Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Imam Moussa Sadr

Part 3. Genesis of Hezbollah of Lebanon: Accounts of Robert Fisk

I have published three articles on the genesis of Hezbollah: One article described the geopolitical and social context of Iran Islamic revolution, and the living condition of the citizens in south Lebanon during the 22 years of Israel occupation.

How the Lebanese resistance to the Israeli occupation, particularly Hezbollah, got organized, developed, and managed to kick out Israel in the year 2000 without preconditions or any negotiation?

It is recommended, in order to appreciate the facts, eye-witness accounts, and reports of Robert Fisk, which points to the creation of Hezbollah and how it started to resist Israel occupation of Lebanon from 1982 to 2000, to read https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2011/09/19/south-lebanon-living-conditions-under-22-years-of-israel-occupation/

Robert Fisk wrote the book “Affliction of a Nation” and I am reading the Arabic translated version. Fisk was the correspondent to the British The Times in Beirut and covered Lebanon civil war for nine years. I am summarizing one of the chapters.

“By 1983, a tight bonding between the political demands of the citizens in the south and religious belief set in: A close relationship between seeking peace and tranquility in isolated south region of Lebanon and the duty to martyrdom.

Every blow suffered by Israel occupation force was perceived as a means to emulating what Imam Hussein Bin Ali endured in the battle of Karbalaa against the Omayyad dynasty.

When Israel foolishly named Karbalaa one of its hired factions of militias of “Lebanese guards” to maintain “peace and orders”, the Shias comprehended the gesture as direct blasphemy.

In early October 1983, Israel threatened to close the bridge of the Awali River, the only passage to the towns and villages in the south.  Sheikh Shams el Din declared “total civil disobedience to the Israeli occupation forces”.

On October 16, the 10th day of the religious ceremony of Ashoura, an Israeli military convoy barged amid the crowd in the square of Nabatieh.  The people pelted the Israeli soldiers with stones, overturned military vehicles, and set fire in them. Israel soldiers reacted by firing live ammunition, killing two and seriously injuring 7 worshipers.

Suheil Hamoura, 19 year-old, was one of the casualties, shot in the back. Suheil was not that religious, and he came from Beirut to visit his family for the holiday. Within a week, Israeli troops suffered 9 ambush attacks.  The Shia members in the stooges “South Lebanon Army” of Major Saad Haddad, resigned their posts and joined the Amal party, created by late Imam Moussa Sadr, and headed by Nabih Beri (current chairman of the parliament).

Many collaborators with Israel were  executed.  Italian landmine named Shatchi were planted on the sides of road.

Israel blamed the two sheikhs Ragheb Harb and Abbas Harb (no relation) to be behind the escalation.  Consequently, Israel bulldozed down the house of Abbas Harb in the town of Hallousieh, in January 1984. Young sheikh 3Adel Mo2ness replaced Abbas in leading the prayer.  He told me that a helicopter flew Abbas and 5 of the townspeople to the detention center in Tyr.  When Abbas was released, he was in a terrible condition.

Sheikh Ragheb was released and rumors spread that Israel intended to assassinate Ragheb.  He was indeed killed by 3 bullets on February 1984. Within a week of the assassination, Israeli troops suffered 15 ambushes.  Israel reacted by executing dozens of prisoners in Ansar prison.  When I was visiting the town of Adlun, two Israeli jet fighters flew very low over us.

A young member of Hezbollah pointed to the jets and said: “They have no power over us

In January 1984, Saad Haddad died of cancer and was replaced by General Antoine Lahd. Lahd was to sustain several assassination attempts, and one seriously injured him.  Dozens of Shias quit the “South Lebanon Army” and joined the Lebanese resistance movement.

One Christian soldier in that army told me: “The Israelis are all pimps:  They just abuse of us with daily chores“.  An Israeli soldier told me: “I don’t want to be here. Definitely, this Ariel Sharon is a testified lunatic

Israel began constructing bunkers, 60 meters long, 6 m wide, and 15 m high.  Military buses were always escorted by tanks. In April 12, 1984, the 20 year-old Ali Safi el Din crashed his car, packed with explosives, in an Israeli convoy at Jesr Deir Kanoun.  Ali had lost his brother who was detained in Israeli army headquarter in Type. (To be continued)

Note: You may read this previous article for the political context https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2011/09/11/part-1-genesis-of-hezbollah-in-lebanon-accounts-of-robert-fisk/

Genesis of Hezbollah in Lebanon: The background and Accounts of Robert Fisk

My knowledge of my country and the reports and field accounts of Robert Fisk in his book “Affliction of a Nation” permitted me to join the dot of how the Moslem Shias resistance movement of Hezbollah in Lebanon emerged, and developed to becoming the main resistance force to the Israel occupation of the land.

Robert Fisk was a correspondent to the British “The Times” in Beirut for nine years during Lebanon civil war,

This part of the post will lay the background of the political and social conditions in Lebanon so that the follow-up article could be dedicated to strictly the chronological reports and accounts of the development of the Lebanese resistance movement to Israel occupation, after the preemptive war of 1982.

Background: Imam Moussa Sadr was born in the town of Qom (Iran) and was dispatched by the Iranian clergy (Ayatollah Khomeini, residing in Iraq) to Lebanon in the early 70’s to head the clergy of the Moslem Shias.  Sadr settled in Tyr and his sister Rabab married to a prominent family in the south.

The Shias in Lebanon were majority in the south and in the Bekaa Valley, but were under represented in the public services.  South Lebanon was almost forgotten in the allocation of budget for development, infrastructure, and public services such as schooling and health facilities.

Tacitly, the successive Lebanese governments, since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948,  estimated that Israel is intent on occupying south Lebanon, and that Israel had the tacit support of the US and the western European States for implicitly reaping the water resources and rich fertile land of South Lebanon.

South Lebanon was firmly ruled by the feudal landlords such as the Sharaf el Dine, the Baydun, the Solh...and particularly the Al Asaad clan, called the Beiks… Many of these feudal landlords sold their properties in Palestine to Israeli Jews, and settled in Beirut to run for political offices…

Sadr was in fact the link between the opposition forces in Iran and Khomeini, and the city of Tyr became the hotbed of Shia religious teaching , beside al Najaf in Iraq.

In fact, most leaders of the Iranian Islamic revolution, before the success of the Khomeini revolution in 1979, studied and taught in the city of Tyr in Lebanon and its neighborhoods.  For example, Mahdi Bazerkan (a later prime minister to Khomeini) followed religious courses and taught at the religious clerical school of Jabal Aamel (3amel) , which was established by Moussa Sadr.

Also, studied in Tyr Sadek Tabtabai (a later vice PM to Bazerkan and one of the closest right hands of Khomeini); Ayatollah Mohammad Baheshti (later minister of Justice and the head of the Islamic Republic Party); Sadek Kotb Zadah (later minister of foreign affairs and who was the first counselor to Khomeini while the latter was residing in Paris); Mustafa Shomran (later minister of defense, and one of the members who instituted the Jabal Amel clerical school).  All these leaders visited Tyr, at least once a year, after the success of the Iranian revolution.

As Imam Moussa Sadr landed in Lebanon, the inhabitants in South Lebanon were flocking to the southern suburbs of Beirut called Dahiya, quickly becoming a shantytown suburbs of “belt of poverty“.  These neighborhoods were adjacent to many Palestinian camps of Borj al Barajneh, Sabra, Chatila

The Shia of the south were fleeing the constant shelling of Israel on their towns and villages, under the smokescreen of retaliating to Palestinian missile Katyusha or infiltrations across the borders…

Before 1968, the Lebanese army was in control of the south, and then the Palestinian Resistance Organization (PLO) in Jordan was defeated militarily by King Hussein in 1970, and a political agreement was struck by the Lebanese government with Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser and many Arab leaders to allocate the south-east region of Arkoub to the PLO.

Explicitly, preventing the Lebanese army from harassing the PLO training camps in that region.  The PLO was not to launch attacks from the Arkoub or fire missiles, but implicitly, the Lebanese army had to have prior consent from the government for any intervention in the Arkoub, consents that were never given.

Slowly but surely, the PLO, headed by Yasser Arafat, became the main military power in Lebanon and effectively controlled and ruled in West Beirut and South Lebanon. Moussa Sadr created the Shias political party called AMAL for the “disinherited of south Lebanon” and in West Beirut, and encouraged the Shias to own arms as “symbol of manhood” and protect their properties and villages…

By the time the civil war broke out in Lebanon in 1975, the Amal movement and militias were a substantial power to reckon to in Beirut and in the south.

Qadhafi assassinated Moussa Sadr in August 1978 while on visit to Libya, after Algeria President Boumedien pressured him to visit Qadhafi during his visit to Algeria.  It is known that the Shah of Iran and Israel were keeping close watch on Sadr movement: The Shah knew the direct link of Sadr to Khomeini, and the Shah was the most powerful ally to Israel in the region…

The goal of the leaders of Iran revolution was to overthrow the absolute Shah who ended considering the treasury of the State as his own and for his megalomania aggrandizement. Besides the implicit purpose of Khomeini, although religion was a fundamental sources of inspiration, the political objective of the leaders of the revolution was not the imposition of a theocratic State.

In fact, the source and origin of the Khomeini revolution didn’t start in Qom or Iran, but in South Lebanon and Tyr, since the early 70’s.

In 1980, at the instigation of the US, France, and Saudi Arabia, Saddam Hussein of Iraq found the opportunity of “recapturing” lands in Iran that he claimed was “Arabic” and belonged to the “Arab Nation”.  Saudi Arabia and the US goal was to incite the Iranians to deposing Khomeini, and as a revenge for taking American hostages at the US Embassy in Tehran…

Within a year, Iraqi troops were withdrawing to Iraqi borders, but Khomeini had decided to resume the war of liberation by occupying portions of Iraq and get done with Saddam.

Khomeini decision was a strategic shift in the doctrine of the Iranian revolution: It was to become Islamic and no longer a Republic with Islamic sources of how to rule and to instituting justice (Sharia).  Consequently, this extended state of war, which lasted 8 more years, was an excuse to eliminate all power leaders who begged to differ with Khomeini’s ideology.

All the aforementioned leaders who visited Tyr of Lebanon every years were assassinated and disappeared from the political scene (See note 3).

The factions of the new theocratic regime in Iran won the internal war and had to implement that success in Lebanon.  The US, France, and Israel were the “axe of evil” and the “US the great Satan”. It is in that perspective that the wave of abduction of foreign journalists, correspondent, and personalities is to be understood.

The prisoners were for the keep until negotiations with Iran are undertaken.  The kidnappers were known as “Islamic Jihad” and Fisk had no idea who they were until much later.  It is reported that Sheikh Muhammad Hussein Fadl Allah was the spiritual leader of that Shia faction, and the CIA attempted to assassinate him in March 9, 1985, but the bomb killed 80 civilians instead.

The Shias “Islamic Jihad” faction was re-baptized Hezbollah and the Moslem extremist Sunnis, under the leadership of Osama Bin Laden or Al Qaeda, and funded by Saudi Arabia, adopted the name of “Islamic Jihad”

Consequently, the new theocratic factions in Iran created a new movement among the Shias in Lebanon in order to replace Nabih Berri, leader of AMAL, after the disappearance of Moussa Sadr in Libya. The new movement, first called “Jihad Islamic”, focused on military resistance against the Israeli occupation forces in Lebanon.

The Amal movement (and militias) under Nabih Berri was stooges force to Syria and attacked Palestinian camps, under the excuse of preventing the return of the military wing of Yasser Arafat and their establishment in the camps. Berri militias also attacked the militias of the Druze leader Walid Jumblat in Beirut for dominance of West Beirut.  However, Berri comprehended that, unless he joins forces in resisting Israel, he will lose the leadership of the Shias.

Note 1: A cease-fire in the Iran/Iraq war took hold in 1989, shortly before Khomeini died.  It is reported that Khomeini, knowing he is to die shortly, he decided to put an end to the war while still alive.  Otherwise, the war of attrition would go on indefinitely and ultimately defeat the theocratic regime.

Note 2: By 1984, after Imam Moussa Sadr disappeared on a visit to Qadhafi of Libya in 1982, Nabih Berry became the leader of AMAL, and a formidable militia leader, totally backed by Syria of Hafez Assad,  and holding the ministry of Justice in the Lebanese government.

After the civil war in 1993, Berri will head the successive Lebanese Parliaments, till today.  Actually, all militia leaders will be members in governments and the deputies in the Parliament, in recompense for devastating Lebanon and killing over 200,000 and three-fold that numbers in injured casualties.

Note 3: Kotb Zada was condemned and executed.  Shomran was accounted dead on the Iraqi front. The headquarter of the political party of Mohammad Baheshti was blown up during a general convention: All the leaders of the party died.

Rafsanjani (one of the richest, and later President of Iran) was 15 minutes late for the start of the convention (Was he participating in the plot? Had he been forewarned of the bombing?). Baheshti was next in line to succeed Khomeini in the Wilayat Fakih, but he opposed Khomeini decisions to eradicate the communist Tudeh party, as well as the two left leaning political parties of Mujahedeen and Fidaiyee Khalq.

I had witnessed the activist Iranian students at the University of Oklahoma at Norman in 1978: They were mostly constituted of Mujahedeen and Fidaiyee Khalq parties, and kept the pressure with frequent demonstrations, marches and public meetings on campus… And the bloody leaders who didn’t plan and work for the revolution at its beginning came to power.

Note 4: You may read my article https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2009/06/16/uncontested-palestinian-leader/

Hezbollah (God’s Party) and Nasr Allah (God’s Victory

Note: I decided to re-edit this article of May 25, 2009

Hassan Nasr Allah is currently the Secretary General of Hezbollah.

He was born in August 31, 1960 in the poorest section of East Beirut called Nabaa.  Hassan was the eldest among 9 offspring and his father supported this vast family selling vegetable.

Hassan refrained from playing soccer with the neighboring kids or joining them for a swim; he was deeply religious and admired greatly Imam Moussa Sadr (dispatched to Lebanon by Khomeini in the early 70’s) and who gave the Moslem Shiaa sect a sense of their pride and potentials in the Lebanese fabrics.

The regions of the Shiaa in south Lebanon and in the Bekaa Valley were neglected by the central government since the independence in 1943.  The Imam of the Mosque that Hassan patronized and where he prayed in Nabaa was late Muhammad Fadlallah who is currently the highest Imam of the Shiaa in Lebanon.

At the age of 14, Hassan moved with his family to their home village Bazourieh in south Lebanon. He aided Sheikh Ali Shams el Deen opening a small library of religious manuscripts, and Hassan started teaching religion in the village and then finished his high school in Tyr.

By the age of 15, Hassan joined the “AMAL” movement of Imam Moussa Sadr and was quickly appointed officer of the Bekaa district and then a member of the politburo.

Sheikh Muhammad Ghrawy facilitated to Nasr Allah higher religious learning in Najaf (Iraq).  Nasr Allah met in Najaf with Abbass Moussawy (later the first Secretary General of Hezbollah).

By 1978, and after two years spent in Najaf, Nasr Allah returned to Lebanon.  A couple of months later Imam Moussa Sadr disappeared after a visit to Libya in August 1978.

In 1979, Khomeini came to power in Iran and the Shah went to exile.

The geopolitical condition in the Middle East changed drastically. Iran was now against the USA interests in the region. Iran then supported the Palestinian cause, and was the first State to officially allow the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) to open and embassy in Tehran.

Israel invaded Lebanon in June 1982; the operation was baptized “Peace in Galilee”.  Israel put siege to Beirut for two months and Yasser Arafat and 11,000 Palestinian fighters were forced to leave Lebanon to Tunisia.

The Lebanese President of the Republic Elias Sarkis invited Nabih Berri (leader of AMAL) to join Walid Jumblat (Druze leader) and Basheer Gemayel (leader of the Christian Lebanese Forces) to forming a national rescue team.

Thus, many AMAL cadres quit Nabih Berry such as Abbass Moussawy, Sobhi Tuffaily, Hussein Moussawy, Ibraheem Amin Sayyed, Naeem Qassem, and Nasr Allah.  They created Hezbollah and blew up the US Marines and French barracks in Beirut in 1983.

Nasr Allah had said that Hezbollah was the consequence of Israel entering Beirut in 1982.

Hezbollah postponed declaring its formation until 1985 after Israel assassinated one of Hezbollah’s leaders Sheikh Ragheb Harb. The Iranian leaders Ali Mohtashamy was then the spiritual father of the Party and Muhammad Akhtary the military father.

Hassan Nasr Allah learned from Ragheb Harb the famous dictum “The verb is taking a stand and shaking hands is necessarily acknowledgement of assent” and thus, Harb never shook hands with any Israeli army officers who were trying hard to win Ragheb over to supporting the Israeli occupation of south Lebanon.

In 1987, Nasr Allah was appointed member of the highest legislative institution in Hezbollah and then chairman of the executive branch.

In 1989, Nasr Allah resumed his religious studies in Qom (Iran) and returned in a hurry to Lebanon when military skirmishes with the AMAL movement spread.

The AMAL party was executing the orders of the Syrian regime to entering the Palestinian camps and disarming the Palestinians of any heavy arsenal.

Hezbollah followed the policies of Iran to leave the Palestinian out of harm.  After many months of fighting both parties settled out their differences as Syria and Iran reached a compromise.

Israel assassinated Hezbollah leader Abbass Moussawy in 1992.  Nasr Allah was the closest aid to Moussawy, had extensive contacts with the base, and studied in Qom.

The young Hassan Nasr Allah surprisingly replaced Moussawy as Secretary General; he was only 32 of age.  Nasr Allah said: “A movement that witnesses its leader falling martyr can never be defeated”. Hezbollah evolved into a qualitative phase in organization and political acumen.

Israel invaded Lebanon in July 1993 for 7 days under the code name “Settling Accounts” and then re-invaded in 1996 under Shimon Peres (Nobel Peace prize winner!) and the operation of total destruction lasted for 17 days under the code name “Grapes of Wrath” and shelled a UN compound in Qana where civilians had taken refuge and over 100 died and 300 were gravely injured.

Hadi, the eldest son of Nasr Allah, fell martyr during a resistance operation in September 1997; it was the night before Nasr Allah was to deliver a major speech and he insisted on speaking and said: “In Hezbollah we do not save our children for the future; we honor them when they fight in the front lines against our enemy Israel; we stand tall when they fall martyrs

Israel had to unilaterally retreat from all of Lebanon, with the exception of Shebaa Farms and the hills of Kfarshouba in May 24, 2000 without pre-conditions or negotiations.

The Arab masses recognized Hezbollah as the main resistance movement that vanquished Israel and acclaimed Nasr Allah as the Hero of liberation.

In the large town of Bent Jbeil Nasr Allah delivered the Victory Speech and offered this liberation in the name of all the Lebanese.  Nasr Allah said: “Israel has nuclear arsenals and owns the most lethal air force in the region.  Yet, Israel is much weaker than the spider web” (It was a reference of a spider web on a cave that saved the Prophet Muhammad from being caught by the Kuraich tribe persecutors while fleeing to Yathreb in 630)

In 2003, Israel bombarded the villages in south Lebanon and then raided Beirut in 2005.  Israel re-invaded Lebanon on July 2006 for 33 days and failed to achieve any of its proclaimed political objectives.

Nasr Allah was recognized as the most charismatic and powerful resistance leader in the Arab and Moslem World.  Nasr Allah played the catalyst for the Shiaa in Lebanon to participate in projecting the living messages in the symbolism of the Koran verses and thus be capable of assimilating and accepting changing social and environmental conditions.

According to the famous journalist Seymour Hirsh it seems that Cheney, Eliot Abrahams, and Bandar Ben Sultan conspired to finance and whisk the members of Fatah El Islam (radical, salafist, and extremist Sunni Moslems) into the refugee camp of Nahr Al Bared with the purpose of destabilizing Lebanon and starting civil war between the Moslem Shiaas and Sunnis and thus, immersing Hezbollah into a potential civil war.

It didn’t work because the Lebanese army was hurt in its pride after many soldiers were executed by severing their heads in the summer of 2007.  The army lost over 160 soldiers and many hundreds were severely injured but the Moslem extremism objectives were defeated after 6 months of engagement in the camp.

Deputy Bahiya Hariri (sister of late Rafic Hariri) acknowledged that she contributed substantially in financing extremist Palestinian groups in the refugee camps.

The Israelis take very seriously Nasr Allah’s promises and threats because he can deliver.

The Lebanese Government of Seniora PM failed to understand that “A word is a commitment”.  Nasr Allah had said that Hezbollah will never turn its arms internally, excepting when coerced to relinquish its arms; especially its secured ground communication lines considered the most potent arm it had during the war in 2006.

In May 5, 2008, the “illegitimate”  Seniora PM Government (with no Shiaa minister representatives in its cabinet) executed a plan to dismantle Hezbollah secure communication network.

Hassan Nasr Allah delivered a speech demanding the government to retract its decision.  By May 7, the AMAL militias confronted the security forces of the Moustakbal movement (The Hariri clan) in Beirut and quickly closed down those arm caches intended to start civil disturbances.

The AMAL forces were controlled by cadres of Hezbollah in order for the confrontation not to degenerate into sectarian infighting. For example, the rioters saved the huge pictures of late Rafic Hariri PM and removed the pictures of Saad Hariri and Seniora PM.  Israel admitted that its patient work of infiltrating Hezbollah for two years vanished within a couple of hours.

Hezbollah has joined the Parliament since 1992 and has increased the number of its Deputies; it has cabinet ministers since the year 2000.   Lebanon is getting ready for Parliamentary election in June 7, 2009 and all the indications point to victory of the opposition headed by Hezbollah, AMAL, and the movement (Tayyar) of Change and Reforms of General Michel Aoun.

Over 20 Lebanese agents spying for Israel have been apprehended.   Nasr Allah is demanding that the traitors be hanged.

Note:  The biographical sections were extracted from the recent Arabic/Lebanese book “Shock and Steadfastness” (Sadmah wa Sumoud”) by Kareem Bakradouny.

“Investigation into a massacre: Sabra and Chatila” by Amnon Kapeliouk (June 17, 2009)

           

            After I published the post “The culprit: vegetative Ariel Sharon” I got hold of a frightening manuscript that kept me awake all night. Amnon Kapeliouk published in 1982 a French book “Investigation into a massacre: Sabra and Chatila”.  He gathered valuable information from a wide variety of sources both in Israel and in Lebanon.  The manuscript describes in 115 pages details of the genocide that was perpetrated in the Palestinian camps in south Beirut from Tuesday September 14 to Monday 20, 1982.

            I will end the review with the political and economic reasons for this mindless and bestial slaughter house tale.

 

Before Tuesday, September 14, 1982

 

            By summer 1981, Israel defense Minister Ariel Sharon had prepared an incursion plan into Lebanon.  Israel invaded Lebanon on June 4, 1982 with the avowed intention of limiting the incursion to 40 kilometers and cleaning up pockets of Palestinian resistance in south Lebanon.  In the Knesset on June 8, Menahem Begin PM describes the Palestinians “animals with two legs”. During a monster demonstration on July 17 in Tel Aviv Menahem Begin PM declared “By the end of this year we will have signed a peace treaty with Lebanon.”  The Israeli incursion extended to the Capital Beirut leaving 20,000 civilian dead and 30,000 severely injured. “Plan Reagan” of September 2 denied Israel the annexation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.  Israel was pressured to end this invasion and Ariel Sharon would repeatedly answer “Patience gentlemen; the fruit of this war will be obvious soon”

            Minister Yaakov Meridor sent a directive to the Israeli army related to the Palestinian refugees stating: “Force the Palestinians to flee toward East Lebanon to the borders with Syria. Do not let them return”  The Israeli army (Tsahal) did their best to totally demolish the Palestinian camps in south Lebanon, in Tyr, and Saida; it effected mass slaughter among the refugees. This directive failed because the Palestinian refugees had nowhere else to go.  It was obviously that the main objective of this war was to evacuate most of the Palestinians out of Lebanon and toward Syria.  Israel knew that Lebanon was to small, weak, and with a social and political confessional fabric that would never allow the majority Palestinian Sunnis residency status.  Since the sole objective is to practically cancel out UN resolution 194 for the “right of return” of the refugees to their homeland Palestine then the other alternative was to kill as many as they could.

 

            Ariel Sharon bombarded Beirut for three weeks and closed off all access to the Capital.  The Lebanese political leaders in Beirut urged Arafat to leave Beirut and a deal with President Reagan’s special envoy Philip Habib stipulated that the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) headed by Yasser Arafat and 12,000 strong was to be evacuated to Cyprus on French navies and then head to Tunisia.  The PLO left Lebanon and the camps were not defended.  The multinationals of the USA, France, and Italy (supposed by the deal to defend the civilians) vacated their posts around the Palestinian camps by order of Israel.

            During the early years of the civil war in Lebanon there were three camps in the Christian districts such the ones in Dbayeh, Jesr al Basha, and Tell al Zaatar. The Christian militias overran these camps and forced the evacuation of the Christian Palestinians by military activities, genocide, and terror.  These camps were prime Real Estates and the developers, the deputies and ministers of the Metn district made a fortune. As Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982, the “Lebanese Forces” and Real Estates developers had plans for the even higher value Estates in Chatila and Sabra Palestinian camps in Beirut. They figured that they will rule Lebanon along side the Israelis.

 

Tuesday, September 14, 1982; (Iron Brain Operation):  

 

            The Israeli army is stationed on the outskirts of Beirut on all sides. Multinational forces of the USA, France, and Italy were brought in to protect the Palestinian civilians in the camps around Beirut.  Bechir Gemayel was elected President of the Lebanese Republic on August 23 under the bayonet of the Israeli army.  Bechir Gemayel (34 years old) was the closest ally to Israel since the civil war broke out in April 13, 1975.  Bechir Gemayel headed the Christian militias named “The Lebanese Forces” united the Phalange Party, the Party of Camille Chamoun, and other fringe parties by coercion and frightful infighting.  “The Lebanese Forces” had received from Israel military training, military sophisticated hardware, logistics, and military intelligence.  Israel Menahim Began PM and Ariel Sharon (Defense Minister) expected immediate peace pact to be signed by Beshir.  Beshir was reluctant to officially sign any peace treaty before he discuss with Arab leaders and consolidate his power.

            At 4:10 p.m. a charge of 50 kilos of TNT explodes at the above flat where Bechir was meeting with his supporters in Ashrafieh.  Sharon had accurate intelligence of the status of Bechir within minutes.  The Medias and radios would refrain from declaring Bechir dead until 10:30 p.m.

            By 6 p.m. Israel has established an air bridge to land tanks and soldiers in Beirut airport.  Sharon and Begin PM agree to enter the Capital Beirut without consulting with their cabinet of ministers.  An already detailed military plan for invading West Beirut in unfolded in the Defense Ministry.

 

Wednesday, September 15; (Israel occupies the first Arab Capital)

 

            General Amir Drori, commander of Northern Israel region, receive the order at 12:30 a.m. to take over the strategic points in West Beirut.  At 3:30 a.m. commanders of the Christian militias known as “Lebanese Forces” are assembled in their headquarters on the outskirt of south Beirut close to the Israeli headquarter.  The Israeli Generals Rafael Eytan (Fafoul) and Amir Drori are discussing plans with the militia officers Fadi Frem, Elie Hobeika, Emile 3id, Michel Zuwein, Deeb Anastase, Maroun Mich3alani, Joseph Edde and the liaison “Jessy”.  They are ironing out details of the invasion of the Christian milias into the Palestinian camps of Sabra and Chatila.

            The “Lebanese Forces” militia got busy painting their logos on walls and trees with directional arrows for troop’s movement from Chouweifat to Kuwait Embassy.  At 5 a.m. the Israeli forces have cordoned off both Palestinian camps.  By 9 a.m. Ariel Sharon is observing the deployment from a tall building close to the Kuwait Embassy and overlooking the camps, 200 meters away.  Sharon finds time at 1 a.m. to fly to Bikfaya and present his condolences to the Gemayel family; he is received coldly.  The Lebanese army in West Beirut refuses to cooperate with Tsahal.  By nightfall electicity power is shut off in West Beirut.  By 10 p.m. rockets for lighting the Palestinian camps are launched at the rate of two per minutes at each launching point.

 

Thursday, September 16 (Felicitations! Our friends are entering the camps)

 

            By noon, West Beirut has completely fallen and Tsahal is rounding up thousands of Lebanese at check points.  The Palestinian camps are shelled and Israeli snipers are active. At noon General Drori asks Fadi Frem if his militias are ready to enter the camps. They are ready and 1,500 Christian militias receive the green light for action.  They assemble by the airport and the Israeli General Amos Yaron exhibit to them aerial maps.  General Yaron confirms that Tsahal will deliver all the logistics and supplies for the “cleaning up of the camps”.  The Christian militias were never shy proclaiming at every occasion to the Israeli officers that they meant a thorough slaughter of babies, women, and elderly Palestinians. The Phalangists (Kataeb) used to utter their motto “A dead Palestinian is pollution. The extermination of all Palestinian refugees in Lebanon is the solution”

            A unit of 150 Christian’ militias crosses from Ouzai to the Lebanese army barrack of Henri Chehab to their headquarters at the UN building.  The Israeli check points let 25 jeeps packed of militias enter the camp of Chatila at 4 p.m.  The frightened civilian Palestinians go to the Israeli headquarter ad expressed their strong concerns. They are told to return and not be worried.  A detachment of soldiers of the splintered Lebanese army in south Lebanon and commanded by Major Saad Haddad, the stooge to Israel, arrives to the outskirts of Chatila.  Before 5 p.m. the dirty wolves were inside the chicken hen.

            Within an hour, hundreds of Palestinian civilians, babies, women, and elderly are slaughtered by machetes, knives, and hatchets.  Palestinians and Lebanese within the camps, regardless of being Christians or Moslems, are killed while having supper. The militias cut off limbs of women to grab bracelets attached in their forearms before finishing off their victims. Babies’ skulls are smashed on walls. Women are raped before being killed.  Nine Jewish women who married Palestinians long time ago were also killed.

            During the night delegations of Palestinians arrive at Israel’s headquarter to explain the situation and they are repulsed to the camps; most of the members of the delegations disappeared.  A militia demands a stretcher for a few wounded companions and explains “We have finished off more than 250 dirty Palestinians”.  By 11 p.m. a militia commander had expedited to the highest military Israeli echelons a succinct report stating “As of now 300 terrorists have been eliminated”.  The camps were brightly lighted with 81 mm rockets.  Two thousand Palestinians take refuge in nearby hospitals named Akka and Gaza.

            In Jerusalem at 7:30 p.m. the Israeli cabinet met for 4 hours; Chief of Staff Raphael Eytan quickly goes over the situation in the camps stating “The Phalangists are cleaning up a few nests of terrorists”.  The massacre resumed for the entire night.  The Israeli soldiers were witnessing the genocides and did not move.  A single Israeli soldier with a minimum of moral standing and with a minimum of guts could have entered and ordered the militias out; they would have obeyed!  Nobody moved. The Israeli soldiers just reported to their higher commanders who knew the plan.

 

Friday, September 17

            At day break and from their posts Israeli soldiers could see people lined up on walls and executed. The hospitals are invested; foreign physicians and nurses are chased out and everyone inside is killed.  An Israeli officer broadcast “It is not done to pleasure us. I forbid you to intervene in the camps.” Fresh militias, among them “soldiers” of Saad Haddad, enter the camps in jeeps and bulldozers borrowed from the Israeli army.

            At 11 a.m. the militias barge into Akka hospital and finish off the injured; they raped a nurse ten times before killing her.  Forty of the personnel are horded into a truck; they will disappear.  Bulldozers are digging ditches by the Israeli headquarter; a Norwegian diplomat observe a shoveling truck dumping cadavers into the ditches.

            By noon, fresh militias reinforcement are observed by the airport; ten “command cars”, 13 tanks, jeeps, and more bulldozers are filmed by an Israeli TV channel reporter Ron Ben Yichai heading toward the camps.  The militias carry with them plenty of alcoholic beverages and hashish.

            The Israeli Chief of Staff lands his helicopter at Beirut airport 3:30 p.m. and meet with the militia chief Fadi Frem and congratulates him on “a job well done” because they did not obey the American orders to vacate the camps.  Eytan flies back to his ranch in Tel-Adachim to celebrate Israel’s New Year with his family; he will call Sharon around 9 p.m. to tell him “the Phalengists are exaggerating”. Today, the militias are shooting bullets to expedite the “clean up” mission.  Trucks packed with Palestinians are taken out of camps; the detainees are never heard of.

            All night long, with the camps well lighted by Israeli rockets, the bulldozers are destroying the shantytown homes over their inhabitants.  Yesterday, the objective was to terrorize the Palestinians out of camps; they had no where to go since the Israeli check points forced them to return to camps.  This night, the goal is to erase the camp completely of any structure and clean up this prime Real Estate.  Ben Yichai called up Sharon to inform him of the horrible conditions in the camps and he reported “Ariel Sharon gave me the impression that he was updated thoroughly on the situation”.

            In the Israeli headquarters soldiers are eating lavishly, celebrating the New Year, and enjoying the carnage scene overlooking the Palestinian camps. A single Israeli soldier with a minimum of moral standing and with a minimum of balls could have entered and ordered the militias out: they would have obeyed!  Nobody moved.

           

Saturday, September 18, 1982:  (No prisoners taken)

            At dawn the carnage goes on. It will resume till after 10 a.m. the time that Israel had decided that the operation should end. At 6 a.m. the loudspeakers of the militias are encouraging the Palestinians to set out of their homes saying “Go out and you will be saved” (Sallimou Tislamou).  Thousands obey the order and they are horded into trucks; they will disappear. Many are executed on the way: “It is better to kill the maximum before delivering them to the Israelis”; the roads toward Ouzai are strewn with bodies.  The bulldozers and shoveling equipments are working full time.  The hospitals get invested again and the injured achieved.  The foreign physicians and nurses witness the activities helplessly.

            At exactly 10 a.m. Israeli tanks move toward the camps; it is the signal for the militias to vacate the camps. Over 4,000 Palestinian and Lebanese civilians in camps containing more than 20,000 will be recorded disappeared. For two weeks, the Lebanese army, Red Cross, and volunteers will not be able to “re-clean up” this human disaster. (To be continued in my posts “Reactions to the genocide”)

 

 

Note 1:  The Lebanese Shiaa in south Lebanon had strong animosity against the Palestinian fedayins since 1975 when the civil war started: Israel was constantly shelling and bombing the south “in reprisal” of the Palestinian “katiousha” and the Lebanese government and army had stopped reacting or coming to the aid of its citizens in south Lebanon.  The charismatic leaders of the Shiaa Imam Moussa Sadr managed to control their anger until he “disappeared” in 1978 while on a visit to Libya.  Probably Israel had assassinated Sadr and blamed Kadhafi for the disappearance. Israel knew that as Moussa Sadr is out of the picture then the Shiaa will welcome the Israeli invading forces with rice and joy to get rid of the Palestinian resistance forces.  That is what happened exactly; Shiaa joined the splintered Lebanese army in the south which was commanded by major Saad Haddad, a stooge to Israel.  From 1978 to 1983 the Shiaa militias of AMAL, lead by Nabih Berri, the successor to Sadr, followed the orders of the Syrian regime to enter every Palestinian camp and retrieve heavy arms; many battles with the Palestinians inside camps were routine. All that was reversed as Hezbollah was formed in 1984 by the support of Khomeini in Iran. Nabih Berry of AMAL calmed down and Israel withdrew without any preconditions from south Lebanon in May 24, 2000 as the splintered Lebanese army lacked manpower and suffered heavy casualties by the frequent well targeted Hezbollah attacks.

 

Note 2: Yasser Arafat played a central role during the Lebanese civil war that started in April 13, 1975 and ended in 1991.  He tried to maintain a balanced position in the tag of war between Hafez Assad of Syria and Sadate of Egypt at the expense of the Lebanese civilians.  The leftist Lebanese organizations relied on Arafat for logistics in arms and ammunition and he controlled them completely.  Arafat and his PLO were actually fighting Israel, Syria, and the Christian militias of the “Lebanese Forces”. Arafat once declared in Ramallah around 1998 that he was the de facto governor of Lebanon for over 20 years, even before the civil war broke out. Lebanon would have been saved 13 years of mindless civil war if Arafat had decided to relinquish Lebanon to Syria and dealt with Israel in 1977 instead of 1993 for part of Palestine as he was forced to do later during the Oslo Agreement.

 

Note 3: There are indications that ex-President Amine Gemayel, Deputy and Minister Michel Murr, and the Maronite Church are among the profiteers in the reclamation of the land of the Palestinian camps in the Christian cantons.

Hezbollah (God’s Party) and Nasr Allah (God’s Victory): Biographies (May 25, 2009)

Hassan Nasr Allah is currently the Secretary General of Hezbollah.  He was born in August 31, 1960 in the poorest section of East Beirut called Nab3a.

Hassan was the eldest among 9 offspring and his father supported this vast family selling vegetable.

Hassan refrained from playing soccer with the neighboring kids or joining them for a swim; he was deeply religious and admired greatly Imam Moussa Sadr who gave the Moslem Shiaa sect a sense of their pride and potentials in the Lebanese fabrics.

The regions of the Shiaa in south Lebanon and in the Bekaa Valley were neglected by the central government since the independence in 1943.  The Imam of the Mosque where Hassan prayed in Nabaa was the late Muhammad Fadlallah who is presently the highest Imam of the Shiaa in Lebanon.

At the age of 14 Hassan moved with his family to their home village Bazourieh in south Lebanon. He aided Sheikh Ali Shams el Deen to open a small library of religious manuscripts and Hassan started teaching religion in the village and then finished his high school in Tyr.

By the age of 15 Hassan joined the “AMAL” movement of Imam Moussa Sadr and was quickly appointed officer of the Bekaa district and then a member of the politburo.  Sheikh Muhammad Ghrawy facilitated to Nasr Allah higher religious learning in Najaf (Iraq).

Nasr Allah met in Najaf with Abbass Moussawy (later the first Secretary General of Hezbollah).  By 1978, and after two years spent in Najaf, Nasr Allah returned to Lebanon.  A couple of months later, Imam Moussa Sadr disappeared after a visit to Libya in August 1978.

In 1979, Khomeini came to power in Iran and the Shah went to exile.  The geopolitical condition in the Middle East changed drastically. Iran was now against the USA interests in the region, supported the Palestinian cause, and was the first State to officially allow the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) to open and embassy in Tehran.

Israel invaded Lebanon in June 1982; the operation was baptized “Peace in Galilee“.  Israel put siege to Beirut for two months and Yasser Arafat and 11,000 Palestinian fighters left to Tunisia.

The Lebanese President of the Republic Elias Sarkis invited Nabih Berri (leader of AMAL) to join Walid Jumblat (Druze leader) and Basheer Gemayel (leader of the Christian Lebanese Forces) to forming a national rescue team. Many AMAL cadres quit Nabih Berry such as Abbass Moussawy, Sobhi Tuffaily, Hussein Moussawy, Ibraheem Amin Sayyed, Naeem Qassem, and Nasr Allah.  They created Hezbollah and blew up the US Marines and French barracks in Beirut in 1983. Nasr Allah had said that Hezbollah was the consequence of Israel entering Beirut in 1982.

Hezbollah postponed declaring its formation until 1985 after Israel assassinated one of Hezbollah’s leaders Sheikh Ragheb Harb. The Iranian leaders Ali Mohtashamy was then the spiritual father of the Party and Muhammad Akhtary the military father.

Hassan Nasr Allah learned from Ragheb Harb the famous dictum “The word is taking a stand and shaking hands is acknowledgement of assent” and thus Harb never shook hands with any Israeli army officers who were trying hard to win Ragheb over to supporting the Israeli occupation of south Lebanon.

In 1987, Nasr Allah was appointed member of the highest legislative order in Hezbollah and chairman of the executive branch.

In 1989, Nasr Allah resumed his religious studies in Qom (Iran) and returned in a hurry to Lebanon when military skirmishes with the AMAL movement spread.  The AMAL party was executing the orders of the Syrian regime to entering the Palestinian camps and disarming the Palestinians of any heavy arsenal.

Hezbollah followed the policies of Iran to leave the Palestinian out of harm.  After many months of fighting both parties settled out their differences as Syria and Iran reached a compromise.

Israel assassinated Hezbollah leader Abbass Moussawy in 1992.  Nasr Allah was the closest aid to Moussawy, had extensive contacts with the base, and studied in Qom.

Hassan Nasr Allah replaced Moussawy as Secretary General; he was only 32 of age.  Nasr Allah said: “A movement that witnesses its leader falling martyr can never be defeated“. Hezbollah evolved into a qualitative phase in organization and political acumen.

Israel invaded Lebanon in July 1993 for 7 days under the code name “Settling Accounts” and then re-invaded in 1996 under Shimon Peres (Nobel Peace prize winner!) and the operation of total destruction lasted for 17 days under the name “Grapes of Wrath” and shelled a UN compound in Qana where civilians had taken refuge and over 100 died and 300 were gravely injured.

Hadi, the eldest son of Nasr Allah, fell martyr during a resistance operation in September 1997; it was the night before Nasr Allah was to deliver a major speech and he insisted on speaking and said:

In Hezbollah we do not save our children for the future; we honor them when they fight in the front lines against our enemy Israel; we stand tall when they fall martyrs

Israel had to retreat from all of Lebanon, with the exception of Shebaa Farms and the hills of Kfarshouba in May 24, 2000 without pre-conditions or negotiations.  The Arab recognized Hezbollah as the main resistance movement that vanquished Israel and acclaimed Nasr Allah as the Hero of liberation.  In the large town of Bent Jbeil Nasr Allah delivered the Victory Speech and offered the liberation in the name of all the Lebanese.

Nasr Allah said: “Israel has nuclear arsenals and owns the most lethal air force in the region.  Israel is still much weaker than the spider web” (It was a reference of a spider web on a cave that saved the Prophet Muhammad from being caught by the Kuraich persecutors while fleeing to Yathreb)

Israel bombarded the villages in south Lebanon in 2003 and then raided Beirut in 2005.  Israel re-invaded Lebanon in July 2006 for 33 days and failed to achieve any of its proclaimed objectives.  Nasr Allah was recognized as the most charismatic and powerful resistance leader in the Arab and Moslem World.  Nasr Allah played the catalyst for the Shiaa in Lebanon to participate in projecting the living messages in the symbolism of the Koran verses and thus be capable of assimilating and accepting changing social and environmental conditions.

According to the famous journalist Seymour Hirsh, Cheney, Eliot Abrahams, and Bandar Ben Sultan conspired to finance and whisk the members of Fatah El Islam into the refugee camp of Nahr Al Bared with the purpose of destabilizing Lebanon and starting civil war between the Moslem Shiaas and Sunnis and thus immersing Hezbollah into a potential civil war. It didn’t work because the Lebanese army was hurt in its pride after many soldiers were executed by severing their heads in the summer of 2007.  The army lost over 160 soldiers and many hundreds were severely injured but the Moslem extremism objectives were defeated after 6 months of engagement in the camp.  Deputy Bahiya Hariri (sister of late Rafic Hariri) acknowledged that she contributed substantially in financing extremist Palestinian groups in the refugee camps.

The Israelis take very seriously Nasr Allah promises and threats.  The Lebanese Government of Seniora PM failed to understand that “A word is a commitment”.  Nasr Allah had said that Hezbollah will never turn its arms internally excepting when coerced to relinquish its arms; especially its secured communication lines, the most potent arm it had during the war in 2006.  In May 5, 2008 Seniora PM Government, with no Shiaa minister representatives in the cabinet, executed a plan to dismantle Hezbollah secure communication network.  Hassan Nasr Allah delivered a speech demanding the government to retract its decision.

By May 7 the AMAL militias confronted the security forces of the Moustakbal movement in Beirut and quickly closed down those arm caches intended to start civil disturbances. The AMAL forces were controlled by cadres of Hezbollah in order for the confrontation not to degenerate into sectarian infighting. For example, the rioters saved the huge pictures of late Rafic Hariri PM and removed the pictures of Saad Hariri and Seniora PM.  Israel admitted that its patient work of infiltrating Hezbollah for two years vanished within a couple of hours.

Hezbollah has joined the Parliament since 1992 and has increased the number of its Deputies; it has cabinet ministers since the year 2000.   Lebanon is getting ready for Parliamentary election in June 7, 2009 and all the indications point to victory of the opposition headed by Hezbollah, AMAL, and the movement (Tayyar) of Change and Reforms of General Michel Aoun.  Over 20 Lebanese agents spying for Israel have been apprehended.   Nasr Allah is demanding that the traitors be hanged.

Note:  The biographical sections were extracted from the recent Arabic/Lebanese book “Shock and Steadfastness” (Sadmah wa Sumoud) by Kareem Bakradouny.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

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