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Early Settlements and Investors in Palestine

Capital is the first Jewish colony” had said Edmond de Rothschild

Before WWI, France was the Only western power to totally and unequivocally support Jewish settlements in Palestine. France support was political, economical, educational and administrative.

During WWI, France realized that it relied heavily on the Arab/Moslem troops in its colonies in North Africa (Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco) for its war efforts and stopped this direct support for new colonies: It reverted to England to directly resume the colonization of Palestine and agreed on England mandate over Palestine.

After WWII, France was again the main supporter of the new Israeli State and delivered the most sophisticated weapons and even built the first nuclear power plant in Israel and helped in producing an atomic bomb in the 60’s.

Since 1860, the main Jewish leaders were French and freshly naturalized French. The government instituted Universal Israelite Alliance to construct schools for the Jews in northern Africa where French was the main language.

In 1870, France extended the citizenship to the Jews living in north Africa and denied it to the Moslem “Arabs”

Ä. Silberstein, born in Palestine, wrote in 1930: France had morally conquered the Jews in the Orient (meaning in Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, Iraq…). Whatever issue was related to France’s dignity and interests was made their own…

Mikveh-Israel was the first settlement on a land offered by the Turkish Sultan south of Jaffa (Yafa) in 1869. It was a very fertile piece of land with a small river running through close to the town of Yazour, now called Jason.

Charles Netter travelled to Istanbul to negotiate the settlement of a land in Palestine carrying over 100,000 francs that was supplied by the French banker Salomon Goldschmidt (president of UIA)

Netter was mainly targeting the Oriental Jews  in order to get them out of misery and put them to work on agricultural lands and learning practical artisanal skills. That was a pragmatic move since the Jews in the Orient had the same customs and traditions as the communities in the Land.

Actually, Netter was wondering why the Reformist Jews (mostly French at the time) were opting for the Oriental Jews to immigrate to America.

Netter was harsh on the ultra-orthodox clergy who collected the halucca, monetary retribution, from the pious Jews in order to pray on their behalf at the Wall in Jerusalem.

The triangle of Albert Cohen-Netter-Erlanger was the cornerstone that changed Edmond de Rothschild direction and purpose toward investing in Palestine and creating new colonies for the Jews.

Another catalyst to Edmond zeal was the Grand rabbi of Paris Zadoc Kahn (1839-1905). Zadoc delivered a speech in 1882 in the presence of Edmond that said:

“Desire goes much further than reality can deliver and sustain. Our sensibility, constantly taxed by excitation, has become maladive (sick).  We keep analysing with a manic curiosity, and the thought is constantly reverting in vicious circles. The deeper we dig and the more we catch the void.

“Life becomes the goal. denuded from all its colors and grandeur.

We badly need moral vigor, a serene confidence that we can match the evil forces.

Faith is defined by our actions and activities: An hour of purposeful activity is worth a lifetime of idle faith.

Regulating resting breaks is mainly meant to reinvigorate our willpower and avoid exhausting our mental energy.  Break periods should be enjoyed undertaking speculative work such as reading, daydreaming of useful projects  and not doing any kinds of activities…

Any study that is not part and parcel of active work is sterile”

Edmond de Rothschild began investing in Palestine at the age of 37, in 1882.

In the next 17 years, it seems that he spent $100 million in purchasing lands (gueoulah), building factories, schools and hospitals and disseminating Jewish settlements to produce what he needed.

The initial purchased lands were owned by wealthy Lebanese like the Sursock (banking) and many other feudal lords who became leaders in Lebanon political system due to the money they got from selling their lands in Palestine

For example, the colonies in the north of Yessod ha-maala and Mishmar ha-yarden were to plant jasmine for Edmonds perfume factory in Grasse.

In 1882, over 100 Jews from Warsaw (Poland) were shipped to the first colony of Mikveh-Israel (Hope of Israel).

The colony of Rishon Zion (First in Zion) and south of Mikveh-Israel was the first colony that Edmond financed totally.

The settlement of Zikhon-Jacob in Samaria was invaded by 200 Jews shipped from Galatz in Rumania. These immigrants were well off and earned good money and they revolted when they realized they were shipped to Palestine. They demanded to be sent back home.

Many immigrants died of Diphtheria and other illnesses.

Most immigrants were initially Sephardi (from Yemen, Iran, Syria, Morocco, the indigenous Jews and French Jews flocking from Istanbul and Turkey and called Francos).

After the pogroms committed by Russia in Poland since 1905, The Ashkenazi Jews of Poland and Germany started to outnumber the Sephardi and their Grand Rabbi replaced the Sephardi Rabbi.

Edmond was also interested in colonizing Asiatic Turkey since 1891.

Edmond appointed Elie Scheid in 1884 to head the Jewish colonies.

He first encountered Herzl in 1896 and Weizmann in 1913.

The Jewish Colonial Bank was founded in 1898.

The American Jewish Society was founded in 1906.

In the 1910’s, Edmond sold his shares in the oil fields in Baku (Azerbaijan) and reinvested this money in Palestine:  The Bolsheviks in Baku, lead by Stalin, had made investment in Baku a daily problem. At the turn of the 20th century, Baku produced 50% of the world oil.

The PICA was founded in 1924 and Edmond placed Henri Frank to be the director for a strategic expansion of the settlements.

Edmond visited Palestine 5 times: in 1887 (3 weeks), in 1893 (5 days), in 1899, in 1914 (2 weeks), and in 1925 (10 days).

During the Great Depression of 1928, no funds came to the colonies and the development of Tel Aviv was halted.  The project of establishing an Israeli state became dubious.

The Zionists reacted by committing massacres in Jerusalem in 1930 and Edmond fell prey to this machination of instilling religious enmities. He wrote a letter to France rabbi Israel Levi stating:

Our interest is to separate the religious question from politics, to separate the mandate questions from our Israelite Home” (This suggestion has made a full circle: It is the Jews refusing to separate religion from politics and the Palestinians demanding a State of civil rights)

The British mandated power refused any democratic elections, even for municipalities in Palestine under the pretence that it is not fair for the Jewish minority. The Palestinians started their first civil disobedience (Intifada) in 1936 and lasted 4 years.

The British had to dispatch 100,000 troops to quell the insurrection and committed all kinds of massacre and invented all kinds of torture that Israel has adopted in their integrity, even the administrative detention law.

David Ben Gurion, in his preface to the book of Kressel, pointed out that, if you joined by lines all the colonies already established by Edmond, you discover that the locations were not done haphazardly.

The colonies exhibited the boundaries to the planned partition of Palestine.

Actually, when the UN partitioned Palestine in 1947, it gave the Jewish minority (40% of the population) 57% of the land, such as any Jewish colony could enclose the neighboring Palestinian towns and villages so that the Jewish State included all the established settlements.

In 1917, Britain foreign minister, Lord Balfour, addressed his letter for the establishment of a Jewish homeland to Lord Walter, the son of Nathaniel Mayer Rothschild who became the first Jew to enter the Chamber of Lords.

In 1918, the French foreign minister S. Pichon ratified Balfour letter, and President Wilson followed suit on August 1918 in a letter to S.Wise.

Consequently, the western nations had already set their mind to partition Palestine before WWI ended.

The remains of Edmond were transferred from Pere-Lachaise cemetery in Paris to the hill of Ramat Hamadiv, close to Haifa in 1954.

Note: France had a mandated power over Syria and Lebanon. The French strategy was to divide these two countries into cantons of minorities.

The Syrian people kept a steady rebellion against the French presence and France bombed Damascus to the ground in 1923-24.

France ceded a big chunk of the most fertile and strategic lands in northern Syria to Turkey of Ataturk in 1936.

Since then, all the French institutions made it a policy to grab any opportunity to humiliate and weaken Syria.

Talk of Zionist lobby in the USA? All the French institutions are Zionists regardless of political lines.

Up until 1968, most Israeli weapons were French. De Gaulle, one of the staunchest Zionist, stopped delivering Mirage fighter jets after the Israeli pre-emptive 1967 war.

Currently, it is France that is building the Israeli nuclear submarines, financed by Germany. Israel has obtained already 6 of the most modern submarines.

Germany and USA: The most anti-Semite and staunchest supporters of Israel… Why?

The Bund, or the General Jewish Labor Union in Lithuania, Poland, and Russia, which was founded in Vilna in early October 1897, a few weeks after the convening of the first Zionist Congress in Basel in late August 1897, would become Zionism’s fiercest enemy.

The Bund joined the existing anti-Zionist Jewish coalition of Orthodox and Reform rabbis who had combined forces a few months earlier to prevent Herzl from convening the first Zionist Congress in Munich, which forced him to move it to Basel. Jewish anti-Zionism across Europe and in the United States had the support of the majority of Jews who continued to view Zionism as an anti-Jewish movement well into the 1940s.

Anti-Semitic chain of pro-Zionist enthusiasts

Realizing that its plan for the future of European Jews was in line with those of anti-Semites, Herzl’s strategy early on was an alliance with the latter. He declared in Der Judenstaat that:

“The Governments of all countries scourged by anti-Semitism will be keenly interested in assisting us to obtain [the] sovereignty we want.”

Herzl‘s added that “not only poor Jews” would contribute to an immigration fund for European Jews, “but also Christians who wanted to get rid of them“. Herzl unapologetically confided in his Diaries that:

The anti-Semites will become our most dependable friends, the anti-Semitic countries our allies.”

When Herzl began to meet in 1903 with infamous anti-Semites like the Russian minister of the interior Vyacheslav von Plehve, who oversaw anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia, it was an alliance that he sought by design. That it would be the anti-Semitic Lord Balfour, who as Prime Minister of Britain in 1905 oversaw his government’s Aliens Act, which prevented East European Jews fleeing Russian pogroms from entering Britain in order to save the country from the “undoubted evils” of “an immigration which was largely Jewish”, was hardy coincidental.

Balfour’s infamous Declaration of 1917 to create in Palestine a “national home” for the “Jewish people”, was designed, among other things, to curb Jewish support for the Russian Revolution and to stem the tide of further unwanted Jewish immigrants into Britain.

The Nazis would not be an exception in this anti-Semitic chain of pro-Zionist enthusiasts.

Indeed, the Zionists would strike a deal with the Nazis very early in their history. It was in 1933 that the infamous Transfer (Ha’avara) Agreement was signed between the Zionists and the Nazi government to facilitate the transfer of German Jews and their property to Palestine, and which broke the international Jewish boycott of Nazi Germany started by American Jews.

It was in this spirit that Zionist envoys were dispatched to Palestine to report on the successes of Jewish colonization of the country.

The Nazi officer and official, Adolf Eichmann, returned from his 1937 trip to Palestine full of fantastic stories about the achievements of the racially-separatist Ashkenazi Kibbutz, one of which he visited on Mount Carmel as a guest of the Zionists.

Despite the overwhelming opposition of most German Jews, it was the Zionist Federation of Germany that was the only Jewish group that supported the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, as they agreed with the Nazis that Jews and Aryans were separate and separable races.

This agreement was not a tactical support but one based on ideological similitude. The Nazis’ Final Solution initially meant the expulsion of Germany’s Jews to Madagascar. It is this shared goal of expelling Jews from Europe as a separate inassimilable race that created the affinity between Nazis and Zionists all along.

While the majority of Jews continued to resist the anti-Semitic basis of Zionism and its alliances with anti-Semites, the Nazi genocide not only killed 90 percent of European Jews, but in the process also killed the majority of Jewish enemies of Zionism who died precisely because they refused to heed the Zionist call of abandoning their countries and homes.

After the War, the horror at the Jewish holocaust did not stop European countries from supporting the anti-Semitic programme of Zionism. On the contrary, these countries shared with the Nazis a predilection for Zionism. They only opposed Nazism’s genocidal programme.

European countries, along with the United States, refused to take in hundreds of thousands of Jewish survivors of the holocaust.

In fact, these countries voted against a UN resolution introduced by the Arab states in 1947 calling on them to take in the Jewish survivors.

Yet, these same countries would be the ones who would support the United Nations Partition Plan of November 1947 to create a Jewish State in Palestine to which these unwanted Jewish refugees could be expelled.

The pro-Zionist policies of the Nazis

The United States and European countries, including Germany, would continue the pro-Zionist policies of the Nazis. Post-War West German governments that presented themselves as opening a new page in their relationship with Jews in reality did no such thing.

Since the establishment of the country after WWII, every West German government (and every German government since unification in1990) has continued the pro-Zionist Nazi policies unabated.

There was never a break with Nazi pro-Zionism.

The only break was with the genocidal and racial hatred of Jews that Nazism consecrated, but not with the desire to see Jews set up in a country in Asia, away from Europe. Indeed, the Germans would explain that much of the money they were sending to Israel was to help offset the costs of resettling European Jewish refugees in the country.

After World War II, a new consensus emerged in the United States and Europe that Jews had to be integrated posthumously into white Europeanness, and that the horror of the Jewish holocaust was essentially a horror at the murder of white Europeans.

Since the 1960s, Hollywood films about the holocaust began to depict Jewish victims of Nazism as white Christian-looking, middle class, educated and talented people not unlike contemporary European and American Christians who should and would identify with them.

Presumably, if the films were to depict the poor religious Jews of Eastern Europe (and most East European Jews who were killed by the Nazis were poor and many were religious), contemporary white Christians would not find commonality with them.

Hence, the post-holocaust European Christian horror at the genocide of European Jews was not based on the horror of slaughtering people in the millions who were different from European Christians, but rather a horror at the murder of millions of people who were the same as European Christians.

This should explain why in a country like the United States, which had nothing to do with the slaughter of European Jews, there exists upwards of 40 holocaust memorials and a major museum for the murdered Jews of Europe, but not one for the holocaust of Native Americans or African Americans for which the US is responsible.

Aimé Césaire understood this process very well. In his famous speech on colonialism, he affirmed that the retrospective view of European Christians about Nazism is that

The supreme barbarism, the crowning barbarism that sums up all the daily barbarisms; that it is Nazism, yes, but that before [Europeans] were its victims, they were its accomplices. And they tolerated that Nazism before it was inflicted on them, that they absolved it, shut their eyes to it, legitimized it:  until then, it had been applied only to non-European peoples.

That they have cultivated that Nazism, that they are responsible for it, and that before engulfing the whole of Western, Christian civilization in its reddened waters, it oozes, seeps, and trickles from every crack.

For Césaire, the Nazi wars and holocaust were European colonialism turned inwards is true enough.

Since the rehabilitation of Nazism’s victims as white people, Europe and its American accomplice would continue their Nazi policy of visiting horrors on non-white people around the world, on Korea, on Vietnam and Indochina, on Algeria, on Indonesia, on Central and South America, on Central and Southern Africa, on Palestine, on Iran, and on Iraq and Afghanistan.

The rehabilitation of European Jews after WWII was a crucial part of US Cold War propaganda. As American social scientists and ideologues developed the theory of “totalitarianism”, which posited Soviet Communism and Nazism as essentially the same type of regime, European Jews, as victims of one totalitarian regime, became part of the atrocity exhibition that American and West European propaganda claimed was like the atrocities that the Soviet regime was allegedly committing in the pre- and post-War periods.

Israel would jump on the bandwagon by accusing the Soviets of anti-Semitism for their refusal to allow Soviet Jewish citizens to self-expel and leave to Israel was part of the propaganda.

Commitment to white supremacy

It was thus that the European and US commitment to white supremacy was preserved, except that it now included Jews as part of “white” people, and what came to be called “Judeo-Christian” civilization. European and American policies after World War II, which continued to be inspired and dictated by racism against Native Americans, Africans, Asians, Arabs and Muslims, and continued to support Zionism’s anti-Semitic programme of assimilating Jews into whiteness in a colonial settler state away from Europe, were a direct continuation of anti-Semitic policies prevalent before the War.

It was just that much of the anti-Semitic racialist venom would now be directed at Arabs and Muslims (both, those who are immigrants and citizens in Europe and the United States and those who live in Asia and Africa) while the erstwhile anti-Semitic support for Zionism would continue unhindered.

West Germany’s alliance with Zionism and Israel after WWII, of supplying Israel with huge economic aid in the 1950s and of economic and military aid since the early 1960s, including tanks, which it used to kill Palestinians and other Arabs, is a continuation of the alliance that the Nazi government concluded with the Zionists in the 1930s.

In the 1960s, West Germany even provided military training to Israeli soldiers, and since the 1970s has provided Israel with nuclear-ready German-made submarines with which Israel hopes to kill more Arabs and Muslims. Israel has in recent years armed the most recent German-supplied submarines with nuclear tipped cruise missiles, a fact that is well known to the current German government.

Israel’s Defense Minister Ehud Barak told Der SPIEGELin 2012 that Germans should be “proud” that they have secured the existence of the state of Israel “for many years”. Berlin financed one-third of the cost of the submarines, around 135 million euros ($168 million) per submarine, and has allowed Israel to defer its payment until 2015.

Doesn’t these supports makes Germany an accomplice in the dispossession of the Palestinians? This is of no more concern to current German governments than it was in the 1960s to West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer who affirmed that “the Federal Republic has neither the right nor the responsibility to take a position on the Palestinian refugees“.

This is to be added to the massive billions that Germany has paid to the Israeli government as compensation for the holocaust, as if Israel and Zionism were the victims of Nazism, when in reality it was anti-Zionist Jews who were killed by the Nazis.

The current German government does not care about the fact that even those German Jews who fled the Nazis and ended up in Palestine hated Zionism and its project and were hated in turn by Zionist colonists in Palestine.

As German refugees in 1930s and 1940s Palestine refused to learn Hebrew and published half a dozen German newspapers in the country, they were attacked by the Hebrew press, including by Haartez, which called for the closure of their newspapers in 1939 and again in 1941.

Zionist colonists attacked a German-owned café in Tel Aviv because its Jewish owners refused to speak Hebrew, and the Tel Aviv municipality threatened in June 1944 some of its German Jewish residents for holding in their home on 21 Allenby street “parties and balls entirely in the German language, including programmes that are foreign to the spirit of our city” and that this would “not be tolerated in Tel Aviv”.

German Jews, or Yekkes as they were known in the Yishuv, would even organize a celebration of the Kaiser’s birthday in 1941 (for these and more details about German Jewish refugees in Palestine, read Tom Segev’s bookThe Seventh Million”.

Add to that Germany’s support for Israeli policies against Palestinians at the United Nations, and the picture becomes complete. Even the new holocaust memorial built in Berlin that opened in 2005 maintains Nazi racial apartheid, as this “Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe” is only for Jewish victims of the Nazis who must still today be set apart, as Hitler mandated, from the other millions of non-Jews who also fell victim to Nazism.

That a subsidiary of the German company Degussa, which collaborated with the Nazis and which produced the Zyklon B gas that was used to kill people in the gas chambers, was contracted to build the memorial was anything but surprising, as it simply confirms that those who killed Jews in Germany in the late 1930s and in the 1940s now regret what they had done because they now understand Jews to be white Europeans who must be commemorated and who should not have been killed in the first place on account of their whiteness.

The German policy of abetting the killing of Arabs by Israel, however, is hardly unrelated to this commitment to anti-Semitism, which continues through the predominant contemporary anti-Muslim German racism that targets Muslim immigrants.

Euro-American anti-Jewish tradition

The Jewish holocaust killed off the majority of Jews who fought and struggled against European anti-Semitism, including Zionism.

With their death, the only remaining “Semites” who are fighting against Zionism and its anti-Semitism today are the Palestinian people.

Whereas Israel insists that European Jews do not belong in Europe and must come to Palestine, the Palestinians have always insisted that the homelands of European Jews were their European countries and not Palestine, and that Zionist colonialism springs from its very anti-Semitism.

Whereas Zionism insists that Jews are a race separate from European Christians, the Palestinians insist that European Jews are nothing if not European and have nothing to do with Palestine, its people, or its culture. What Israel and its American and European allies have sought to do in the last six and a half decades is to convince Palestinians that they too must become anti-Semites and believe as the Nazis, Israel, and its Western anti-Semitic allies do, that Jews are a race that is different from European races, that Palestine is their country, and that Israel speaks for all Jews.

That the two largest American pro-Israel voting blocks today are Millenarian Protestants and secular imperialists continues the very same Euro-American anti-Jewish tradition that extends back to the Protestant Reformation and 19th century imperialism. 

But the Palestinians have remained unconvinced and steadfast in their resistance to anti-Semitism.

Israel and its anti-Semitic allies affirm that Israel is “the Jewish people”, that its policies are “Jewish” policies, that its achievements are “Jewish” achievements, that its crimes are “Jewish” crimes, and that therefore anyone who dares to criticize Israel is criticizing Jews and must be an anti-Semite.

The Palestinian people have mounted a major struggle against this anti-Semitic incitement. They continue to affirm instead that the Israeli government does not speak for all Jews, that it does not represent all Jews, and that its colonial crimes against the Palestinian people are its own crimes and not the crimes of “the Jewish people”, and that therefore it must be criticized, condemned and prosecuted for its ongoing war crimes against the Palestinian people.

This is not a new Palestinian position, but one that was adopted since the turn of the 20th century and continued throughout the pre-WWII Palestinian struggle against Zionism.

Israel’s claim that its critics must be anti-Semites presupposes that its critics believe its claims that it represents “the Jewish people”.

But it is Israel’s claims that it represents and speaks for all Jews that are the most anti-Semitic claims of all.

Today, Israel and the Western powers want to elevate anti-Semitism to an international principle around which they seek to establish full consensus. They insist that for there to be peace in the Middle East, Palestinians, Arabs and Muslims must become, like the West, anti-Semites by espousing Zionism and recognizing Israel’s anti-Semitic claims.

Except for dictatorial Arab regimes and the Palestinian Authority and its cronies, on this 65th anniversary of the anti-Semitic conquest of Palestine by the Zionists, known to Palestinians as the Nakba, the Palestinian people and the few surviving anti-Zionist Jews continue to refuse to heed this international call and incitement to anti-Semitism.

The Palestinians affirm that they are, as the last of the Semites, the heirs of the pre-WWII Jewish and Palestinian struggles against anti-Semitism and its Zionist colonial manifestation. It is their resistance that stands in the way of a complete victory for European anti-Semitism in the Middle East and the world at large.

Note: An extract from the lengthy article by Joseph Massad.  Massad teaches Modern Arab Politics and Intellectual History at Columbia University in New York.

He is the author of The Persistence of the Palestinian Question: Essays on Zionism and the Palestinians. 

Lord Balfour chased out of Damascus

Have you heard of this British foreign minister Lord Balfour? He is the one who promised, in 1917, the Zionist movement to arrange for a parcel of land in Palestine in order for the Jews to emigrate and settle there.

April 9, 1925

Lord Balfour is visiting with the Zionists in Palestinians and is planning to visit Damascus by boarding a well-secure train from Haifa to Damascus, the capital of Syria, that was under French colonial mandated power.

As the train reached Deraa in the Houran province, close to current State of Jordan, the inhabitants converged to have a hostile curious look at this infamous character.

In Damascus, the British consul Smart waited for the train at the town of Kadem and whisked Balfour in a ready closed car so that Balfour is saved from the cursing of the people on his arrival and along the route.

A mass of students were waiting at the hotel Victoria and shouting: “Down with Balfour” and other similar “Enemy of the Arab people”, “lackey to the Zionist capitalists”… The crowd was dispersed.

The masses converged again with increasing violence and the owner of the hotel closed all the windows in order to save the glasses of being broken by the showers of stones.

Orators harangued the demonstrators and were applauded. The Moroccan Spahis (soldiers on horses at the pay of France) dispersed the crowed with their swords  and wounded about twenty.

The people closed the Omayyad Mosque to this intruder. The shops in the souks were closed. A large demonstration was being planned for the next morning.

The gracious Lord was begged by a delegation of wise people for not honoring his presence any longer.

Lord Balfour was packed in a hurry and taken to Beirut, and immediately bordered the waiting ship.  On in the ship did balfour felt in security.

All conquerors of Syria remember Damascus, and balfour was not to forget the sentiment of this welcoming Syrians.

Alice Poulleau recalls in her diary that she was lost in the hills surrounding Damascus on the day Balfour arrived. Her adventure had a very happy ending.

Fellahs (peasants) of Doummar redirected her trip and even hired a donkey cart driver (Arbaji) to take her to Damascus. The Syrian are very hospitable and confident with “good foreigners”

Note: This is one of the diaries of Alice Poulleau in her published book “A Damas sous les bombs” (In Damascus under the bombs) that she finished writing in 1925 and published it in 1926.

The book was banned from all the countries under the French occupation troops, and was only republished in 2012.


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