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How Justice was done? Massacres of 1860 in Lebanon and Syria (Part 4)

How Justice was done in Damascus?

You may read Part 3https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2013/11/23/massacres-of-1860-in-syria-and-damascus-memoirs-of-a-french-diplomat-of-the-genocide-part-3/

Fuad Pasha, the Ottoman foreign affairs, was dispatched to head the team and the military contingent of 4,500 troops in order to restore order and security in Lebanon and Syria. He landed in Beirut on July 17, 1860 and detained the governors Ahmed and Khorshid Pasha, the officers of the garrisons in Rashaya, Hasbaya, Deir Kamar, Mekse, and the right hand of Khorshid, Vasfi Effendi, during the Beirut uprising where an innocent Christian was decapitated to appease the turmoil after the death of a Moslem.

He resumed his travel to Damascus, where the fresh massacre alerted the European nations on the fate of the Christians in the Near East.

Fuad Pasha showed zeal and unusual activities to convince the Europeans that it was not necessary of sending troops and meddling in the Ottoman affairs. He rounded up 800 from Damascus, restituted the loots and stopped two large caravans loaded with the loots to Baghdad and Aleppo.

On August 20, 1860, Fuad Pasha  hanged 57 and executed by firing squads 110 officers and soldiers, particularly those who participated in the massacres in Hasbaya and Rashaya in Lebanon.  More than 700 were sent to exile and forced labor.

Most importantly, the former governor Ahmet Pasha, Ali Bey and the commanders of the garrisons were executed. It was rumored that Ahmet Pasha, who had twice warned the Ottoman government of potential crisis in Syria, was quickly executed in order not to clarify the role of the Ottoman government in the planning of these massacres against the Christians.

(Parallel governments were at play in that period in Turkey?)

Ahmed Pasha had lived in Vienna and mastered several languages. It appears that he lacked the troops that he could rely on and the Majlis warned him that any intervention might turn the “insurgents” against the Ottoman troops.

The police chief Ali Ferhad Aga and 300 police sergeants were arrested.

Halim Pasha erased the town of Jeroud and brought to trial all its adult male inhabitants.

As Fuad pasha was speedily and actively restitution order and security, Europe got the fresh news of the massacres in Damascus. Napoleon III and Russia, pressured by public outcries, decided to dispatch a military expedition, though England was very reluctant of giving the French this opportunity to return to Near East.

The French general marquis Beaufort Hautpoul led an expedition of 4,500 troop. Beaufort had previously participated along side the French officer Seves (Sleiman Pasha) in the  many victorious battles of Ibrahim Pasha.

How Justice was done in Lebanon?

After a lengthy delay, Fuad Pasha returned to Beirut from Damascus, after he established order and hanged scores of the perpetrators of the massacre, in order to meet with the European commissions. Fuad Pasha summoned 37 of the Druze leaders to Beirut to stand trial. Only 6 showed up.  And he followed this order by destitution 37 feudal Druze lords (Mukata3tejis) from their privileges and properties

The Maronite clergy handed Fuad the list of 970 Druze that he requested and whom the Maronites claimed to have participated in the massacre.

Fuad Pasha reluctantly rounded up these 970 Druze and set up a military court in Mukhtara, just to render justice away from the intervention of the commissions staying in Beirut.

The verdicts were:

1. The Turkish former governor Khorshid Pasha, Tahir Pasha, Nourin Bey, Vasfi and Ahmet Effendi were to serve life confinement in fortresses in Cyprus and Rhodes

2. Twelve Druze sheikhs, including their leader Said Jumblat and Hussein Talhouk were condemned to death…

3. Over 33 fugitive Druze, including Hattar Amad and Ismail Atrash were condemned to death in absentia.

No public execution took place and the condemned people were exiled or sent to force labor.

Justice in Lebanon was a slap on the hands, thanks to the firm intervention of the British who didn’t want to alienate the Druze  of Lebanon. And Fuad Pasha contemplated to be designated as the Vassal of the Ottoman Empire in Syria and Palestine.

Note 1: The British commissioner Lord Dufferin  suggested that Syria (including current Lebanon) and Palestine be governed by a vassal to the Ottoman Empire, as was done in Egypt, and Fuad Pasha was the consensus name to be the new ruler.

This idea failed. Finally, a few weeks before the date of the retreat of the French expedition on June 5, 1861, the European commission met in Istanbul and decided to have Mount Lebanon governed by a outsider Christian, appointed by the Sultan. This was to be known as the Mutasarefiya consensus.

The first Moutasaref was the Armenian Christian Daoud Pasha and who was promoted to Mushir or Marechal, the first highest rank bestowed on a Christian in the Ottoman army.

 

Massacres of 1860… Part 2

You may read part 1 first https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2013/10/25/massacres-of-1860-between-druze-and-maronite-eye-witness-account-of-french-diplomat-on-the-field-part-1/

Mount Lebanon was divided administratively into two cantons (Kaemmakam) after the previous massacres of 1840 between the Christian Maronit and the Druze sects.

The northern canton was administered by a Maronite Kaemmakam Emir. The main feudal clans that practically ruled the region were:

1. Al Daher in (Ehden, Bcharre… fiefdoms)

2. Al 3azar in (Koura and Betroun fiefdoms)

3. Al Dahdah in Jbeil (Byblos) region

4. Al Hobeich in (Jounieh, Ghazir fiefdoms)

5. Al Khazin ( n the higher altitude of Kesrouan)

6. Al Abillama3 (in Mtein, Baskinta, Salima… the current Metn district)

7. Al Hamadeh (in the northern Bekaa region considered part of Mount Lebanon)

The southern canton was practically ruled by the feudal clans of:

1. Al Arslan in the Chouweifat region

2. Talhouk in Na3emeh region

3. Nakad in the Damour region

4. Al Abd Malek in Aley and Souk al Gharb…)

5. Al Imad in the Barouk region

6. Joumblat in the Chouf region

7. Kabalan/Qadi in the Jezzine region

Mind you that in 1860, the Maronites in Mount Lebanon were about 120,000, the Druze barely 30,000 and the Christian Orthodox about 40,000 (many living in mixed Druze villages of Hasbaya and Rashaya in south Beka3 Valley).

The Maroites in the Druze canton were double the number of the Druze and were peasants, working the properties of the Druze chieftains.

The district of Metn was considered a buffer zone between the two canton and administered by the Abilla3 clan.

The Beirut/Damascus road was the fictional dividing line between the cantons

The Nahr el Kalb (Dog River) was considered the Lebanese Rubicon River not to cross in period of war between the two canton.

In 1858, the Maronite peasants in the Christian canton revolted and kicked out the Khazin clan from Kesrouan, with the tacit support of the Patriarch Boulos Massaad.  The cheihks of al Khazin took refuge in Baskinta. The Abillama3 clan incited the farm tenants to chase these cheihks out of town, Consequently, the Khazin supporter counter this gesture by inciting the Maronite peasants to chase out Beshir Abillama3 from his administrative post as Kaemmakam.

The Khazin clan supported Beshir Assaf, the other nephew of Haidar Abillame3, but the Ottoman Empire wanted the former Beshir to be re-instituted. Thus, the Abillame3 Emirs vanished from the scene of power in Mount Lebanon, after over 3 centuries of ruling the Metn district.

Khorshid Pasha was the Ottoman governor of Lebanon and Ahmed Pasha the governor of Damascus.

The Druze Attar 3amad was the sword of the Druze militia and he led them in all the battles.

The Infamous pest Ismail Atrash, descended from Syria Huran with a rag tag of Druze tribes and entered Rashaya.  The Christian Orthodox put down their weapons and took refuge at the Ottoman garrison. The Turkish officer opened the doors of the garrison and let in the bands of Atrash in. Over 2,000 males, adults, babies and elderly perished that day. The Turkish soldiers, most of them Arab recruits, plundered the houses and the Druze made sure to burn them.

The same process took place in Hasbaya. The last of the Chehab clan in the region were killed. The women were allowed to flee toward Damascus, penniless and without food. They thought that they finally were saved the horrors, but Damascus will experience the same kinds of massacres a couple of months later.

Ismail Atrash continued his progress toward Zahle.  The women were whisked to Kesrouan and the males fought for 3 days, until they withdrew and let their homes be burned..

The Druze of Hauran didn’t have to go back to their hometown for food resupply as in Lebanon: The Bekaa Valley was rich in foodstuff and the inhabitants backed this intrusion into Maronite enclaves.

Youssef Karam, the newly appointed Maronite military leader, preferred to get first the permission of the European consuls before coming to the rescue of Zahle. And thus failed in his primary mission as leader.

Deir el Kamar (the convent of the Moon) had a special status as an Ottoman protectorate and not within the Kaemmakam division of two canton. This largest Maronite village was “protected by a Turkish garrison of 1,000 soldiers.

It didn’t matter. Taher pasha supported the Druze in the slaughter hood. More than 3,000 males perished, all the wealth looted and the houses burned. Deir Kamar ceased to exist.

When there was no more male to kill, Khorchid Pasha arrived in Deir Kamar, gave the Druze two days to leave the town after looting everything, and declared:” The Christian inhabitants can rest in peace: Hostility has ceased…” The Druzes laughed it out: “Cadavers may rest in peace.”  Canon shots announced the re-establishment of security. The house of emir Kassem-Chehab was the last one to be set on fire.

An eye witness accounted:

“Taher Pasha had formally declared that they will be protected from any Druze aggression. Taher Pasha dissuaded a few rich Maronites to take refuge at Said Jumblat castle in Moukhtara. In the meantime, the Druze assassinated the peasants who ventured outside the town to tend to their lands. Food caravans were halted from entering and famine set in. On June 31, the Druze entered the town and assassinated two priests and 3 other persons at the door of the Serail and started looting the houses.

On July 4, the massacre was generalized: Male babies were snatched from the mothers and and banged on walls, males were murdered with instrument of torture. The elite of the population of 500 young males were huddled in the Serail and they were exterminated. Abdalah abu Nedjim was tortured with his 3 kids in the arms of the mother.

The Mutessellim and Turkish officers were impassibly watching and guiding the Druzes were the Maronite males were hiding…And the soldiers aided in throwing down the balcony many Maronites… Priests and clerics suffered the same atrocities. The village of Beit Eddine submitted to the same genocide…”

The fever spread to Beirut, and an innocent Christian was sacrificed and beheaded for the murder of a Moslem… The victim was sentenced within less than 24 hours, and the masses rejoiced the entire night. This French author described this single beheading as “Holocaust“.

Christian villages in the Druze canton were “cleaned”.  The Druze disseminated the news that the Ottoman are encouraging them to resume their advances toward Kesrouan, just to lay the blame on the Turkish power.

It was the turn of Syria to witness the same exaction on the Christians (To continue)

Note 1: Memoirs of a French diplomat who participated in the French expedition of 1860 to Lebanon and Damascus. The book was published in 1903.

Note 2: https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2013/10/20/the-druze-of-lebanon-and-syria-esoteric-sect-claiming-to-be-islam-and-tacitly-cursing-prophet-muhammad/


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