Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘islamist movements

Current Islamist movements in Africa have One thousand years of precedents

The current Islamist movements in Africa, from Morocco, Senegal, the Sahara, Mali, Niger, Chad, Nigeria (Boko Haram), Cameroun…have a long history behind them.

Going back a thousand years.

The dozen of African empires were built by launching Jihad against the animists, whatever Christians lived in that continent, and rival Islamic sects.

They imposed Chari3a and built mosques and Madrassat and called themselves Khalif and the governors were named Emirs of the believers.

The trade by the caravans was mostly gold, slaves, salt, ivory…

Soundjata Keita (1190-1255) founded the Mali Empire that extended in Western Africa. Jis capital was Niani and vanquished his animist Sosso king.

Kankan Moussa (1312-1337) elevated the Mali Empire to its zenith. He became the richest man on earth, even at current standards.
He distributed gold all the way on his pilgrimage to Mecca and brought back scientists and architects who built the mosques and madrassats in Jingereber, Tombouctou (Tin Buqt, the far away place, his Capital) and Gao.

Mohammad Toure (1493-1528) founded the Islamic Askia dynasty of the Songhai empire. He proselytized for a pure Islamic chari3a practices.

His organized army was made up of slaves and war prisoners (like the Ottoman janissary). He failed to overcome the Mossi and transformed Tombouctou, Djenne and Gao into centers of Islamic teaching.

Idriss Alaoma (1573-1603) was a pious Islamic general who snatched the throne from the Kanem-Bornu empire. He governed with majliss composed of military and religious dignitaries. He controlled the trans-Sahara trade linking Lake Chad to Libya and vanquished the Sahara Berbers, the Haoussa of Kano (north Nigeria) and controlled the actual Niger (Kaouar)

Ousama dan Fodio created the Sokoto empire from 1809-1859 that was based on the purity of Islam.

The empire extended in western Africa to include Nigeria, Chad, and the Volta applied the Chari3a of Kitab al Fark.
This Islamic mujaddadi rule was meant to combat the animists and the Haoussa empire in northern Nigeria.

The ruler had the title of Khaliand the governores were Emirs of the Believers.
Once a year, all the governors converged to Sokono to pay the tribute they collected.
Agades (in Niger), Kano and Katsina in Nigeria were major regional metropolis

Note 1: The trade of slaves by the conquering African empires was very lucrative. The non-Moslem captives were sold to the kingdoms in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Sudan and Egypt.

These kingdoms resold their surplus slaves to the Mamluk empire (in Egypt) and later on to the Ottoman Empires and to the European kingdoms. As Africa was colonized, the African empires sold slaves to the European and USA traders.

Note 2: There are many African empires and cultures such as: The Nok in actual Nigeria, Ghana (extending between the rivers Senegal and Niger), the Mali, the Yoruba city-states in Togo and Benin, the Benin empire in Nigeria, the Songhai empire, the Ashanti empire, the Sokoto empire, the Ethiopian empires, the Gondar, the Kanem-Bornou, the Zulu empire, the Zimbabwe empire, the Monomotapa empire, the Toucouleur empire

And President Morsi of Egypt: Dusting off his pragmatic streak…

What if 42% of Egyptians go to bed hungry? What if the concept of happiness is a modern idea: That every citizen is entitled to eat and enjoy health care…as any elite citizen? How the Moslem Brotherhood movement in power can satisfy the basic need of a growing population? The next revolution is to be pragmatic and diverge from abstract pronouncements…

President Morsi (Mursi?), the constitutionally elected, has been sending strong signals and messages of how he plans to lead Egypt, pragmatically and on feasibility programs.

1. Mursi retired the leading military chiefs and set the stage for affirming the meaning of a constitutional election by the people…Mursi wants to be the sole responsible for the security, military decisions and political agenda of Egypt after the “revolution”…

2. Mursi agreed, temporarily, not to meddle directly with prior military privileges: The military is in charge of one-third of Egypt budget for economic projects and programs…

3. Mursi first official visit abroad was to China: Egypt is no longer to be viewed as the exclusive partner to the US…Although bthe US will remain the main financial and military backer to this Moslem Brotherhood regime…

4. Mursi is diversifying Egypt financial sources, and not taking much umbrage of how radical Islams interpret interest on money lending… The IMF is extending $4,5 billion, Qatar $2 billion and planning to invest $18 bn in the next 5 years on infrastructure (electricity, factory, tourism…)

5. Mursi appointed an ambassador to Israel in order to renegotiate the obsolete and one-sided biased “peace treaty” signed by Sadat in the 80’s…

6. Mursi is cracking down on radical Islamist movements in the Sinai, using what is necessary in military troops and weapons…, in order to put down, early on, the “illegitimate activities” of organization taking orders from foreign powers…

7. Mursi attended the “Non Allied States” (to any superpower) in Iran and is willing to cooperate with Iran in order to weaving an acceptable transfer of power in Syria…Egypt used to be one of the corner States of this organization during Nasser, alongside India and Yugoslavia…

8. Confirmed the Egyptian position on Syria: The current regime has to go…

Note 1: Mohamad Morsi got only 25% of the electoral votes in the first round, while the liberal candidates Sabahi (21%) and Aboul Forouh (17.5%) reaped 40 % of the total. Morsi has to deal with these results if his political program has to succeed…

Note 2: Post inspired from an article by Sarkis Naoum in the daily Al Nahar




December 2022

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