Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Jerusalem

Ur Salam (City of Peace): Jerusalem

Recent archeological works by Kathleen Kenyon (2009) discovered a wall surrounding the city of Jerusalem dating from the 18th century BC; water was diverted through underground canals from the fresh source of Guihon to Siloe cisterns inside the walls.

The sea people called Philistines had devastated the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, destroyed the nascent Greek fleet and settled in Gaza and the southern coastline of Palestine around the 12th century.

The entire eastern coastline from north Syria to Sinai was dominated by the Canaanites.

In southern Palestine, the Canaanites had to flee northward and retreat inside toward Jerusalem, one of their 25 City-States. Jerusalem was then inhabited by over 10,000 urban dwellers, a huge number for the period.

Around 11th century BC, Moses (a myth) arrived with his nomadic tribes to the borders with Canaan.  His successors endeavored to settle in part of Palestine and battled with the Philistines.  The Canaanites aristocracy aided David to enter Jerusalem and this class was his administrative supporters. (Just faked stories from the Jewish book written in 200 BC in Alexandria)

David thus had two high priests (Evyatar and Sadoq), two military leaders (Joab and Benayahu), and two heirs apparent (Adoniyyahou and Salomon).

David had also two formal sanctuaries for the Jews and the Canaanites.  David adopted the God of the Land El and the demi-Gods of the Sun (Shahar) and the Moon (Shalem) were worshipped.

The Jewish Yahweh (God of thunders) was relegated to the background and played a support function in times of urgent need.

The Jews had no such concept of “throne” and the Canaanite aristocracy provided a throne to David and his solar God was Justice personified and a divinity of the order “Sadeq”:  Milki Sadeq was the King of Jerusalem when Abraham came to Canaan and paid the tenth (one tenth) to Melki Sadeq.

Salomon supporters of the Canaanites assassinated Adoniyyahou and Joab and Ebyatar was pursuit.

Salomon relied on the King of Tyr to build his Temple for the Sun God facing east.

The dedication read: “The divinity of the Sun has announced: Yahweh has decided to live in the shadow. A house has been renovated for his dwelling”.  The God Sun sent two messengers of Right and Justice to destroy Sodom.

In this event as in others, Yahweh shares the responsibility as a subordinate to the Sun God.  Slowly but surely, Yahweh acquired a convincing divinity by the period that preceded the exile to Babylon.

In 587 BC, the Babylonian King Nabuchodonosor destroys part of the Temple.

The Persian King Cyrus repatriates the Jews in 538 and restores the temple.

Alexander enters Jerusalem in 332 and Judea falls under the Ptolemy dynasty.

The Seleucid dynasty dominates Jerusalem from 200 to 142.

Judas Maccabeus revolted in 164 and enters Jerusalem which falls to the Hasmonide dynasty until the Roman Pompey takes Jerusalem in 63 BC.

The zealot Jews take over Jerusalem for two years in 66 AC. The Roman General Titus enters Jerusalem in the year 70 and burns the Temple.

Jerusalem is then named Aelia Capitolina.

Bar Kokheba recaptures Jerusalem in 131.  Emperor Hadrian enters Jerusalem and the Jews are definitely dispersed and forbidden to enter Jerusalem.

Emperor Constantine consecrates the Anastasis (The Saint Sepulcher).

The Persian King Chosroes destroys Jerusalem in 614.

Emperor Heracles retakes the city in 628.

The Caliph of Islam Omar enters Jerusalem in 638. The Dome of the Rock is built in 691.  The mosque Al Aqsa is built in 705.

The crusaders enter the city in 1099.  The Sultan Salah el Din enters the city in 1187 and chased out the crusaders.  The Turkish Sultan Selim 2 enters the city in 1244 and gives Jerusalem a religious function and dots it with many religious schools (madrassa).

The Ottoman Empire captured the city in 1516.

Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent rebuilds the walls and enlarges the city with newer walls.

In 1967 the Zionist State of Israel enters Jerusalem.  Begin declares that Jerusalem is the capital of Israel in 1980.

The State of Israel is flaunting all UN resolutions to stop destroying Palestinian houses in East Jerusalem that is proposed to be the Capital of the Palestinian State.

What is the story of this Walking Rabbi on Palm Sunday?

Note: A repost of my article of 2009 “From Palm Sunday to the Last Supper: what happened? (August 27, 2009)”

Jesus enters Jerusalem on a Sunday morning; he had chased out the money changers and those doing “business as usual” by the Temple the day before.

Jesus is received as a popular Rabi leader and messiah; he is mounted on a donkey (jahesh) that Jesus had already rented for the day.

For six months by now, Jesus advanced toward Jerusalem for the yearly celebration.

Thousands of pilgrims and followers were accompanying him.  Jesus was not a desk Rabi; not an urban Rabi.  Jesus was a walking Rabbi followed by thousands of long marching disciples.

On Thursday evening and after the Last Supper, Jesus is made prisoner and convicted of fomenting disruption by the Jewish Sanhedrin in Jerusalem according to 3 of the 4 formal testaments from bible authors and retained by Byzantium in 325 AC.

From Sunday till the Last Supper what happened?

This year celebration was not a run of the mill event: Jerusalem was swarmed by thousands of different brands of pilgrims and a walking Rabi entered preaching and speaking a new message.

A walking Rabi was lambasting the Pharisee and the other Jewish sects of the priesthood.

The Jewish Sanhedrin has been gathering intelligence on Jesus for over a year now and it has accumulated a thorough biography of Jesus and his messages.

More plausibly, the Roman governor Pilate and the King of Lower Galilee Herod Epiphany were tracking intensively Jesus progress toward Jerusalem: Both were very edgy of this non-violent movement:

1. Herod had decapitated John the Baptist, a very close relative of Jesus who is being followed by masses from Galilee, putting a serious dent on Herod political credibility…

2. Pilate was at ease with the current Jewish leaders and could not understand how to deal with this new unorthodox leader.

The Sanhedrin knew that Jesus of Galilee was the “son of Marie“; it was convinced and the rumors aided a lot that Joseph was not the genetic father of Jesus, and Mathew poured oil on the fire by relating a not convincing story 60 years later.

I don’t care one way or another who was the real father of Jesus, but everyone else at that period did care and must have known, especially the Sanhedrin.

The Jews named the eldest sons after the patriarch of the family.  The Sanhedrin knew that Jesus was a “gentile” who was circumcised by law during the century old Maccabees Kingdom, and that he followed the Jewish rituals. Jesus of Galilee was attached administratively and juridically to the city of Tyr in Lebanon.

The Sanhedrin was highly upset and frightened that this walking Rabi knew more on the Book and the history of the Jewish priesthood than the most learned among them.

And yet, not a historian, not a document, not an anecdote recounted what happened between Sunday and Thursday, a land of scholars.

These four days are as blank as the period of Jesus between 12 and 30 years of age.

After Jesus was crucified, all the frightened apostles huddled in a remote house.

From the testimony of the apostles, all that they retained from Jesus’ message was that there is another “coming” and pretty soon. More probably 3 days after any apostol passes away.

After news of Jesus resurrection reached the apostles, the second coming was confirmed to the apostles with a twistthe second coming will take place during their lifetime. If they die before the “coming” then they will be resurrected within 3 days to participate in the final event. 

Thomas would not be railroaded one more time: he wants to touch Jesus and check the wounds.

Jesus has been teaching his message in parabolas, the best technique for verbal retention.

These parabolas were in the Gnostic literature of the Land and the examples were extracted from the custom and tradition of the Land (Palestine, Syria and Lebanon).

The apostles had nothing else to teach of the spiritual message of Jesus: they didn’t even comprehend the message.

The apostles retained what differed from the Jewish daily rituals and customs. Maybe Jesus was funny and told his stories in a funny way, but the testimonies of the apostles were not that funny.

Most probably the funny apostles with a sense of humor were not taken that seriously and their accounts forgotten, burned, and destroyed.

From Sunday to Thursday we know nothing of the activities and whereabouts of Jesus or his apostles.

Were the disciples scattered to disseminate the new message?

Was Jesus preaching and meeting with the masses?

Has Jesus discussed with a few priests in the Sanhedrin?

What is certain is that the Roman Pilates had no facts or accounts on Jesus activities that may substantiate fomenting any civil revolt.

The Sanhedrin was reduced to asking Jesus abstract and metaphysical questionsAre you the son of God?

The Sanhedrin would not be humiliated by convicting a “gentile” on Jewish religious grounds; it would not legally stick with the Romans who did not meddle in sect divergences.

The Sanhedrin would not bring troubles to its structure of interests by spreading an accusation that a popular movement was underway contesting its legitimacy.

The Sanhedrin was in a major predicament, but would not allow Jesus to freely resume his teaching: And Jesus was to die in Jerusalem before he gets out of their jurisdiction.

These events did not take place in pre-history.  The Land was highly civilized and cultured.

The elites spoke Greek, Roman, Aramaic, and Hebrew.

The Land had been disseminating all sorts of philosophical schools, sciences, and literature.

And yet, nothing to account from Sunday to Thursday!

Could you say that we have a biography of Jesus?  The Jews even created a biography for Noah! I love biographies and I am not at all satisfied with what I have gotten.

Thousands of Christian “heretics” who believed only in the human nature of Jesus were persecuted, imprisoned, and crucified for not abiding by Byzantium orthodox dogma.  Why did they have to defy a stupid orthodox dogma since there were no confirmed documents describing the entire life of Jesus?

Thousands of Christian “heretics” who believed only in the spiritual nature of Jesus were persecuted and executed for not following the orthodox dogma; why did they have to revolt against the orthodox dogma since even the apostles did not care or comprehend that much about Jesus spiritual message?

Tidbits and notes. Part 435

The ancient city-state of Athens could Not swallow the concept of free expressions in public. Athens political structure was mainly controlled by the oligarchy and the rich conservatives. And the famous “philosophers” like Socrates, Anaxagoras and Protagoras charged extravagant stipends from all these adventurer aristocrats, seeking political status through fomenting successive wars to keep the empire cowed and the subjugated city-sates paying their due taxes. All these “philosophers” ended up exiled or punished with death for their ideas.

“Moi, je denonce les idees des autres ignorants. Le chien a une ame: il peut distinguer les humains amicaux et ceux hostillent a son existence” Diogene

Every period has its main litmus test of patriotism and progressive positions, especially for public figures of intellectuals and politicians. “What is your stand on the Palestinian cause” was the main litmus test for decades. It has come back after Trump pronouncement on Jerusalem

If Hezbollah support to reconvene Saad Hariri as PM, then my suspicion will increase that Hezbollah is in acute economic and financial difficulties: this party would be ready to enjoy the Haririyat’s Ponzi scheme for a while longer. To gain time? But Lebanon is set for a long and harsh period. The sooner we get out of our fantasies the better society will come to term with the reality of our defective policies.

I learned that the tent in 3azariyyi was discussing the feasibility of finding a peace treaty with Israel “tatbee3 ma3 Israel“. Is that a timely purpose of the mass upheaval (7iraak)? Stick to the fundamental emergencies and don’t meddle in foreign policies right now.

A week before the mass upheaval (al 7iraak) started in October 17, Jobran Basil (Lebanon foreign minister and leader of Tayyar )declared that turning the table on our defunct political and economic system could become an inevitable outcome. Question: If the President was the first in delivering his speech before Saad PM, the next day of the 7iraak, and told us the economic plan is to be changed to a productive system and opening the trade borders with Syria and Iraq, how this 7iraak would have unfolded?

A US federal judge blocked a Los Angeles law requiring businesses seeking city contracts to disclose any ties to the NRA.

The donations to the Vatican: Uses about 90% of the funds on its administrative budget.

EU is the first economic power in the world and the UK wants out?

Most hotel chains don’t own their  properties, but rather provides capital and training to hotel owners who re-brand to its specs. It then takes a portion of their revenue. Agarwal’s company in India is valued at $10 billion, surpassing Marriott by room count.

In a world where media is global, social, ubiquitous and cheap, in a world of media where the former audience are now increasingly full participants, in that world, media is less and less often about crafting a single message to be consumed by individuals. It is more and more often a way of creating an environment for convening and supporting groups.

1993: Internet pioneer Rick Gates suggests that a free, open-source encyclopedia could exist on the internet (he called it “Interpedia”).

Israel forced 3,000 Palestinians out of their homes in Jerusalem in 15 years, NGO

Apr 29,2019

Israeli occupation does not give building licenses to Palestinians, while pay generously to build homes for Jews.

B’Tselem, an Israeli human rights group, revealed on Sunday that Israeli occupation authorities have forced around 3,000 Palestinians from their homes in Jerusalem between 2004 and 2019.

“The Jerusalem Municipality demolished 830 residential units, and 120 more were demolished by their owners on the municipality’s orders,” explained B’Tselem in a report published on its website. “The municipality deliberately left 2,927 people homeless, 1,574 of them minors.”

The report points out that the Israeli-run municipality adopts policies which have deliberately created an acute construction crisis for the city’s Palestinian population, while Jewish neighbourhoods enjoy massive development and substantial funding.

“Israel has expropriated more than a third of the land it annexed from the West Bank and has built 11 neighbourhoods exclusively for Jews,” said B’Tselem.

It noted that these neighbourhoods are as illegal under international law as Israel’s settlements are in the occupied West Bank.

The Israeli authorities use a number of strategies to block Palestinian use of the land. According to the human rights report, they either declare Palestinian-owned land as “open scenic areas”, where development is forbidden, or as national parks, where construction and urban development are almost entirely forbidden.

In other parts of the occupied Palestinian territories, large areas, including towns and villages, are declared to be “military zones” almost as a matter of routine, and residents have to leave their homes for set periods when the army moves in.

The Palestinians in occupied Jerusalem “have no choice” but to build without permits because the Israeli municipality rarely grants the right to build or extend homes.

Israeli occupation estimates that between 15,000 and 20,000 Arab homes have been built or extended without planning permission in the past five years.

“Thousands of Palestinians in the city are living under constant threat to their homes and businesses; in many cases, the authorities follow through on this threat or force residents to demolish the structures themselves,” said B’Tselem.

It added: “Israel does not see the residents of East Jerusalem [the Palestinians] as human beings with equal rights, but as people it strives to remove from their homes, as they are an obstacle to Judaising the city.”

The measures adopted by Israel to achieve that end, added the respected human rights group, are all illegal.

According to the Israeli NGO, the Israeli occupation “deliberately denying Palestinians construction permits for residential and other purposes, issuing demolition orders for structures built without a permit for lack of choice, and demolishing dozens of such structures a year.”

Israel, concluded B’Tselem, has implemented this policy, designed to clear parts of the city of Palestinians, since occupying the West Bank and annexing East Jerusalem and the surrounding villages [in 1967].



Cathy Sultan blog

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 passed on November 29, 1947 provided for the full territorial internationalization of Jerusalem.

“The City of Jerusalem shall be established as a corpus separatum under a special international regime and shall be administered by the United Nations.”

Jerusalem holds unique spiritual and religious significance for the world’s Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

Following WWI, the victorious Principal Allied Powers recognized these as “a sacred trust of civilization,” and stipulated that the existing rights and claims connected to them should be safeguarded in perpetuity under international guarantee.

The United Nations General Assembly, therefore, does not recognize Israel’s proclamation of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.

U.N. general Assembly Resolution 623/30 of 2009 states that “any actions taken by Israel, the occupying power, to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration on the Holy City of Jerusalem are illegal and therefore null and void and have no validity whatsoever, and calls upon Israel to cease all such illegal and unilateral measures.”

Although the General Assembly cannot pass legally binding resolutions over international issues, the U.N. Security Council, which has the authority to do so, has passed a total of six Security Council resolutions on Israel on the matter, including UNSC resolution 478 which affirmed that the enactment of the 1980 Basic Jerusalem Law declaring unified Jerusalem as Israel’s “eternal and indivisible” capital, was a violation of international law.

The Security Council, as well as the U.N. has consistently affirmed the position that East Jerusalem is occupied territory subject to the provision of the Fourth Geneva Convention.

The International Court of Justice in its 2004 Advisory opinion on the “Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Territory” described East Jerusalem as “occupied Palestinian territory.”

This bizarre situation exists, in part, because most Palestinians in “undivided Jerusalem” are legally classified (by Israel) as “permanent residents,” rather than citizens of Israel, despite the de- facto annexation of East Jerusalem by Israel in 1967, deemed illegal by international law.

As such, they do not enjoy the right to vote in national elections. Only an estimated 3,500 Palestinians of all ages, out of a total of East Jerusalem’s Palestinian population of 320,000 (37% of Jerusalem’s total population, have received Israeli citizenship between 2002 and 2012.

On every social, economic and legal indicator there is a huge, purposeful disparity between Jewish West Jerusalem and Palestinian East Jerusalem: Education, health, opportunities for professional employment, resource allocation from the municipality, the right to build, welfare spending (just 4.4% of Jerusalem Municipality welfare spending is allocated and spent in East Jerusalem yet Palestinians bear a heavier tax burden.) More on these issues can be found in Israeli and Palestinian Voices: A Dialogue with Both Sides.

Thus, the Palestinians in East Jerusalem, the indigenous population under illegal Israeli control, are treated as non-Jewish immigrants to Israel. And why aren’t these Palestinian residents given Israeli citizenship? To do so would weaken the Jewish majority and the carefully gerrymandered political constituency of the state, and make them harder to expel.

The only place where Jerusalem is “the undivided capital of Israel” is in the fertile imaginations of ideologues like Netanyahu and his ilk. Nowhere else is there a prime minister so utterly detached from the realities of a city that he claims to be his nation’s “exclusive” capital. And when Netanyahu says he supports the two-state solution, but opposes anything less than an undivided Jerusalem under sole Israeli sovereignty, he is really saying: “I reject the two-state solution” (which as a solution is already dead in the water because of the extensive settlement expansion in both East Jerusalem and the West Bank making a contiguous Palestinian state now impossible.

But just when the myth of “undivided Jerusalem” was collapsing under the weight of its own fiction, President Donald Trump has stepped into the fray by announcing that his administration will move the US embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.

That this move would effectively contravene the recent UN Security Council Resolution 2334, which condemns all measures aimed at altering the status of the occupied territories, including East Jerusalem, is apparently of no concern to President Trump.

It seems unlikely that Donald Trump’s new pro-settlement ambassador to Israel has explained the catastrophic implications that will be seen as deliberately inflammatory by the Palestinians and by the Islamic world, this making Trump’s chances of brokering the “ultimate deal” as he’s called it, impossible to achieve. Rather than endorse a united Jerusalem, his policy will only serve to intensity gargantuan divides and make the establishment of a Palestinian state impossible.

Gaza killings: Names and faces of those killed by Israeli forces this week


Note 1: Not 62, but 114 killed Palestinians in the 2 days of the Nakba marches, and many are in critical conditions with no hospital facilities. Actually, since Trump pronouncement on Jerusalem in April, every Friday witnessed mass marches on the borders with Israel. More than 250 killed by live bullets and over 10,000 injured.
Note 2: You’ll notice that those harvested by Israeli snipers are mostly youths
Note 3: Jared Kushner joined the chanting of the Israelis in Jerusalem: Burn them, shoot them, kill them’: Israelis cheer in Jerusalem as Palestinians shot in Gaza #Occupation
Note 4: Do you think Ivanka Trump Kushner was shielded from the news of the massacres a few miles away?

Eight-month-old Laila is youngest Palestinian killed in Gaza on Monday, the deadliest day since 2014 war

From left: Ahmed Alrantisi, Laila Anwar Al-Ghandoor, Ahmed Altetr, Alaa Alkhatib Ezz el-din Alsamaak, Motassem Abu Louley (screengrab)
MEE staff's picture
Last update: Wednesday 16 May 2018 22:43 UTC

Sixty-two people were either killed or died of wounds inflicted by Israeli forces in the Gaza Strip on Monday and Tuesday as thousands of Palestinians demonstrated across the occupied territory to mark the 70th anniversary of the Nakba.

As of Tuesday afternoon, the Gaza Ministry of Health released the names of 59 Palestinians killed:

1. Laila Anwar Al-Ghandoor, 8 months old

2. Ezz el-din Musa Mohamed Alsamaak, 14 years old

3. Wisaal Fadl Ezzat Alsheikh Khalil, 15 years old

4. Ahmed Adel Musa Alshaer, 16 years old

5. Saeed Mohamed Abu Alkheir, 16 years old

6. Ibrahim Ahmed Alzarqa, 18 years old

7. Eman Ali Sadiq Alsheikh, 19 years old

8. Zayid Mohamed Hasan Omar, 19 years old

9. Motassem Fawzy Abu Louley, 20 years old

10. Anas Hamdan Salim Qadeeh, 21 years old

11. Mohamed Abd Alsalam Harz, 21 years old

From left: Fadi Abu Salah, Motaz Al-Nunu, Jihad Mohammed Othman Mousa, Mousa Jabr Abdulsalam Abu Hasnayn, Ezz Eldeen Nahid Aloyutey, Anas Hamdan Salim Qadeeh

12. Yehia Ismail Rajab Aldaqoor, 22 years old

13. Mustafa Mohamed Samir Mahmoud Almasry, 22 years old

14. Ezz Eldeen Nahid Aloyutey, 23 years old

15. Mahmoud Mustafa Ahmed Assaf, 23 years old

16. Ahmed Fayez Harb Shahadah, 23 years old

17. Ahmed Awad Allah, 24 years old

18. Khalil Ismail Khalil Mansor, 25 years old

19. Mohamed Ashraf Abu Sitta, 26 years old

20. Bilal Ahmed Abu Diqah, 26 years old

21. Ahmed Majed Qaasim Ata Allah, 27 years old

From left: Mahmoud Wael Mahmoud Jundeyah, Ibrahim Ahmed Alzarqa, Musab Yousef Abu Leilah, Jihad Mufid Al-Farra, Saeed Mohamed Abu Alkheir, Mohamed Hasan Mustafa Alabadilah (screengrab)

22. Mahmoud Rabah Abu Maamar, 28 years old

23.Musab Yousef Abu Leilah, 28 years old

24. Ahmed Fawzy Altetr, 28 years old

25. Mohamed Abdelrahman Meqdad, 28 years old

26. Obaidah Salim Farhan, 30 years old

27. Jihad Mufid Al-Farra, 30 years old

28. Fadi Hassan Abu Salah, 30 years old

29. Motaz Bassam Kamil Al-Nunu, 31 years old

30. Mohammed Riyad Abdulrahman Alamudi, 31 years old

31. Jihad Mohammed Othman Mousa, 31 years old

32. Shahir Mahmoud Mohammed Almadhoon, 32 years old

33. Mousa Jabr Abdulsalam Abu Hasnayn, 35 years old

From left: Shahir Mahmoud Mohammed Almadhoon, Khalil Ismail Khalil Mansor, Mahmoud Saber Hamad Abu Taeemah, Mohamed Ashraf Abu Sitta, Mustafa Mohamed Samir Mahmoud Almasry, Obaidah Salim Farhan (screengrab)

34. Mohammed Mahmoud Abdulmoti Abdal’al, 39 years old

35. Ahmed Mohammed Ibrahim Hamdan, 27 years old

36. Ismail Khalil Ramadhan Aldaahuk, 30 years old

37. Ahmed Mahmoud Mohammed Alrantisi, 27 years old

38. Alaa Alnoor Ahmed Alkhatib, 28 years old

39. Mahmoud Yahya Abdawahab Hussain, 24 years old

40. Ahmed Abdullah Aladini, 30 years old

41. Saadi Said Fahmi Abu Salah, 16 years old

42. Ahmed Zahir Hamid Alshawa, 24 years old

43. Mohammed Hani Hosni Alnajjar, 33 years old

44. Fadl Mohamed Ata Habshy, 34 years old

45. Mokhtar Kaamil Salim Abu Khamash, 23 years old

46. Mahmoud Wael Mahmoud Jundeyah, 21 years old

47. Abdulrahman Sami Abu Mattar, 18 years old

48. Ahmed Salim Alyaan Aljarf, 26 years old

From left: Mohammed Hani Hosni Alnajjar, Yehia Ismail Rajab Aldaqoor, Mohammed Riyad Abdulrahman Alamudi, Ahmed Adel Musa Alshaer, Fadl Mohamed Ata Habshy, Ismail Khalil Ramadhan Aldaahuk (screengrab)

49. Mahmoud Sulayman Ibrahim Aql, 32 years old

50. Mohamed Hasan Mustafa Alabadilah, 25 years old

51. Kamil Jihad Kamil Mihna, 19 years old

52. Mahmoud Saber Hamad Abu Taeemah, 23 years old

53. Ali Mohamed Ahmed Khafajah, 21 years old

54. Abdelsalam Yousef Abdelwahab, 39 years old

55. Mohamed Samir Duwedar, 27 years old

56. Talal Adel Ibrahim Mattar, 16 years old

57. Omar Jomaa Abu Ful, 30 years old

58. Nasser Ahmed Mahmoud Ghrab, 51 years old

59. Bilal Badeer Hussein Al-Ashram, 18 years old

60 – 62: Unidentified

Note: You can see the real stats on deaths at ifamericansknew. I read a few of the Hasbara (Zionist paid commentators on articles that are Not in favor of Israel policies) comments on this post such as: “But wait, Palestinians kill Jews”

Notes and tidbits posted on FB and Twitter. Part 164

Note: I take notes of books I read and comment on events and edit sentences that fit my style. I pa attention to researched documentaries and serious links I receive. The page is long and growing like crazy, and the sections I post contains a month-old events that are worth refreshing your memory.

Hatred for Capitalism is basically theoretical. Hates were turned towards the other strangers, the “apostates”, the slaves, mother, father… 

So England is considering another referendum to join the EU: Could Not suffer being viewed as stupid as Trump.
Jack Bennett asked the homosexual Sami Davis Jr how much it costs him to be in that condition. He replied: “I’m one-eyed blind, Black and Jew. Is that handicapping enough?” I wonder why he decided to become a Jew. 
A month ago, Trump pronounced Jerusalem Capital of Israel. Since then 30 Palestinians were killed and thousands injured and hundreds administratively detained.
60,000 US psychiatrists declared Trump terribly mentally sick. Today, Trump’s private doctor said that this ailment is Not that dangerous.
“I could never again raise my voice against the violence of the oppressed, without having first spoken clearly to the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today – my own government.” Martin Luther King Jr.
“We have deluded ourselves into believing the myth that capitalism grew and prospered out of the Protestant ethic of hard work and sacrifices. Capitalism was built on the exploitation of black slaves and continues to thrive on the exploitation of the poor, both black and white, both here and abroad”.- Martin Luther King, Jr.
Same fake narrative (as colported during the recapture of Aleppo) has now found its way to Idlib as the Syrian Army has been conducting an operation to clear the Nusra jihadist-held province of terrorists. Turkey and USA are Not happy with the quick progress of Syrian army.
Even Tellerson (US State Department) is siding with idiocy: He wants diplomatic as well as military presence in North Syria (against the wish of the Syrian government)
The responses generated in class to my query whether the students have any idea about this course prove that they have No knowledge whatsoever of Human Factors in engineering discipline, which is to design products and services with health, safety, and ease of use of consumers in mind.

Notes and tidbits posted on FB and Twitter. Part 138

Note: I take notes of books I read and comment on events and edit sentences that fit my style. I pay attention to researched documentaries and serious links I receive. The page is long and growing like crazy, and the sections I post contains a month-old events that are worth refreshing your memory.

In his “Prison colony”, Kafka describes a system that functions 24 hours a day meant to break the will of any person so that he lose the drive to live. Israel has instituted this monster system in the everyday life of a Palestinian, going to school, to work, to the market, to the hospital, control posts and presentation of identity cards.

Hilda Silverstein, shouted at Michael Walzer and said: “How dare you ask a Palestinian not speak on his past?  Have you Jews stopped reminding the world of the holocaust and the miseries of the Jews in Europe?

Israeli historian Ilan Pappé says Israel’s presence in Palestinian territories is not occupation – it’s colonization.

Trump administration had already isolated the USA from most world communities, the climate, the trade, human rights committed in the UN… before Donald pronouncement on Jerusalem. This administration has to rely on Israel, Saudi Kingdom, Guatemala and the Philippine’s assassin Duterte.  Shrinking so miserably must hurt from 2 decades ago of vast influence.

Soon, the businesses of USA will be targeted by all kinds of forms and will Not abate, before Trump ask Congress to rescind its 1995 law of Jerusalem Capital of Israel. 

Saudi Kingdom and its Crown Prince are off the public radar: Their Big Lie and treacherous activities could No longer be sustained

Zionism infiltrated the Evangelical sects in the USA, and since 1915 the USA has been the instigator for establishing the State of Israel, by pressuring England in WWI to  recognize a land for the Jews in Palestine in 1917

Congressman Charles A. Lindbergh Sr. warned in 1913 after printing money was turned over to a Zionist multinational Trust in the name of Federal Reserve Bank: “This act establishes the most gigantic trust on earth. When the President signs this act the invisible government by the money power, proven to exist by the Money Trust Investigation, will be legalized. The new law will create inflation whenever the trust wants inflation….From now on, depression will be scientifically created.”

If you prompt a business or engineering university student to expand on the meaning of “performance”, when supported by a specific example, it might dawn on him to spell out another piece of jewels such as: “max profit”, “minimize cost”, “improve quality”, “increase production”, “save time”, or “increase market share”.

In order to reach a finer level of specificity for what performance means we need to define functionally, for example, what “max profit” means. 

A string of monosyllables rains from every where such as: “increase price”, “cut expenditure”, “sell more”, and again “improve quality”, “save time”, or “increase market share”.  If we agree that profit is a function of market share, price, expenditure, added values of products, and marketing services then we can understand what could be the basic criteria and which criteria is dependent on the basic ones.


Jérusalem, ville siamoise

Divisée en deux parties à la suite des accords d’armistice de 1949, intégralement sous administration israélienne depuis 1967, la ville sainte cultive une identité complexe et multiple, à l’équilibre précaire.

LE MONDE |  • Mis à jour le  | Par Piotr Smolar (Jérusalem, correspondant)

image: du dôme de la mosquée d’Omar, dans la vieille villede Jérusalem,  depuis un cimetière où prient des juifs orthodoxes,le 7 décembre.

Heureux sont les touristes à Jérusalem. A leurs yeux, tout brille.

Ils marchent sur les pas du Christ, s’extasient devant la beauté de l’esplanade des Mosquées, glissent un petit papier dans les fentes encombrées du mur des Lamentations.

La vieille ville est un extraordinaire entrelacs cosmopolite, comme le Moyen-Orient n’en connaît plus. (Beg to differ)

Les touristes saisissent sur leurs téléphones les nuances du soleil tombant sur les remparts couleur crème. Les livres d’histoire et les trois grandes religions monothéistes prennent corps devant eux.

Puis la plupart s’en vont, après avoir manqué la cité, la vraie. Celle où des gens vivent, où des “tribus” se côtoient et s’ignorent, se frottent et se repoussent.

Pour le monde, Jérusalem est un fantasme, un écrin doré, et aussi un motif de conflits sans fin, religieux et politique.

Les fondateurs de l’Etat d’Israël, après la seconde guerre mondiale, étaient essentiellement des immigrés d’Europe orientale, laïcs et socialistes. Leur sionisme n’érigeait pas Jérusalem en obsession.

Mais la victoire israélienne écrasante lors de la guerre de 1967 contre les pays arabes – avec la prise de la vieille ville, les prières des soldats au Mur – créa les conditions d’un culte messianique à droite.

Pour ses adeptes, l’errance du peuple juif prenait fin avec son retour à l’endroit même où s’était dressé le premier temple, celui du roi Salomon, jusqu’à sa destruction en – 586 avant J.-C.

Lorsqu’on enjambe les siècles, on pense différemment. La reconnaissance unilatérale de la cité comme capitale d’Israël par les Etats-Unis, le 6 décembre 2017, n’est alors qu’un foyer d’incendie de plus.

Jérusalem rend fous ceux qui la vénèrent trop. Elle pousse aussi au déni de l’autre. (Les fous sont les Evangeliques Zionists de USA, de l’Angleterre et de la France)

Juifs et musulmans se disputent l’ancienneté et la pureté de leurs liens millénaires avec ces lieux, comme si le talisman ne pouvait tolérer plusieurs maîtres. Les chrétiens, qui ne sont plus que 12 000 à Jérusalem, se tiennent à l’écart de cet…

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The Brothers Rahbani and Fayrouyz

Assi and Mansour Rahbani played a central role in music, songs and theaters for 2 decades, not just in Lebanon but in many surrounding countries. Fayrouz, wife of Assi, was the main singer. They sang of Jerusalem on many occasions and events, calling it the “Flower of all cities”.

They sang for Damascus, Baghdad, Palestine, Liberty, and Syria as the Nation including the current Levant States (Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan and even Iraq)

القومية السورية في أدب الأخوين رحباني

مارك خريش – سكون

منذ بزوغ الشمس الرحبانية، قبل نصف قرن ونيّف، شهد الشرق الأدنى أهمّ تغيير في تاريخ الفن الحديث.

عاصي ومنصور هما الحكاية باختصار. أفلتا من أسر التقاليد والعادات الموروثة ! ليشكّلا عالماً خاصًّا بهما. بعفوية مطلقة، وباطلاع واسع، وذكاء حاد، وحبّ شديد للمغامرة، انطلقا الى التأليف الشامل: أناشيد، قصائد، ألحاناً، مسامع تمثيلية، مشاهد، حوارات، اسكتشات ومسرحيات… فقدّما الواقع وشرحا مفرداته، وبمنطق المستقبل أملا للتغيير. وبمحض مصادفة أو بلعبة قدر ذكية، اجتمع عاصي، منصور، وفيروز. واحدثوا التحول الكبير!

لا يهم كيف تم اللقاء، من تعرّف بمن، متى وأين..

المهم ما أسفر عن ذلك اللقاء من أعمال إبداعية، تفاعلت، وما تزال تتفاعل في أذهان المستمعين وقلوبهم.

ما سأتطرق إليه الآن ليس كل شيء. وما سأبحث فيه ليس سوى قليل من كثير ..!

لعلّه الموضوع الأهم في المسيرة الرّحبانيّة الطّويلة. فهو الّذي أطلّ علينا قي القصائد والأغاني والمسرحيّات.حتى لو لم يرد أحياناً ذكره صريحاً ..

هل قلتُ الوطن ؟ أجل، لقد قلتُ!

الأغنية الوطنية:

الأغنيةُ الوطنيةُ حالةٌ ونقيضها، حماس وفتور، وطن ومنفى. وهي تمتلك حساسيّة خاصّة مختلفة عن باقي الألوان الغنائية وأشكالها.

وفي الأغنية الوطنية تذهب الأمور الى أقصى حدودها وأبعادها. وليس ثمة حل وسط معها. فإمّا أن تكون الوطن الحقيقي: وطن اليقظة والحلم، بنشيده وعَلَمِه وشعاراته وسهوله وجباله وأوديته. وإمّا أن تكون المنفى والاغتراب والضياع والتشتت، بكل ما فيها من قسوة وقساة وجلادي جسدٍ وروح..

من هذا المنطلق، وقع الفشل وارتسم النجاح، وحددت المواقع والأحجام والاتجاهات كافة.

فماذا عن الوطن في شعر الأخوين رحباني؟

هنا الأمور لا لبس فيها ولا إبهام، ولا تأويلات ولا احتمالات. في أدب الأخوين، الوطن هو الأمة الحقيقية لا المبتكرة بقصد أو بغير قصد. هو الاعتناق والمعانقة والاتحام الكلي.

ليست الأغنية الوطنية عند الرحابنة، مارشاً عسكرياً أو دعوة الى الحرب أو أبواق استنفار ورائحة نار ودماء. فهي كل ما يرتسم في مخيلاتنا من البيوت والشوارع والجبال والأودية والشجر وأفيائها. هي كل الذكريات التي تعبق رائحتها في الأماكن. لنعود بلهفة ونرشف لحظات الفرح واللهو في محاولة لاستذكار الماضي وإحياء ما تبقّى منه.

سنرجع يوماً الى حيّنا ونغرق في دافئات المنى

سنرجع مهما يمرّ الزمان وتنأى المسافات مابيننا

فيا قلب مهلا ولا ترتم على درب عودتنا موهنا

يعزّ علينا غداً أن تعود رفوف الطيور نحن هنا

هنالك عند التلال تلالٌ تنام وتصحو على عهدنا

فيا قلب كم شرّدتنا الرياح تعال،سنرجع، هيا بنا

الحرية في أدب الأخوين رحباني:

إن الحرية كانت العنوان الأبرز في قصائد الأخوين رحباني، وهنا لا مجال للسؤال عن منابت تلك النزعة التي تجلّت واضحة في أدبهما. فكل ما عاناه الهلال الخصيب منذ زمان بعيد من احتلالات واستبدال محتل بآخر، ووعود كاذبة بالستقلال التام وتوحيد الأمة، بالإضافة الى قضية فلسطين التي مابرحت تعاشر الأسى، كان كافياً أن يفجّر هذه الثورة الغاضبة التي ملأت قصائدهما الوطنية، الى جانب عدد كبير من أبناء أترابهما، والتي دعّمها صوت فيروز الى أقصى الحدود. هذا الصوت المنسكب دفئاً وصهيلاً لا يقل ثورة ولا عنفواناً .

فمنذ بزوغ الشمس الرحبانية المثلثة الأطراف، تجلّت دعوة صادقة لكسر القيود وإطلاق النفس والعقل من أقفاص مصنعة ومحجّمة ، ابتكرها أصحاب القرار ومالكو زمام المال والسلطة. فاستحثّوا منابت الحرية الثائرة ، لأنها مرادف للوطن والإنسان.

طلعنا على الضو طلعنا على الريح

طلعنا على الشمس طلعنا على الحرية

لبنان والرحابنة:

لا شكّ أن ثمة طقوساً خاصة بلبنان ومحبّته ومناجاته. نقلات بعيدة المدى والأمد: من الخشوع الكامل والصلاة الحقيقية، الى مواقف عزٍّ وعنفوان وثورة وكبرياء، الى عشق ووله. وشعر الأخوين يخاصر لبنان في رقصات غرائبية يصعب وصفها، بل يستحيل.

وحين أراد عاصي الرحباني أن يعبّر عن حبه الكبير للبنان، كان إعصار الألم يضرب لبنان ويضرب عاصي في آن. لكن التعبير جاء شعرياً شفافاً مفعماً بالحساسية، حازماً حاسماً،وجاء لحناً يعصف بالقلوب ويوقد المشاعر. وحين غنّت فيروز جراح الوطن، لم تكن تغني، كانت تبكي. بل كانت تعيد تشكيل الحياة برمّتها.

بحبك يا لبنان يا وطني بحبك

بشمالك بجنوبك بسهلك بحبك

بتسأل شو بني وشو اللي ما بني

بحبك يا لبنان ياوطني ..

لم يكن شعر الأخوين إلا ليشمل كل القضايا الإنسانية. فهما مرتبطان بما يجري ارتباطاً وثيقاً، متحرران من مفهوم عاميّ سائد يقول: “كل من إيدو إلو”. إلا أن الرحبانيّين حملا لواء أكثر من قضية في هذا الميدان الواسع. تغنّا بالوطن مطلق وطن، فغنّا بذلك الكل من دون استثناء, معبّران عن مشاعر اؤلئك الكل، مشاركان في رؤاهم مشاركة فاعلة. تغنّا بلبنان ملء الجمال، غنّاه حبًّا صرفاً، ولم يلغيا أوطان الآخرين، معبّران عن شمولية الحب وعمق الروابط الإنسانية. ناهيك (عن محذوفة) أنهما أفردا ما أفرداه ، من أحاسيس وأفكار وعواطف ملتهبة لفلسطين ارضاً وِشعباً وقضيةً، غير آبهين بحضور القضاة والمحلفين وكل من لفّ لفّهم!

الرحابنة والإنتماء الكبير

(الرحابنة والنتماء السوري القومي الإجتماعي):

أما بشأن قومية الرحابنة السورية المتجلية في بعض قصائدهما وأحاديثهما ولقاءاتهما التلفزيونية والصحفية، فلا ريب أنهما قرآ فكر أنطون سعادة وعقيدته وتأثرا بها الى حدّ بعيد. فإيمانهما بانفتاح لبنان على محيطه الطبيعي، و توحيد الأمة السوريانية (نسبة الى سوريانا)،كما ورد على لسان منصور في أكثر من مقابلة، إضافة الى الكلام على إلغاء الطائفية وجعل الدين نظرية فلسفية خاصة لا أكثر، والاستفادة من التراث الفني لسورية الطبيعية كلها (مثل القدود الحلبية والموشحات والفلكلور الشامي والأغنيات الغجرية الأردنية-الشامية-العراقية)

،وكتابة عدد كبير من القصائد المغناة للشام وبغداد وفلسطين، والتي يبلغ عددها حوالي الخمسين أغنية وأوبريت.لا يدلّ إلا على ذلك.

حتى أنه في نهاية خمسينات القرن الماضي شهدنا أغنية رحبانية بصوت فيروز تحمل عنوان “سورية” والملفت أنها تصلح نشيداً رسمياً للحزب السوري القومي الاجتماعي الى جانب النشيد الأساسي. وكلماتها هي التالية:

“سورية سورية

مواكب تسير في مطالع الضياء

سورية سورية

فأطلق الجباه يا جبال للإباء

والثمي الكروم ياسماء

واملئي القلوب يا رجاء

قد أطلت الشموع في الفداء

فاسلمي لي يا ملاعب الصفاء

بلادنا على فم الصحارى

مروجها تعانق الغابات

بلادنا المجلة افتخارا

منائر توزع السناء

أرضنا ياخصبة السهول

يانعيم المشرق الجميل

في ثراك الطيب النبيل

تزهر الأمجاد والوفاء

أسوريا فلتعلم الشعوب

بأننا نفنى ولا نلين

أسوريا ولتهنأ القلوب

لن يدخل الغريب للعرين

دولة التاريخ والصروح

قمة العلياء والطموح

يوم يدعو الجيش للفتوح

دارنا الأمجاد والعلاء”

والكلام على سورية هنا لا يعني الكلام على الجمهورية العربية السورية الحالية، إنما يذهب ليشمل سورية الطبيعية بكل صفاتها وحدودها الجغرافية والطبيعية . أما استخدام ضمير المتكلّم “نا” في الحديث عن سورية (بلادنا2،أرضنا،دارنا) يصرّ على الانتماء العلني للأمة السورية الطبيعية. حتى أن استخدام تسمية “أسوريا” أي “أشوريا” وهي التسمية القديمة للأمة يأكّد قراءة الرحبانيين وفهمهما تاريخ سورية الصحيح لا المزيّف، والتأثر بالرموز التي مرّ فأضاء عليها بكل جوانبها، الزعيم أنطون سعادة.

ما يعني أنهما دخلا في النهضة السورية القومية الإجتماعية دون الإفصاح المباشر او الانتماء الحزبي وممارسة النشاطات والمسؤوليات الحزبية.

الرحابنة وجرح فلسطين:

ثمّة من يشكّك في أهمية الأغنية وفعاليتها، فيحلو لهم القول:”هل الأغنيات والأناشيد ستردع الظالم، وتوقفه عند حدّه، وتعيد الأرض المحتلّة؟”

فردّ الأخوين بأغنية هي أشبه بترنيمة إلهية، تدعو الى الصلاة والخشوع، “فالغضب الساطع آتٍ…”

زهرة المدائن” . هذه الأوبريت تلخّص مشاعر الأخوين تجاه مهد الرسالات السماوية. “مدينة القدس”، نبع السلام والمحبة ورمز المقدسات الإنسانية الأصلية، نقطة الالتقاء، و صِلة الوصل بين ضمائر كل المؤمنين وقلوبهم. لقد كتب الأخوان رحباني الكثير للفلسطينين ، لإيمانهما بالقضية الفلسطينية ورفضهما للظلم والظالمين، متوقعان خطورة الوضع الراهن الذي يهدد وجود أمتنا وبقائها.

وفي هذا الميدان نقل عن الأخوين رحباني قولهما: “كنا نخشى أن ينشأ، بمرور الوقت، جيلٌ من أبناء فلسطين ليس عندهم الحنين الكافي للندفاع لاسترجاع التراب، لذلك كانت أوبريت “راجعون” .

بغداد والشعراء والصور، والشام جارتنا يا جيرة الهممٍ:

فبعد بيروت والقدس اللتين احتلتا صدارة الصدر، تطلّ الشام التي حظيت بالرصيد الكبير.

ذلك أن الثالوث الرحباني (فيروز، عاصي‘ ومنصور) درج على زيارتها في معرض دمشق الدولي كل عامٍ تقريباً. وكان يفتتح عمله الفني بأغنية للشام. فكانت أغنيات وأغنيات:

طال النوى وبكى من شوقه الوتر خذني بعينيك واهرب، أيها القمرُ

لي فيك يا بردى عهدٌ أعيش به عمري ويسرقني من حبّه العمرُ


حملتُ بيروت في صوتي وفي نغمي وحملتني دمشق السيف في القلمٍ

وقصيدة بوابة التاريخ:

ياشام عاد الصيف متئداً وعاد بي الجناح

كل الذين أحبهم نهبوا رقادي واستراحوا

أهلي وأهلك والحضارة وحدتنا والسماح

ولم تغب بغداد عن المخيلة، أو تهملها أجنحة الخيال!..

بغداد تاريخ الحضارات والمذابح، بغداد الأزقة المعبّدة بالقصائد والموسيقى.. بغداد أبي نواس وبدر شاكر السياب ونازك الملائكة وعبدالوهاب البياتي مظفّر النواب، خصّها الأخوان بقصيدة وحيدة وزيارة واحدةٍ حيث رفض عاصي أن تغني السيدة فيروز تحت صورة من كان يسمّى ذات يوم “الأب القائد” أي الرئيس صدام حسين. هذا ما يؤكّد أنهم لم يغنّوا شخصاّ إنما شعباّ وأمةً حقيقيين.

“العروبة الصحيحة والعروبة الزائفة”:

لم يكن تجوال الأخوين وفيروز حبّاً بالسياحة والاستجمام، بل هو تلبية لدعوات قلوب الملايين من البشر الذين ينتظرون حضورهم. ولقد لبّوا تلك النداءات والدعوات بصدر رحبٍ وقدّموا منذ الستّينات نماذج غنائية ألقت بظلالها على عواصم الأقطار العربية كافة. فهم ذهبوا مخاطبين الإرث الحضاري والتاريخي مع الحفاظ على خاصيّة كل أمة من أمم العالم العربي. فلم يدّعوا العروبية التي تزيّف القومية الحقيقية “التي هي شعور كل أمة بشخصيتها ونفسيتها وحقوقها ومطالبها”.

ولعلّهم الوحيدين من غنّوا المدن الأمم العربية كلها وأهدوا التحية الى الشعوب التي بَنَت وتمسّكت، وظلّت تردد أغاني الحرية، على الرغم مما ألمّ بها من قهرٍ وظلم واضطهاد! لم يكن ذلك بهدف الشهرة أو نيل الأوسمة أو حتى من أجل مبلغٍ من المال اتُّفِقَ عليه سرّاً !وليس الغناء مرتبط بالجوانب الظرفية او بالمناسبة، وإنما هو ارتباط بعبق التخفر والأمل وحركة التململ واستنهاض النفوس، فتأتي القصيدة-الأغنية من الصدق والعفوية والاحساس المرهف ما يبعدها عن الشبهات، وما أكثرها!

ونذكر أن في معظم الأغاني التي قدّمها الرحابنة لعواصم الأمم العربية لم ينسوا هويتهم كلبنانيين-هلال خصبيين موجّهين رسالة السلام من الشعب الى الشعب ، لا من أشخاصهم الى السلطة الحاكمة أو الرئيس القائد. هذا ما يتناسب كلياً مع فكر أنطون سعاده في شأن العروبة والعرب، ما يثبت الوعي القومي الكامل، الظاهر في فن الرحابنيان عاصي ومنصور.

ليس الأمة هي الأرض، الأمة هي الأرض والشعب. هي العودة الى الذات، الى حقيقة الأمور: الشخصية والنفسية والبيولوجية.. الأمة هي مرآة تعكس حقيقة الإنسان المنتمي إليها.. فويلٌ لمن ينكر أمّته، كأنه ينفي ذاته من الوجود.

ليس الأخوين رحباني أول من تحدّثا عن الوطن والأمة ، ولن يكونا الأخيرين. لكن أهميّة أدبهما تكمن في الدعوة الى الاندفاع لاسترجاع الارض المحتلة، وردع المحتل. دعوةٌ الى الصلاة والثورة في آن.

في شعر الأخوين، نهضة قومية واضحة، تحرص على إعادة شمل الأمة الواحدة .

خلاصة الحديث، أن الوطن الرحباني وطنٌ يلغي غربتين: غربة الجسد وغربة الروح. يكتبان عن الكروم، عن الزواريب، عن الضيعة القريبة والغادي الى كفرحالا مثلا، عن القطيع والمراعي، فترانا نرفع راية انتمائنا عالياً. نتكاتف، نتلاحم، يجمعنا حلمٌ واحدٌ، أمةٌ واحدةٌ. نغدو معنيين بهمومها وشجونها، بآلامها وآمالها، بماضيها وحاضرها ومستقبلها.

‫#‏القومية‬ ‫#‏الرحابنة‬ ‫#‏فيروز‬ ‪#‎ssnp‬ ‪#‎beirut‬ ‪#‎students





June 2021

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