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Censure: “Will pass, will not pass” (Bto2ta3 Aw Ma Bto2ta3)

Lucien Bourjeily, a writer and theater director, had his theater piece « Bto2ta3 Aw Ma Bto2ta3 » censured last September for critiquing Lebanon censorship of the General Security service.

This piece describe the phases that a production has to go through before passing censorship. The answer of the censorship service was 45 days late after the submission of the manuscript.

« Bto2ta3 Aw Ma Bto2ta3 », une pièce qui n’a pas fini d’embarrasser la SG

At the conference held in the hotel Le Gabriel this Nov. 10, 2013. Diana Assaf (lawyer of the NGO March), Lucien Bourjeily , and Léa Baroudi (general coordinator of the association.

The president of the press bureau in the General Security, General Mounir Akiki, denounced on the channel New TV the piece of theater for constantly mocking this public security institution.

Gen. Akiki claimed to have consulted 4 anonymous art experts in drama theater who corroborated that the piece is “a defaming hallucination, a parody of non existent realities that do not conform with the image of the Security. This is artistically a bad piece of theater that does not reflect reality…”

The NGO March held a conference to respond to the accusation of “Will pass, will not pass”

Léa Baroudi  had this to say: “Since when a piece of theater is to be banned for a bad quality and not enjoying the artistic flavor of Gen. Akiki, and since when the author has  to stick to reality?

Lucien Bourjeily said: “Fear of being censored is a menace to creative work of art that pressure the author to self-censorship…” He announced that a second version will be submitted describing how the first version was handled by the censors.

“We will follow the liar to his door” added Lucien.

The NGO March had not receive so far any official document banning the work.

David Cecil, Lucien Bourjeily, Mayam Mahmoud, and Meltem Arikan

The organization « Index on Censorship » nominated Lucien Bourjeily for its annual award of freedom of expression this March in London.

There several other nominee:

David Cecil for being arrested while producing a theater piece on homosexuality in Uganda

Mayam Mahmoud, an Egyptian rap singer who denounced sexual harassment

Meltem Arikan, a Turkish feminist

Circumventing censors in the Arab States and everywhere? Is free expression the baseline of all rights?

Lebanon is a place where everyone has the freedom to shout and gather… But what

is the use if no one in the public institutions is listening?

Protests are frequent, and roads and highways blocked by burning tires…Bu twhy change and reforms are so rare, mangled, shortsighed, unfulfilling?

In its political and social system that divides the population into 18 different publicly recognized sects, every party has means to express itself, but security and religious authorities can stop anyone who challenges the system or those who are powerful in it…

Three weeks ago, news updates proclaimed that a bomb dropped by a fighter jet killed the 11 Lebanese civilians who were hijacked by Syrian insurgents over 3 months ago.

One Lebanese TV channel dispatched reporters to visit with the bereaved families and get Hot coverage.  . The immediate reaction of Lebanese tribes was to kidnap 40 Syrians and a Turkish citizen.

The news concerning the death of the Lebanese turned out to be false. Even if the news were accurate, is this sudden confronting the bereaved families publicly part of free expressions?

Censorship played a crucial role in Lebanon following the civil war… Civil rights groups are challenging censorship and claim that free expression is the baseline of all rights…

Andrew Bossone published an article in the Egyptian Weekly Al Ahram:

“Lebanese artists and organisations discussing matters of free expression say State security has considerable power, but this institution does not use a clear legal framework to support its decisions.

The Censorship Bureau of the Directorate for General Security reviews scripts for films or plays before, during and after production, and the law is vague enough to allow censorship on whim rather than on legal reason. Free speech advocates say censorship is holding back society from being unified and healing divisions from the civil war.

Ayman Mhanna, executive director of the Samir Kassir Foundation, says: “Censorship regulation in Lebanon is out-dated. It deprives artists of the ability to express their ideas as they want. Censorship prevents people from looking at other opinions and other perspectives. Ultimately, it leads to extremism, because you would only have one set of ideas that can be voiced.

After the civil war, we chose the path of amnesia and amnesty, looking back at our years of conflict. If we didn’t have that censorship, artists would have had more ideas to dig deeper into the wounds of Lebanese society.

Free opinions wouldn’t have healed them directly, but it would have contributed to a positive process that we’ve been denied so far in Lebanon.”

Beirut is generally considered a place of creative expression: Lebanon proceeded after the civil war without addressing the sectarian tensions that actually created the war. These divisions are clearly in the forefront of disputes in the country that at times bring arms to the street.

Lea Baroudi, general coordinator for the March Lebanon organisation that addresses censorship, says: “Since the war, we have lived in a taboo environment where we cannot talk about the war, we cannot talk about our differences, because the leaders thought that this was a solution to our problems…

“Freedom of expression is the right that accompanies all other rights. If you don’t have freedom of expression and you don’t have the freedom to say or advocate for what you believe in, what are we left with?”

Advocates of free expression admit that allowing any form of speech is not necessarily going to resolve all the country’s problems, but it is a starting point.

Art is often a vehicle for tackling sensitive issues.

Picasso’s “Guernica” explores the tragedies of the Spanish Civil War, and Omar Khayyam’s Rubaiyat confronts the authority of religious clergy, for example.

Expression may also be a means of unity by allowing open debate that allows a diversity of opinions.

Many issues have been deemed too sensitive, and expression that approaches specific red lines is often prevented from being produced, or in legal terms, the government exercises prior restraint.

According to Mhanna, these lines include talking about the president (both as an individual and an institution), the armed forces, Syria and Hizbullah, friendly nations (in particular Arab countries), enemy countries (specifically Israel), homosexuality, and incest.

Religion is also deemed a sensitive topic, and the Censorship Bureau typically sends content related to it to institutions such as Dar Al-Iftaa and the Catholic Media Centre.

Both Baroudi and Mhanna are advocating for the Censorship Bureau to be replaced with a board that would give ratings according to a system, as for films. This would head off the prior restraint moves of the government.

Regardless of censors, many artists in Lebanon are confronting sensitive issues. This is no more widespread than in music, such as hip-hop. Many Lebanese rappers talk about political matters, even if they do so using metaphors and language that avoids directly naming names.

Jackson Allers, a music promoter in Lebanon and editor of the World Hip Hop Market online magazine, says rappers have thus far avoided censors because their music has yet to reach mass appeal.

Allers says: “They feel empowered to say what they want to say and without having to worry, but I don’t think they realise they’re in a honeymoon period where they haven’t been tested and I feel like that’s coming and it’s approaching more quickly then they thought because of the proximity of Syria, because of the revolutions that are playing out elsewhere…”


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

October 2020
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