cast of characters is a celebrity electrician who’s made a name for himself – the Robin Hood of Dahyeh, to be precise – tapping into the state power grid for the needy.

The film was shot in 2011, when the ministry was apparently working toward a plan to solve the country’s energy woes.

The state does its part to facilitate the film’s comic element. Early in the proceedings, Choucair and her crew attend a public presentation by the minister on what he has in mind.

“We inherited a flame, a flame they thought would burn us,” the minister says gravely. “Yet in this flame, we found an energy source … This flame has spread –”

The room suddenly plunges into darkness. There is an uncertain smattering of applause and the official sputters something about the ministry not being responsible for this building’s generator. The power cut’s unseen hand spares no man.

When she presented her film at its Dubai premiere, Choucair remarked that there was an element of revenge in her decision to make “Powerless.”

“I don’t work in politics,” she screamed above the roar of Beirut’s noontime traffic. “But I’m a Lebanese citizen and I have the right to say what I want to say. For me it was an opportunity, yes, to take revenge for what I have been living, and for being taken for granted.

“I didn’t choose to emigrate. I chose to live in Lebanon. When you live in Lebanon you see it’s not a country … For me, for example, I work in Lebanon but all my work is not for the Lebanese audience but the Arab audience.

“Yet you must live all the details. Going through the traffic. Not having electricity. Not having good water. Not having good schooling. You live it. You pay for it. Unlike many Lebanese, I don’t live and work overseas and then come back for vacations.

Choucair describes her film as “a play.”

It is easy to apply that description in two senses. “Powerless” is at once cautiously performative and playful in a winking sort of way.

This playful nature is hemmed in by the filmmaker’s compassionate nature, which is touched by the sufferings of her more unfortunate fellow citizens.

“It’s really like a play,” Choucair says. “I don’t believe in realism. On the contrary I wanted to work on it as a spectacle. I really do feel that Lebanon is a play. We all live in it. We all play in it.

“Both [Robin Hood and Jamal] enjoyed playing this because they are both very extreme in their lives and choices. It comes from them first, I worked with it.”

Wael Alkak’s moody soundtrack navigates between scenes like a car edging though Beirut traffic, and the camera periodically returns to the terrace of a Beirut apartment block where contrabassist Khaled Omran and vocalist Cynthia Choucair are performing what you’ve been hearing.

This gesture makes “Powerless” a more artful and personal creation than your average television documentary – it was produced by Al-Jazeera’s documentary network – yet it also retains the city’s chaotic skyline within the frame.

“You know the Rahbanis created this Lebanon and people live in this play while it’s not at all what it should be, not at all what it is in reality … The Rahbani songs created something in the national imagination, a fictional world. I’m not against it but I am against the [hegemony they have].

I have a feeling that all [my characters] feel they are heroes, even the minister. Even the politicians, they act as if they were heroes.

“Robin Hood feels he’s a minister because he’s able to provide people with electricity, with power. Jamal feels he must take the cause of Lebanon’s electricity sector on his own shoulders.

“The good and the bad. Heroes and villains. The good sun. Lebanon as if it is part of the sky,” she laughs again. “This is Wadih Safi, actually. This whole mythology.

“What really frustrates me when Lebanese emigrants cry when they hear, for example, [“Go and plant me in the soil of Lebanon”]. And they cry! Please, yaani. Okay, Lebanon has something beautiful. You have this but you have these shitty things as well.”

She gestures briefly to the wailing traffic a couple of meters away and laughs, “Mathalan (for example).”

A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Daily Star on January 09, 2013, on page 16.

Read more:
(The Daily Star :: Lebanon News ::





June 2023

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