Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘lebanon

Today, four of the five pillars that had sustained Lebanon are collapsing, creating fears for the future.

Note: This article by Maha is a year old and since then the Lebanese majority are in much worse conditions. We lacked public electricity and the private providers were unable to supply more than 4 hours a day, simply because of lack of diesel (mazout) and the inability of customers to pay for the exorbitant bills they received. We lack public water, Not even for washing, and the public providers in citernes increased the bill by 3 folds on account of lack of mazout. Potable water are bought in bottled recipients and the price increases every week: I fee that potable water is more expensive than kitchen gas bonbones. Bakeries closed their doors for lack of mazout and affordable ingredients.

In just 2 weeks, the army was directed to clamp down on “reserves” of mazout and benzine and managed to siphon 10 millions liters and distribute them to hospitals, bakeries, municipalities…And the criminals were Not brought to trials, since everyone of them is backed by at least one militia/mafia leaders.

Lebanon was unable to form a government since the resignation of the government in 2019. Frankly, the Lebanese knows that a government means hoarding whatever loans is extended to the State.

Hezbollah has decided to import mazout from Iran, whether the “government” likes it or Not: We can no longer submit to the sanctions of the USA on the faked ground of the increased power of Hezbollah, military and civil administration of the ignominy that the Lebanese are subjugated to.

Lebanese politicians are pushing their country over the precipice.

Eight months into a complex crisis that is threatening Lebanon’s foundations, they have yet to take steps to stem the collapse. On the contrary, they have pursued a malign business-as-usual approach as they hedge their bets on a system that is no more.

Today, four of the five key pillars that have long sustained Lebanon are crumbling.

First, the power-sharing arrangement that has characterized the country since its foundation is no longer working and is characterized by persistent and debilitating blockages. This arrangement rests on an equitable distribution of government posts among the country’s different sects. It was also based on a double negative of a “no to the East” and “a no to the West,” whereby Christians would not seek Western involvement in Lebanon’s affairs, and Muslims would not seek Arab intervention.

The power-sharing system is in no danger of immediate collapse. However, the last time it was contested, Lebanon entered into a 15-year civil war between 1975 and 1990.

The Taif Accord, the settlement ending that conflict, foresaw Lebanon’s transition to a civil state in which sectarian representation in parliament would end. In exchange, all sects would be represented in a new Senate, whose authority would be limited to deciding on major national issues. Yet those parts of the accord were never implemented. Today, sectarian governance has become far more entrenched in state institutions, making change extremely difficult.

Second, Lebanon’s role as a merchant republic,(mercantile system of importing and Not exporting,) based primarily on banking and services, is at an end. In 2018, financial services contributed 8.5% of GDP and the tourism sector (mainly hotels and restaurants) 3.1%.

Today, losses in the banking sector are estimated at $83 billion. In a country that imports almost everything it consumes, informal capital controls and the cancellation of lines of credit to businesses show a banking system that no longer functions.

Similarly, around 800 tourism-related establishments closed permanently between October 2019 and January 2020. Tourism and related services employed 25 percent of Lebanon’s labor force, but some 25,000 individuals lost their jobs in the sector during that same period. It’s likely that this figure has increased because of Covid-19 containment measures. The scale of the crisis is threatening the basic integrity of Lebanon’s economy. Experts now estimate the economy will contract by 25 percent in real terms over the next two years.

Third pillar is the collapse of the middle-class. This economic collapse and the ensuing destruction of wealth is wiping out the country middle class, historically one of the most affluent, resourceful, and professional in the region. Lebanese society is being rapidly impoverished, while the youngest and brightest seek opportunities elsewhere.

One in three Lebanese have reportedly lost their jobs, and many others are likely to be pushed into the informal sector. The Lebanese pound has lost some 80 percent of its value on the black market.

To cite but one example of the effects of this, the average annual salary of an assistant professor at the American University of Beirut is LL94 million. This used to be equivalent to $63,000 a year, or around $5,000 per month. At today’s exchange rate of $1 = LL8.000, the monthly salary has dropped to $11,000 a year, or $900 a month.

The middle class is swelling the ranks of the poor, with the World Bank estimating that around 50 percent of Lebanese now live below the poverty line, while thousands are going hungry. Clothes, food, and fuel are becoming unaffordable as year-on-year purchasing power has been halved, with inflation reaching 90 percent in June 2020. The price of basic goods increased by around 55 percent in May alone. All this represents an epic collapse with a generational impact.

A fourth pillar of the Lebanese system, namely freedoms, is also being eroded. Since independence, Lebanon has been renowned for freedom of speech and a flourishing press. By the end of the 1940s the country was publishing 39 dailies and 137 periodicals in three languages. In its heyday Lebanon acted as a safe haven for dissidents and refugees, boasting a cultural and intellectual life unparalleled in the region, a role it continued to play until recently, albeit much less effectively.

The decline in fundamental freedoms and the repression of free speech is apparent in the alarming increase and systematic targeting of activists, dissidents, and refugees over the past few years, with the help of more aggressive security services and a pliant judiciary. While Lebanon’s constitution upholds freedom of speech within the bounds of the law, its penal code criminalizes defamation against political and religious officials. Since October 17 at least 60 individuals have been arrested or summoned for interrogation because of things they posted on social media. More recently, there were reports that the country’s top prosecutor ordered a security agency to investigate social media posts offensive to the president. In response, a coalition of fourteen organizations has been formed to defend freedoms.

Finally, the Lebanese system’s fifth pillar, the army and the internal security forces, is also feeling the impact of the economic crisis.

Like all Lebanese, military and security personnel have seen their incomes and pensions disappear. The salary of the army’s commander has declined in dollar terms to around $750 a month, while that of a colonel has gone down to $300 and a soldier to $150. The personnel may be faring better than those who have lost their jobs, but they no longer enjoy many of the benefits they previously did. In an environment of heightened tensions, economic pressure on the military and security sector will only grow. More worrisome, this is happening as crime rates have risen in recent months.

In response to this dire situation, national-level decisionmaking has been slow, with politicians displaying callous disregard for the country. They continue to seek short-term gains and are looking for ways to hang on to power, plunging Lebanon deeper into crisis. By dragging their feet they are imposing further losses on depositors, who cannot withdraw their U.S. dollars from banks except in pounds, and at an official rate far lower than the black market rate.

Agreement on an economic rescue plan is critical for unlocking desperately needed financial assistance. Yet, the government and parliament are still bickering over the size of Lebanon’s financial losses as the government negotiates with the International Monetary Fund. Rather than introduce reforms, the politicians have continued to behave much as they did in the past. This was evident in recent civil service appointments that privileged political clientelism over merit. Without reforms, external support will not materialize.

Meanwhile, political parties are returning to their sectarian reflexes, fracturing the Lebanese polity even more. Trends visible on the ground point to increasing fragmentation, with villages, towns, and neighborhoods initiating self-protection mechanisms.

Against the background of Covid-19, increasing crime rates, and collapsing state institutions, parties have revived their protection rackets and are providing food and medicine to constituents in need. This is happening even as many Lebanese seek a nonsectarian state that upholds their rights as citizens, not merely as members of a sect.

Lebanon’s problems can only be addressed if its political leaders place the country’s, and their own, long-term interests above short-term gains. That means an agreement to shoulder some of the losses stemming from the crisis and bringing in a government capable of envisioning and implementing an immediate stabilization program and a medium- to long-term recovery program. So far, however, these do not seem to be priorities for Lebanon’s political leadership.

Carnegie does not take institutional positions on public policy issues; the views represented herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Carnegie, its staff, or its trustees.

What were Lebanon economic and social cost for Lebanon in Israel pre-emptive war in 2006?

هلق صحيح بحرب تموز تضررت ٣٤٥ ضيعة، تدمر ٣٠٥٣٩ بيت، تهجر ١.٥ مليون لبناني، هاجر ٢٠٠ ألف غيرن، تدمر ١٥% من المدارس، تدمرت ١٦ مستشفى، تلف ٩٢٦٧٢٠ ألف شجرة، توقف ١٢٠ إلف موظف عن العمل لمدة ٣٣ يوم، تدمر ٩١ جسر، تضرر ٦٢٠ كيلومتر من الطرقات، قتل ٢٠٠٠ لبناني، أصيب ١٠ الاف غيرهن، و خسر الإقتصاد اللبناني ١٥ مليار

Is the mass upheaval in Lebanon still going on? Any signs or indications that it is Thawrat (Revolution)?

Bernard Gerbaka posted on FB. Yesterday at 12:01 AM
A people who occupy the places, who take breaks for the holidays.

A people who fill the streets, cafés, living rooms and press rooms. …

a people who are fighting, ” hungry “, ” has enough ” of his militia/mafia/sectarian “leaders”… all of them “kellon”

a people who are waiting in front of the ATM, waiting for their turn for hours at the bank counter to ask for their own money that is paid as a alms, to the weekly drop account,

a people who suffer the vexatious policies of the central bank, the association of banks, greedy exchange and loan Sharks,

a people who, of pain and misery, force the resignation of the government and who have been attending, for more than three months, to the same talks and wallets for the formation of a new government,, who will not accept a Replica of the previous ones, but only a government of independent technocrats as requested by the “revolutionary”…

… A people who do not let go of financial scandals or billions of dollars “escaping” or fraud operations to administration, neither abuse and trafficking of children, nor the loud with justice, nor ecological disasters, nor Health neglect, neither educational harassment, nor the destruction of places of life, nor the discrimination, nor the shattering revelations of ministers accused each other in the register “responsible but not guilty”…

A people who do not Don’t let the cases of corruption and human rights, women and children settle down or fall down…

… a people who are aware of the faith core, and who does not rule out anyone from the “kellon”,

… a people who manifest in front of a restaurant to remove organisers and fill with life the restaurants and places, which trigger the “revolt of the hungry”

… a people who are angry and who will turn to all Turkish heads, their hela hela ho or other tirades – according to preferences – who refuses the government knead machine and the ministry cake,

… a people who learn and teaches, from movements and movements, revolts and revolution, wars and armed conflict, from turkey, Tunisia, Palestine, Jordan, Bahrain, Libya, Yemen, Egypt, Sudan, Algeria, Iraq, Syria , Iran… and who tries, in his despair and immense hope, to do better, more peaceful, less violent, more sustainable, more curable…

A Thawra of women and men, young and old, children and holders of disabilities, count on its diversity to draw wings, print her character and personality, innocence and maturity, peace and burst, his resistance and his Its resilience, flexibility and endurance, peaceful determination and spiritual landings.

“Thawra” endure, with its evils and dead, as well as the great sacrifices that this people suffer… economic and financial, health and environmental, social and educational… and who draws resistance and resilience in their own resources, … a proud and generous people, a kind and pleasant people, a superficial people in their daily life and deep in their roots, a living and free people,

… this people will not die, and its revolution will succeed… and the word “Thawra” engraved on a giant fist, is to the measure of this people, who have included then transformed into remains all the jobs, from the ottoman (which started before the discovery of America), to the Syrian…

this people, broken by interests and manipulation, are gathered by hunger and bankruptcy… he remains to mourning (on His bloody past) that he has never done since 1975, to finally find himself in a nation and not in 2 Negatives, a people able to build his society, our society, born of our thawra!

The Thawra is permanent, with smile and tears, in good mood and sadness, in humor and screams, comics and sarcasm, on places and social networks, making the leaders sad and sad. The people invest this “Thawra”, campaign, wake up the unconscious, shows the apathy of leaders, leads their ears, calls for strike, dessille the eyes of the blind on their own condition…

To the rhythm where she goes, thawra! Thawra! Keep its shape declarative!
Like Fire, it ignite and burns, like water, it irrigates and drown, like the earth, it buried and blooms, like the air, it inspires and sweeps!

Thawra is diverse and everywhere, it is unexpected and inclusive… she has no engine but she has a soul, that of our children!

R. B, thank you so much, you were right to be wrong!

An alternative paper to the government of one party in Lebanon mass upheaval

Lihaqqi Bayan Wizari

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Hussein El-Kotob husseinkay@gmail.com

AttachmentsSat, Feb 8, 8:18 PM (2 days ago)

to me

Bayan Wizari

المقّدمة
ارج ٌ خ إ ّن حكومة ما بعد ثورة تشرین لا یجب ان تكون كسابقاتھا، یفترض ان یكون للبنان حكومة
ّسویات، حكومة
ً ٌ نظام المحاصصة والت
ً انتقالیا
ً سیاسیا
ّاس قوًلا وفعًلا تحمل برنامجا
ٌ إلى الن
منحازة
.يطارقمیدلا رییغتلا راسم يف نانبل عضی
ّة ً ة قناعة ّور لقد ر ّسخت ھذه الث
ّة ومنطق ً نھائی
ّة/الاجتماعی
بضرورة تغییر ال ّسیاسات الاقتصادی
في ّ الحكم، وسینسحب ھذا على الحكومات جمیعھا في المراحل القادمة وعلى العمل ال ّسیاسي
ًا عند حدود وشروط ال ّصراع ّ لبنان متوق ّاریخ في ٍّ. فقبل ثورة تشرین، كان الت لبنان بشك ٍل عام
ف
ّھ في صلب تكویننا الاجتماعي ّال ّ ائفي ّ الط
Öا من إبداع ّ ذي أصبح، وبشك ٍل مغایٍر للواقع، وكأن
، أزلی
ّاس، ٍ ج آخر سیؤ ّسس لتاریخ ٍ بیعة. غیر أ ّن ثورة تشرین نجحت في إرساء منطق ّ الط
دیٍد یكتبھ الن
ّذین یجمعون ال ّسلطة
ولیس تحالف المصارف وأمراء ال ّطوائف وكبار المحتكرین والمتمولین وال
ّاریخ یدوران وسط حلق ٍةمفرغ ٍة
ّذي یجعل المجتمع والت
ابت ال
ّ
والمال. فبدًلا من ال ّصراع ال ّطائف ّي الث
ّفوذ والأرباح للط
ّاس ّ بقة الحاكمة، یفرض ال ّصراع الاجتماعي ّ تضمن دوام الن
نفسھ بحیث یدرك الن
ّھ مع من ینھب حق ّ أ ّن ال ّصراع ال ّسیاسي
بالعیش و مكحتی ّھم لیس بین المواطنین/ات أنفسھم ولكن
ة القلیلة من كبار الأغنیاء ّ بأمنھم الاجتماعي ویمنعھم من الدفاع عن مصالحھم، أي مع القل
ّرا ٍت فرضتھا ثورة تشرین، لتسھم في
ّذین. لذا، تأتي ھذه الحكومة كجز ٍء من سلسلة تغی
والمتنف
ّ ٍة جدیدٍة تقاطعیة بین الجندر رمعلاو ةقبطلاو ٍ تاریخ
ّ ٍة/اجتماعی
ّ ٍة واقتصادی
یكتب وفق أس ٍس سیاسی
ّورة، أعاد
ّخذتھ ھذه الث
ّذي ات
والوضع الاجتماعي والاقتصادي. كما أ ّن ال ّطابع ال ّلامركز ّي، ال
ّة اللا ّأكید ع الت
ّة والإنماء المحلي ّ مركز لى أھ ّمی
ّة الإداری
ّظام ّ و ی
ّة في تھدیم حصن الن
دور ال ّلامركزی
ذي یمیز بین الناس ویمت ّص قدرات الأطراف ویحكمھا عن بعٍد ویلزمھا ّال ّ بناني ّ الأبوي الل ّ ائفي ّ الط
ّولة والمجتمع. ھذا بالإضافة إلى المساحات العا ّمة المفتوحة
ّتھ ال ُمنھكة للد
سیاساتھ وبیروقراطی
ّتھا في تشكیل رأي عام ّور تي فرضتھا الث ّال
ٍ وبن ة وكّرستھا وأضاءت على أھ ّمی
ّا ٍل.
المقّدمة
ارج ٌ خ إ ّن حكومة ما بعد ثورة تشرین لا یجب ان تكون كسابقاتھا، یفترض ان یكون للبنان حكومة
ّسویات، حكومة
ً ٌ نظام المحاصصة والت
ً انتقالیا
ً سیاسیا
ّاس قوًلا وفعًلا تحمل برنامجا
ٌ إلى الن
منحازة
.يطارقمیدلا رییغتلا راسم يف نانبل عضی
ّة ً ة قناعة ّور لقد ر ّسخت ھذه الث
ّة ومنطق ً نھائی
ّة/الاجتماعی
بضرورة تغییر ال ّسیاسات الاقتصادی
في ّ الحكم، وسینسحب ھذا على الحكومات جمیعھا في المراحل القادمة وعلى العمل ال ّسیاسي
ًا عند حدود وشروط ال ّصراع ّ لبنان متوق ّاریخ في ٍّ. فقبل ثورة تشرین، كان الت لبنان بشك ٍل عام
ف
ّھ في صلب تكویننا الاجتماعي ّال ّ ائفي ّ الط
Öا من إبداع ّ ذي أصبح، وبشك ٍل مغایٍر للواقع، وكأن
، أزلی
ّاس، ٍ ج آخر سیؤ ّسس لتاریخ ٍ بیعة. غیر أ ّن ثورة تشرین نجحت في إرساء منطق ّ الط
دیٍد یكتبھ الن
ّذین یجمعون ال ّسلطة
ولیس تحالف المصارف وأمراء ال ّطوائف وكبار المحتكرین والمتمولین وال
ّاریخ یدوران وسط حلق ٍةمفرغ ٍة
ّذي یجعل المجتمع والت
ابت ال
ّ
والمال. فبدًلا من ال ّصراع ال ّطائف ّي الث
ّفوذ والأرباح للط
ّاس ّ بقة الحاكمة، یفرض ال ّصراع الاجتماعي ّ تضمن دوام الن
نفسھ بحیث یدرك الن
ّھ مع من ینھب حق ّ أ ّن ال ّصراع ال ّسیاسي
بالعیش و مكحتی ّھم لیس بین المواطنین/ات أنفسھم ولكن
ة القلیلة من كبار الأغنیاء ّ بأمنھم الاجتماعي ویمنعھم من الدفاع عن مصالحھم، أي مع القل
ّرا ٍت فرضتھا ثورة تشرین، لتسھم في
ّذین. لذا، تأتي ھذه الحكومة كجز ٍء من سلسلة تغی
والمتنف
ّ ٍة جدیدٍة تقاطعیة بین الجندر رمعلاو ةقبطلاو ٍ تاریخ
ّ ٍة/اجتماعی
ّ ٍة واقتصادی
یكتب وفق أس ٍس سیاسی
ّورة، أعاد
ّخذتھ ھذه الث
ّذي ات
والوضع الاجتماعي والاقتصادي. كما أ ّن ال ّطابع ال ّلامركز ّي، ال
ّة اللا ّأكید ع الت
ّة والإنماء المحلي ّ مركز لى أھ ّمی
ّة الإداری
ّظام ّ و ی
ّة في تھدیم حصن الن
دور ال ّلامركزی
ذي یمیز بین الناس ویمت ّص قدرات الأطراف ویحكمھا عن بعٍد ویلزمھا ّال ّ بناني ّ الأبوي الل ّ ائفي ّ الط
ّولة والمجتمع. ھذا بالإضافة إلى المساحات العا ّمة المفتوحة
ّتھ ال ُمنھكة للد
سیاساتھ وبیروقراطی
ّتھا في تشكیل رأي عام ّور تي فرضتھا الث ّال
ٍ وبن ة وكّرستھا وأضاءت على أھ ّمی
ّا ٍل.
Attachments area

Lebanon and Palestine: Same and Different(Part 1)

Posted on April 29, 2009

Brief ancient history:

Lebanon is a recognized State by the UN in 1943. The Lebanese State got its fictitious “independence” from France who withdrew its troops in 1946 (2 years before the State of Israel was recognized by the UN).

Palestine was partitioned in 1947 between Palestinians and the minority Jews (barely 40% but allocated 55% of the land of Palestine).

Currently, all of Palestine is under occupation by this Zionist State called Israel.

Lebanon and Palestine were throughout antiquity under the domination of neighboring Empires such as in Egypt, Turkey, Iran, and Iraq (Mesopotamia). 

The people in the two tiny stretches of coastal lands on the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea were mainly mariners, traders, middlemen among Empires, and skilled artisans. (They were united under the Seleucid dynasty, an officer of Alexander army)

Under the nominal or explicit domination of Empires, Lebanon and Palestine had autonomous administration of their society as City-States that were highly democratic within the city limits as Athens emulated in the 7th century BC. 

The famous City-States from north to south are Ugarite, Tripoli, Jubail (Byblos), Saida, Sour (Tyr), Akka (Acre and Haifa), and Askelan. 

The City-State of Jubail (inventors of the alphabet) built Saida; Saida built Sour and dominated the sea routes; and Sour built Akka and relayed Saida in sea domination and expanding the trading posts to Spain. 

These City-States were the masters of the sea and traded with all Empires, and build trading towns: they have resisted many overwhelming sieges, sometimes for years, and occasionally managed Not to be entered and devastated.

Every empire that conquered Syria resumed its drive by dominating Lebanon and Palestine. 

In general, when more than one empire co-existed at the same period and when the empire in Egypt was powerful enough then it governed the southern half of Palestine while the other empire governed the upper half, including Lebanon. 

The strip of Gaza to Yafa was mostly under Egyptian cultural influence.

The coastal strip from north actual Syria to the Sinai was called Canaan. Then, the upper stretch to Akka was called Phoenicia or even Saida (in reference for the main City-State).

The Sea People, called Philistines and probably coming from the Adriatic Sea, destroyed Greece fleet, devastated many coastal cities, and conquered Egypt before they were driven out and settle in Gaza and the southern part of Canaan, called Palestine ever since.

Moses (this mythical story) arrived with an amalgam of nomadic tribes and his successors attempted to occupy part of south Palestine.  These tribes worshiped Yahweh/Yahwa, thus, yahoud and Jews for the Latin people

These tribes under Moses reverted to worshiping the all encompassing God of the Land called El., except a few tribes such as Judea and Benjamin.  During the Roman Empire, and most of the empires that dominated Syria, the district of Tyr administered the upper half of Palestine, including Galilee.

Modern History:

 In the beginning of the 20th century, the military in Turkey deposed the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and started policies focused on Turk Nationhood.  Many in Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine immigrated to Egypt. 

During the First World War famine fell on Lebanon along with a devastating wave of locust; they immigrated to the USA, Brazil, Latin America, and many were dropped in Africa by unethical ship captains who claimed that they reached the Americas.

After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the First World War, Britain had mandate over Palestine and Iraq; France had mandate over Lebanon and Syria.

Consequently, the bilingual Palestinians spoke English, and their counterpart in Lebanon spoke French.

In 1930, Haifa grabbed the center of trades and many Lebanese flocked to Haifa and Palestine.  The reverse wave occurred when the State of Israel was recognized by a majority of one vote at the UN in 1948.  Lebanon received Palestinian refugees who were installed in camps on the ground that their stay is temporary! and will return under the UN resolution 194

In one chapter of “World Adrift” Amine Maaluf said “The western powers are now paying the price for failing to apply their values in the colonies” 

The European colonial powers of Britain, France, Germany, and the  Netherlands had no intentions of spreading their moral values to those they considered Not worthy of their pearls and gems.

The indigents were to be enslaved, exploited, and humiliated;

The indigents who adopted the western values of equality, liberty, and democracy were persecuted and harassed and imprisoned;

The colonial administrators negotiated with the conservative conformists who were ready to strike deals and cohabit with lesser human rights. 

Dictators in Europe maybe abhorred after their defeat, but the colonial powers readily accept dictators in underdeveloped States to facilitate the embezzling businesses.

Human values had different quality and flavors according to the whims and interest of the exploiting colonial powers. 

Britain used astute diplomatic policies to subjugate their colonies more frequently than France did; but France of the French Revolution had No patience negotiating and communicating with their colonial people and never skipped an occasion to stat its true purpose for domination.and exhibiting arrogant military posturing.

 The colonial powers installed infrastructures that were appropriate for exploitation of the colonies; they established the required administrations for smooth and efficient exploitation.

The other administrative offices for legislation and justices were carbon copies of the ones in their homeland, but these codes could be disposed off and trampled at the first occasion that short sighted interest called for swift and immediate actions.

Contemporary history:

Current Lebanon was created by France during its mandate period and cut out from Syria; it is now a recognized State by the UN since 1943.  Palestine was divided but the Zionist movement conquered the allocated portion for the Palestinians by the UN in 1948. through a detailed pre-planned attack drawn in 1935. 

The Palestinians are now located in the West Bank of the Jordan River and in Gaza where Israel has built 150 Jewish-only colonies and increasing every year. 

The Palestinians who fled their towns and villages in the State of Israel are refugees in Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria.  And they spread throughout the 5 continents. The UN resolution 193 demands the repatriation of these Palestinians to their hometowns but Israel has been rebuffing that resolution since 1948.

Lebanon suffered many civil wars and calamities for Not being capable or unwilling of absorbing the Palestinian refugees.

Israel has waged four devastating wars against the State of Lebanon on flimsy pretexts based on the Palestinian resistance trying to regain their rights for a homeland.

And three more pre-emptive wars against after the withdrawal of the PLO in 1982.

Note: More detailed facts of the daily business trades between Lebanon and Palestine in Part 2. The implantation of Israel was mainly meant to break down daily trades, and One market, and prevent daily communication among the One people in One Nation: Syria.

Ziad Abi Chaker wants to replacing stolen metal drain covers with recycled materials that last longer and cost less (and do Not entice the robbers to resume their beneficial enterprises?)

Saving Lebanon’s streets: the engineer with a sustainable fix

Using recycled single-use plastic, the industrial and environmental engineer applies a technique known as extrusion to melt the raw material and form it into the required shape.

In this case, Mr Abi Chaker repurposes plastic waste to make drain covers to replace stolen ones.

Where other people see rubbish, he sees opportunity.

“I’m an industrial engineer, so my job is to find resources for manufacturing,” But I’m also an environmental engineer, so I find these resources among discarded, recyclable material.” Mr Abi Chaker told The National

Mr Abi Chaker makes use of all single-use plastic, such as plastic bags, plastic bottles, food packaging and more, and turns them into long-term sources of raw material to give them a new life.

His line of thinking offers a creative solution to a mounting problem in Lebanon.

Metal theft is becoming increasingly common as the country’s economic situation continues to deteriorate.

The stolen materials are being sold for scrap in US dollars as people grow increasingly desperate to generate income in a country with scarce jobs and a depreciating currency.

Ziad Abi Chaker, Lebanese industrial and environmental engineer and CEO of Cedar Environmental. Courtesy of Ziad Abi Chaker
Ziad Abi Chaker, Lebanese industrial and environmental engineer and CEO of Cedar Environmental. Courtesy of Ziad Abi Chaker

Lebanon’s Internal Security Forces confirmed the increase in these crimes to The National, with at least one person arrested for stealing a drain cover off the streets.

Other recent thefts included steel wires and pylons from power stations, plunging Lebanon further into darkness in March.

Eleven metal graveyard doors were also stolen from a small Lebanese town in Bekaa on April 4, prompting protests against sanctity violation.

Yasa, a Lebanese NGO for road safety, warned of the dangers of missing drain covers after a car got stuck in an uncovered manhole in Jnah, Beirut in April.

But with his simple and sustainable approach, Mr Abi Chaker is saving the environment and the streets.

So far, the engineer has been able to manufacture three manhole covers, with 20 more in the works, out of his own pocket.

Capable of supporting 100 kilogrammes, up to 400kg, they are fit for human and road traffic. He is also producing a cover able to carry up to 800kg.

The first manhole was set to replace a missing lid in the south of Lebanon, while the two others were placed near Beirut River.

According to Mr Abi Chaker, the plastic covers are much more cost-effective than metal ones.

“The human traffic covers are between $20 and $30, while the vehicular ones cost between $40 and $60,” he told The National. “They’re 50 per cent cheaper than steel covers.”

The plastic drain covers are also faster to make, taking two to three days to complete each piece, which is “a record compared to casting iron”.

Although the plastic covers are a highly efficient quick fix, Mr Abi Chaker cannot carry the cost burden on his own.

He is on the lookout for contributions from supporters of the project in the Lebanese community. “It’s the best way to go,” he said.

Beirut Mayor Jamal Itani showed interest in the project, telling The National he is open to receiving a proposal from Mr Abi Chaker team on the details of the initiative to study potential collaboration and methods of implementation.

“Of course we’re interested in an alternative, replacing the metal covers with new metal ones costs a fortune,” he said.

But Mr Abi Chaker would rather secure funds independently from the municipality owing to the urgency of the matter and lack of faith in Lebanon’s officials – a sentiment shared by many who took to the streets in October 2019 against political corruption and mismanagement.

Mr Abi Chaker is working with lawyers to pursue legal action against the municipality for “failing to properly and hastily respond to an imminent danger affecting vehicles and pedestrians of the city”.

Manholes in Lebanon have been coverless for some time after the thefts began during the first quarter of 2021.

Despite the huge risk to pedestrians and vehicles, authorities have yet to take action. The open drains join a long list of malfunctioning public properties, alongside failing traffic lights and low-grade infrastructure.

The manhole covers are not the first initiative by Mr Abi Chaker to take the country by storm.

One of his projects, the Green Glass Recycling Initiative Lebanon, was ranked eighth out of 10 most innovative companies in 2021 for the Europe/Mena region after recycling 125 tonnes of discarded glass after the Beirut port blast.

The August 4 explosion killed more than 200 people, injured more than 7,000 and destroyed large parts of the city, leaving huge piles of shattered glass in the streets.

Instead of discarding the glass in Lebanon’s overrun landfills, the initiative collected the material and provided it to the few remaining glass packaging factories in the northern city of Tripoli, supporting the country’s glass industry and one of the poorest cities in the Middle East.

When asked why he continues to give to a country that does not give back, Mr Abi Chaker said: “When you love someone, do you give up on them in their time of need?

“Our country is afflicted with a disease of the ruling class, and I won’t give up on it now. Even though I was tempted by numerous offers to do the work I do over the world, I love being here, I love the work I do here, I love the impact we make here, I love the people and places here, and this is why I won’t leave.”

READ MORE

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Explained: Why Lebanon has an ongoing trash problem

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Book review of “Farewell Beirut”

Posted on November 14, 2008

Farewell Beirut is fundamentally an autobiographical witnessed short stories and is of 220 pages distributed in 15 chapters.

Late Mai Ghoussoub is a writer, sculpture, theater promoter, and a co-founder of the publishing house Dar Al Saki, was 54 when she died of complication from a surgery in London on February 17, 2007.

Mai participated in the Lebanese civil war by caring for the downtrodden Palestinians living in shantytown of refugee camps.

She lost an eye by a rocket that hit her car while aiding in a clinic of Nabaa in East Beirut, and she suffered greatly for three years out of that injury.  Mai decided to leave Lebanon in 1979 and lived for a while in Paris and then moved to London.

Mai suggested to her old school friend Andre Caspar, who was hitchhiking in the USA, to join her and open a library that would offer Arabic books and manuscript.  The library led to instituting the publishing house Dar Al Saki in 1983. Mai married Hazem Saghieh, a writer and newspaper editor.

During an art exhibition in Shore Ditch London, Mai and her Israeli actress friend Anna Sharbati donned Muslim attires and held tennis rackets to stir any climate of conservatism in London, but nobody noticed them.

Mai recalls that at the age of 12, she was attached to her female French teacher Nomie.  To please her teacher she wrote a lengthy fictitious essay that ended with an injunction for revenge on harms done to her.  Nomie gave her only 10 out of 20 points because the want for revenge is the basest of emotions… Mai retained that lesson and struggled with it most of her turbulent life, especially during part of the civil war.

First story.

Tiny and sickly Latifa was barely 9 years old when her Syrian father “rented” her for a year to work as maid (house helper). Latifa was to get up before any member of the family and go to bed in a corner of the kitchen after every member was asleep and work non-stop most of the time. Latifa, treated worse than a slave, endured all the miseries and humiliations.

(We had 3 Syrian kids girls from Safita in Syria, ranging from 10 to 12. The father of the kid used to pay us a visit every year to collect upfront the yearly wage of the daughter. The father barely spent any time, much less quality time with his daughter. These girls experienced a heart-wrenched moment when they had to leave us. They got used to us, though we never demanded from them a glass of water. Mother was the boss and we had nothing to do with these hard working helpers. I guess they sensed they will have a harsher life and maybe be married at a young age)

Latifa’s father used to show up drunk once a year to be paid without even bringing his daughter a token of a gift or spending any time with her.

Latifa was raped by the eldest son of the family and she was no longer permitted to leave the apartment. During the civil war in Lebanon, tiny Latifa was to brave the snipers and rockets to bring food to the family. 

Latifa joined the militias of the neighborhood and moved with them; she covered her face with a hood (cagoule) so that nobody would recognize her, but her large eyes could not conceal her.  Latifa never took revenge on her “masters”, but tried her best to move forward.

Latifa got famous as “Um Ali”, and one of the toughest fighters in Beirut. 

She was killed mysteriously and her “masters” had no photo of her to plaster it on the street in remembrance of a “martyr”.  Latifa lived incognito and died incognito.

Second story.

Said was the only son of the owner of a small grocery.  His family was constantly worried for his upbringing.  Said was a short, stocky, jovial and smiling helper; he delivered the groceries to the homes and was liked by the entire neighborhood; he wanted to join the “hospitality” business.

The civil war changed Said: he joined the militias and became a tough fighter.  There were plenty of rumors about Said’s deeds during the war; a sniper, a blackmailer, a leader of a group of fighters and anything that warriors are expected to end up doing among scared and humiliated citizens.

Said opened a small hotel after the war.  The author was unable to label a definitive judgment opinion on Said as she recalled him when Mai was settled overseas.  Can a man be fundamentally good and change to the opposite when circumstances change?

Third story.

Hashem is an Iranian refugee in Beirut, fleeing the new Khomeini Islamic regime

Hashem is well liked and funny and has strong and definite positions against the Western States and cultures.  He immigrated to Denmark during the Lebanese civil war and married the tall, beautiful and blonde Kirsten.  

Kersten did her best to assimilate Hashem’s culture and tradition; she befriended his friends, learned to cook Iranian and Lebanese dishes, helped bring Hashem’s family to Denmark and had promised him to wear the veil when they decide to return to Iran or settle in Lebanon.

Hashem fell in love with Maria, a Chilean girl, while attending a Danish language center.  Maria didn’t care for Hashem’s friends or even his health; all she cared for was her relationship with Hashem.  Kirsten didn’t like the situation; she never reprimanded Hashem verbally: her eyes and silence and posture expressed her displeasure.

Hashem was killed in Denmark in 1989; Kirsten set up an official obituary in her church and in the mosque. She organized the funeral to its minute details and delivered the eulogy; she persisted on keeping Hashem’s memory every year and obliterated Maria from the picture. From now on Hashem solely belongs to Kirsten.

Mai volunteered her aid in the clinic of the Chatila Palestinian camp at the start of the civil war; she cataloged the medicines and shelved them accordingly. A young Palestinian leader visited the camp and saw Mai; he sent one of his sbirs to fetch Mai to his headquarter.

Mai and Abu Firas enjoyed a secret amorous affair for long time until Mai’s brother got injured.  Abu Firas made the error of visiting Mai at the hospital; Mai’s family and acquaintances got wind of her marginal affair and she had to leave Lebanon to Paris when her brother recovered.

Mai never carried a weapon or engage in any skirmishes.  Mai was comfortably installed in Paris when she received a long distance call from Lebanon; Mai refused to take the call of Abu Firas:  instead, she wandered in the streets of Paris to relieve the anxiety of the onslaught of her memory of the civil war.

Mai had questions nagging at her “would she ever be able to convince herself that she didn’t participate in the civil war?”, “would she be able to erase the facts that she met assassins and didn’t oppose their deeds?”

One thing that Mai is convinced of is that she allied to mercenaries on ideological grounds and let her country go to hell.

افتراءات سامي كليب على حزب الله

صفية سعادة الأربعاء 20 كانون الثاني 2021

(Safiya Saadi). January 20, 2021

في مقالته المنشورة على موقع «خمس نجوم» بعنوان «لبنان: تدمير ممنهج ووهم انتظار بايدن»، عمد الصحافي اللبناني سامي كليب إلى ربط أحداث عالمية بالتطورات على الساحة الداخليّة، بطريقة انتقائية واعتباطية، محملاً حزب الله مسؤولية ما حصل ويحصل في لبنان.

يقول الكاتب:

«قاتل حزب الله عشر سنوات على أرضٍ غير أرضه في سوريا، ورفع مستوى تدريبه القتالي، وحصل على أسلحة استراتيجية، صار المُهدّد الفعلي لإسرائيل، وصار أيضاً رأس حربة إيران في المنطقة، يعادي من تعاديه ويصادق من تصادقه، فتوسّعت رقعة شقاقه مع دول عربية عديدة.

من سيقبل بهذا الواقع؟»
يُظهر هذا المقطع سرداً لتسلسل الأحداث يجافي «الواقع» على عدد من الأصعدة:
أولاً، قلْب الأسباب إلى نتائج. فحزب الله ليس «المهدّد الفعلي لإسرائيل»، بل العكس تماماً، إسرائيل هي

المهدّد ليس فقط لحزب الله، بل لجميع دول «سوراقيا»، وذلك منذ قرار وعد بلفور بإنشائها عام 1917. لم تخفِ الحركة الصهيونية، آنذاك، مشاريعها بالاستيلاء على منطقة الهلال الخصيب بأجمعها، في ما أسمته «إسرائيل الكبرى»، وهذا واضح في رسائل حاييم وايزمان إلى رؤساء الدول الغربية لمن قرأ الثلاثة وعشرين مجلّداً التي تحتوي على آرائه وأعماله.
لا تمانع إسرائيل بإقامة علاقات طبيعية مع دول الخليج أو شمال أفريقيا، لأنّ لا مطامع لإسرائيل في هذه الدول، لكنّ الوضع مغاير تماماً في ما يختصّ بنا. هي تريد الأرض، والماء والبحر، ولا تخفي ذلك، وما الصراع الأخير حول النفط إلّا عيّنة من مسار طويل من الحروب، والقتل وهدر طاقات لبنان ودول «سوراقيا».

لذلك، حزب الله هو النتيجة وليس السبب. هو المدافع عن هذه الأرض وليس المهاجم.

ثانياً، إدراج مقولة إنّ «حزب الله قاتل على أرض غير أرضه» هي مقولة فيها الكثير من المجافاة لواقع تقسيمات «سايكس – بيكو» الملائمة لإسرائيل وللغرب، لأنّ عنوانها الكبير هو «فرّق تسُد»، والكاتب في موقفه هذا يوافق على التقسيمات التي فرضها الغرب بالقوة العسكرية على المنطقة مع نهاية الحرب العالمية الأولى،

ويعتبر أن لا علاقة بين سوريا ولبنان بأكثر ممّا هي علاقتهما بإسرائيل!

إنّ كلّاً من لبنان وسوريا مهدّدان يومياً من قبل إسرائيل، لأنّ هذه الأخيرة تريد أرضهما، فهي استولت على الجولان ولا تريد إعادته، وقبعت في جنوب لبنان عشرين عاماً ولم تخرج إلّا نتيجة المقاومة المسلّحة التي آزرتها سوريا، لأنّ أيّ دخول لإسرائيل إلى لبنان يعني بالضرورة تهديداً لسوريا، فإذا سقط لبنان، سقطت سوريا، والعكس صحيح أيضاً.

لقد اخترع سايكس – بيكو لبنان كمنطقة مسيحية عازلة لحماية إسرائيل


ثالثاً، يعي الغرب تماماً ترابط دول الهلال الخصيب تاريخياً، واقتصادياً واجتماعياً. لذلك، يعمد إلى فصل بعضها عن البعض الآخر، وإذكاء نار الحقد والخصومة بينها، كالقول إنّ لبنان يدفع ثمن التدخّل السوري، بينما الحقيقة هي أنّ هاتين الدولتين تقومان بالدفاع عن نفسيهما أمام الهجمة الإسرائيلية الآن، وأكثر من أيّ وقت مضى، لأنّ الولايات المتحدة الأميركية تريد تخصيص إمكاناتها لمواجهة الصين.
تدرك الولايات المتحدة الأميركية أنّ هذه المنطقة تمثّل وحدة جغرافية استراتيجية شاءت أم أبت، والبرهان على

ذلك أنّها حين احتلّت العراق عام 2003، كانت تعرف تماماً أنّ ذلك يعني سقوط سوريا ولبنان. لذلك، سارع كولين باول، وزير خارجيّتها آنذاك، إلى زيارة الرئيس السوري وتهديده بتدمير سوريا إذا لم تهادن إسرائيل. فالتوازن بين القوى الذي استطاع الرئيس حافظ الأسد المحافظة عليه، لم يعد ممكناً بعد انهيار الاتحاد السوفياتي، واتُّخذ القرار في الولايات المتحدة الأميركية باجتياح دول سوراقيا، منذ عام 1996 (راجع The Clean The Clean Break). لم تكن أحداث الحادي عشر من أيلول / سبتمبر إلّا الحجّة المناسبة للقيام بذلك، بالرغم من أن لا علاقة للعراق بهذه الأحداث،

لكن الإعلام الأميركي قوي لدرجة أنّه استطاع أن يحوّر الوقائع، وينشر الأكاذيب فيصدّقها القارئ؛ فادّعى كولن باول في اجتماع للأمم المتحدة بأنّ العراق يحتوي على أسلحة دمار شامل، وأرفق طوني بلير هذه الكذبة بأنّ الصواريخ المدمّرة ستطاول بريطانيا خلال أقل من ساعة.
رابعاً، احتلال القوات الأميركية للعراق يمثّل تهديداً وجودياً لإيران. ووجود محور المقاومة ليس بأكثر من تعاضد دول المنطقة وحراكها الشعبي ضد الاحتلال الصهيوني والأميركي معاً، فحتّى حرب صدّام حسين ضد إيران كانت لمصلحة الولايات المتحدة الأميركية، وحين انتهى دور الرئيس العراقي بادرت أميركا ليس فقط إلى تصفيته بل إلى تدمير العراق. لذلك، القول بأنّ حزب الله صار «رأس حربة إيران» هو قول يجافي الحقيقة، فهذا محور متكامل يدافع عن أرضه ووجوده، وكما يقول المثل: «في الاتحاد قوة».
خامساً وأخيراً، إنّ تدمير لبنان ليس بسبب وجود حزب الله كما يقول سامي كليب، وليس بسبب إيران، بل لأنّ علّة وجوده قد انتفت! ولقد كتبت حول هذا الموضوع في مقالة ستنشرها جريدة «الأخبار» عنوانها: «دولة لبنان الكبير: بدايته ونهايته».
لقد اخترع سايكس وبيكو لبنان كمنطقة مسيحية عازلة بين «دولة يهودية» ودول عربية «إسلامية»، وذلك حماية لإسرائيل. لكن، ومع فتح العلاقات الطبيعية والعلنية بين بعض دول الخليج «الإسلامية» وإسرائيل، انتفى دور لبنان المنطقة العازلة، لا بل أصبح عائقاً بفضل مقاومته. هدف تدمير لبنان إلحاقه بإسرائيل، فهل هذا ما يريده الكاتب؟
* أستاذة جامعية


Bi-Weekly Report (#20) on Lebanon and the Middle East (May 3, 2009)

Israel would like to play games with the US Administration in order to delay tough decisions for the establishment of a Palestinian State that everyone has been yearning for.

Israel is trying to focus the attention on Iran but there are no takers. 

The US Administration knows that there are No peace treaties with the Palestinians or Syria unless the regional powers are satisfied and consenting; mainly Iran, Egypt, Saudi Kingdom, and Turkey.

Iran is the easiest of the roadblocks among the four major regional powers because Iran would rather focus its investment on the social and economical issues in Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria.

The most difficult power to satisfy would be Egypt because it lost all credibilities for making any difference in the Arab World and in Africa after Gamal Abdel Nasser: Egypt is holding staunchly to its last Palestinian cards, since the huge weight in the Arab World that Gamal Abdel Nasser created for Egypt was dilapidated and used up since Sadate in 1970.

In fact, if a Palestinian State is voted on in the UN, then Egypt would have to turn to its main responsibility that is Sudan. Sudan is a real hot potato and an international focus: Egypt has neglected Sudan for so long that it has no real leverage over there.

Saudi Kingdom comprehends that exporting and proselytizing its Wahhabi sect will come to an abrupt stop if peace and stability reign in the States of the Sunni Muslims:  The Wahhabi salafist sect relies mainly on religious extremism in the Arab World which is fueled by considering Israel and Iran as nemesis to the Muslims.

Turkey is enjoying its new found role of mediator and would rather that this exercise last longer to convince France that Turkey is a critical factor for the European Union political effectiveness in the Middle East.

The triangle of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan is a very hot potato for Turkey to focus its attention on: Turkey would rather not alienate Russia at this junction before it secures a place in the EU.

Israel has been trying since the coming of Barack Obama to immerse the new US Administration in the recurring troubles between India and Pakistan and comploting terrorists attack in both States: the purpose was to divert the US from pressuring Israel to deliver on its promises for facilitating the establishment of a recognized Palestinian State.

With spring season, the Pakistani Army is making good progress inside the rebellious extremist Taliban type districts within Pakistan such as the Valley of Sawat and with the support of US military shipments.

I was having a nap around 4 p.m. this Wednesday when I overheard that the four military officers, Jamil Al Sayyed (former Security Director), Raymond Azar (military intelligence), Mustafa Hamdan (Presidential guard), and Ali Haj (director of the internal forces) will be released this afternoon after the special International Court of Justice for former late Rafic Hariri realized that it had no legal indictments on any one of the Generals.

There will be strong pressures for four judges to resign because they covered up information and detained the officers for 44 months without any kinds of indictments for political reasons; mainly the focus will be on the judges Said Mirza and Sakr Sakr.

Many heads will fall and the government is in hot water, especially Seniora PM, Saad Hariri, Walid Jumblatt, Samir Geagea, and particularly deputy Marwan Hamady for fabricating false testimonies by false witnesses.

After four years of investigation into the assassination of Rafic Hariri the International Court has nothing in its file for indicting anyone. 

Nasr Allah, the Secretary General of Hezbollah has suggested that a new venue be focused on; mainly the Israeli connection because they had the interest and the means for this major upheaval in Lebanon.  Nasr Allah proclaimed that no more indictments or imprisonment would be facilitated before thorough analysis of the proofs with the UN Court.

Jamil Al Sayyed had explained that their political indictment was a routine behavior of every government since the Independence of Lebanon.

The security responsibility of any government starts with the president of the Republic, then the Prime Minister, then the Head of the Parliament, then the ministers, then the deputies and lastly the security forces. 

All the massacres, treasury stealing, financial black boxes, and insecurity of the State are done by the politicians and based on their policies. 

Once the politicians find it convenient to reconcile their differences it is the officers of the security and military forces that are targeted as scapegoats.

Next Tuesday the highest court of judges of Lebanon will meet and come up with a credible explanation for shirking its independence as the third authority and hopefully major heads should pay the price for ruining the credibility of our justice system.

I left the supermarket and cried my heart out

Reine Azzi on FB

Today I left the supermarket, got into my car, and cried my eyes out.

I worked hard for everything I have. Nothing was given to me. I spent years on scholarships, supported by generous benefactors so I could finish my schooling.

I went to the Lebanese university because it was the only higher education I could afford.

All of this so I could finally begin to feel comfortable… a comfortable middle class. That’s all I ever wanted.

But today, and thanks to the hyperinflation and the economic/political situation, I had to choose which cornflakes to buy for my family because I had selected two different kinds. This was the last straw.

A stranger had to step in and tell them she would add one packet to her ‘cornflakes allotment’. This is a country where people are playing hunger games over cooking oil…

So it was the kindness that threw me off.

I didn’t expect anyone to be kind. Tomorrow morning, I have to tell my son that I couldn’t get his favorite breakfast cereal… and he’s beginning to expect every disappointment.

That’s the sad part. But I managed to find an item that could make things feel a bit better: When all else fails, just add sprinkles.

PS 1. I know for a fact that some people will still vote for these idiots who have ruined our country. I’ll need a lot of sprinkles to swallow that pill. Hopefully we could still find them by then.

PS 2: One of the supermarket reps said something on the news the other day: We don’t want our shelves to become a museum, where people come in, stare at the goods, and then leave. (Kind of Not looking as supermarkets in Soviet Union…)?

Mira Samaha commented: Reine, yesterday I cried in the supermarket because an elegant classy woman, dignified, who was almost hiding when putting back a pack of spaghetti( 7000LL) because she was counting how much she can pay…. I curse them all and their families 

Note 1: The pseudo-citizens in Lebanon have grown, generations after generations in the last century, experiencing preemptive wars by Israel, civil wars, mandated nations (including Syria and Arafat “resistance Palestinian organization” PLO).

The Lebanese lived in blood, indignation, public widespread corruptions, private exploitation with the backing of sectarian the political system, and outright highway robbery that bankrupted the State at all levels: State budget, Central Bank, private banks, financial depletion of “hard currencies”, and No sustainable economy…

The Lebanese ended up emigrating to greener pastures to all continents and a few to support the families who remained behind. Actually, Lebanon finances were mainly relying on immigrant money that were Not “wisely” invested in productive enterprises

Note 2: After each civil war, those “leaders” that devastated the country and ruined the social fabric and prevented daily trade and communication among the communities, always returned to control and rule this pseudo-State. And they are still in power and controlling every public institution, (including the justice system, the internal forces, sections of the army… and hoarding monopolies in every sector of the economy))


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

October 2021
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