Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Lower middle class

Two-head world presidency: Time to bite the bitter pills

Global institutions for trade, commerce, and finance have faltered after the latest financial crisis, and the world superpowers were unable to remedy for the dwindling economic production and market stability.

Every powerful nation is acting on his own to stabilizing its internal problems:  cooperation in the many economic and financial summits proved to be weak and short-sighted.

Most powerful States know that soon the world will be led by the two-headed presidency: The US and China. 

The US, supported by the western powers and Japan, will be responsible for the planning and providing the know-how; while China, supported by the Far Eastern countries will be responsible for the execution of the programs and production. 

The emerging powers (vast lands and large population) such as Russia, India, Brazil, Turkey, Nigeria, and Indonesia will play the current role of the US:  Mainly absorbing the excesses in production and exporting the needed raw materials.

Why the US and China?

The US currently dominate the world’s institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade and Commerce organization and the most powerful multinational financial institutions; it has the institutions and the know-how for setting the programs in this Capitalist market.

China has the cheap manpower and a dictatorial central power to moving and transferring millions of workers to far away locations in order to quickly execute programs that “democratic” political structures are slow to perform within tight schedules.

Currently, several members of the old club of the G8 (specifically the US and England), within the G20 of the States that grab 80% of global commerce, had implicitly agreed to resume their old-time preferred method for quick money generation: by accelerating speculations on overvalued currencies and higher interest rates in banks of emerging nations such as Brazil, Turkey, South Africa, Argentina, South Korea, Russia, and China.

Thus, the US and England got their money printing machine in full gear, producing liquidity that far exceeds the need of their internal trade market.  They lend money at reduced interest rates (1 to 2%)  to speculative financial institutions so that they invest the money in emerging State banks.

The old club of the G8 are instituting harsh budget cuts affecting primarily the lower middle class in their societies, this class that consumes 70% of internal trade and effectively shoulders the economy.  Thus, economies in the G8 are not to experience any improvement.

The two-head world power system is inevitable; but for this new world order to be swallowed, a major war is to be created for effective demonstration of its feasibility.

Consequently, WikiLeaks has targeted the diffusion of so-called secret foreign policies that are meant to point out the main next enemy (agreed upon by most powerful States such as US, China, and Russia):  Iran.

The North Korean conflict is but a smokescreen or preliminary military joint maneuver by the major States and ironing out the sphere of influence.

Note:  Current currency speculation by major powers has the following consequences:

First, it destabilizes the financial order in the emerging nations and slows down the expansion of its economy with the implicit political message: “You have accelerated your economic plans to counter-weight the political clout of the G8 club.  This policy is premature and done at the wrong timing.  Take a deep breath before confronting us head on so quickly”

Second, the major drawback for the G8 is that their internal trades will be handicapped since liquidity is not infused to the small and medium industries and enterprises that account for real changes in economic development.

Beggars: Currency instituted mendicancy?

Since mankind shifted from a barter economy to dealing with currencies, societies turned steadily and consistently away from production to a specie of mendicants.

In the barter trade, every individual in the tribe, clan, women, men, and children had a special task to support the survival of the tribe.  Once a member is entirely incapacitated to be a productive entity in the order of the small community, or unable to get moving at a regular pace with the tribe to better seasonal greener pastures then, the member was relocated to a shady place near a source of water to tend to his peaceful death a “paradise for the old spirits“.

Most probably, a core of compassionate individuals delegated their services to aiding these old spirits as best they could.   They extracted from these elders oral stories of myths and traditional laws of conduct.

Transmitters of oral teaching and education are called “marabout” or “grios” in Africa:  They have been transmitting the oral spiritual traditions of communities around bonfires.

A few of them decided to institute religions, based on the captured myths told about the creation of the universe and what happen to the souls after death; until the written languages codified the sacred religious knowledge within the sacerdotal classes.

Currently, old people are still not that scared of death: Just fearing a state of lack of liquid currency, lest they are forced to beg to staying alive.

They are not afraid of dying of hunger:  Just apprehensive that no aides will come, unless they have to beg.

After years of toils and unconditional disposition to raise a family, sending them to universities, marrying their offspring, and distributing properties to their married children, old parents are dragging their arthritic feet as best they can and feeling ashamed to asking for small money.

I am witnessing a grandmother, wrecked with arthritis, barely able to shift its body during sleep, and having to do dishes, sweep, do laundry, preparing jams for the winter season, and even cook for her married daughter with six children, many of these children are way over 25 years of age.

I am witnessing a grandfather, having difficulty getting in a car and thus, deciding to staying home, dragging his feet three flats up in order to replenish water in the water tanks on the roof:  He had plenty of reasons not to trust automatic systems and the damage they did when they failed.

Old people are worried that their children will not make it in this new harsh world: They were not adequately trained to fending for their survival.

Old people without any social covering are waiting to die in pain and hopelessness.

Old people of the middle and upper classes, with health coverage, are willing to undergo heart surgery at the age of 80, only to survive three lousy months in pain and suffering.

I am pretty sure they were warned by surgeons of the humiliating conditions they will suffer, but sacrifice is forgotten at a senile age.

We beg for food and pocket-money, though we are entitled to vote, to drive expensive cars, to join armies, and to kill for “motherland”.

We beg for better grades; we beg for jobs; we beg for a raise; we lick asses to keep our jobs; we forget morality and ethical conducts and obey the boss; we claim that we are skilled survivors.

There was a time, still as valid now as ever, when materially fallen noblemen, had priority over the most disinherited people for the money collected in churches.

Poor Noblemen had to be secured first, lest the social structure disintegrates and chaos reign supreme.

Multinational financial institutions have to get first help:  They worked so hard to bilk people out of their earned money.

Multinational do not beg: They demand their rights as knights and barons of the establishment.

The verb to beg was created for the poor people and it does not apply to the rich barons of industries who demand their rights to financial aids:  They invented the social and economic structure for the begging citizens.

We are effective beggars; we keep the mask of revolting against mendicant behaviors.

Wild animals and pets search for a shady and isolated place to die when the time approach:  They refuse further unnecessary suffering and pain.

They leave the company of the tribe:  They cannot expect the community to feed them; this is contrary to the nature of the specie.  Mankind is willing to beg mercilessly and assiduously to the last moment.

Millions of kids faking work, selling chewing gum on streets for a loaf of bread.  Millions playing the meditative game, so that their collective spirits in prayers will bring about world peace, in exchange of one daily meal.

Billion of people are producing nothing.

They are the ones who cannot teach art but expose the results of art.

They cannot teach how to make shoes, but display instead varieties of shoes for you to select from.

The shop keepers, working a lifetime in a box, collaborating with wholesalers, quickly turning over products in warehouses.

Engineers, supposedly trained to design products and services and ending up working salesperson. Engineers  are hired to selling products and services, thinking that they can extend the illusion to consumers that they know something about the product.

It never crosses the mind of this engineer to making the effort of “re-designing” the product he is selling.

Sales people selling whatever there is to sell, uttering big technical terminologies: they have no ideas what these words mean.

Lawyers, shuffling papers and documents, bilking people, communicating with the lawyer of the other party, hammering out settlements, because they were not trained to defending clients in courts.

Teams upon teams of “hygiene engineers” cleaning offices, gathering trash, vacuuming,  and then collecting garbage.

The lower middle class, learning technical skills, working around conveyor belts, assembling consumer products and canned food.

Now and then, facilitating modern lifestyle by updating plumbing and electrical systems:  running water, ready electrical power, and automatic appliances that were meant to liberating essential time for a real productive life but falling short on target.

Who are the producers?  

They are the peasants in remote areas, no one paying them a visit, except wholesalers at harvest time.

Millions working in sweat shop factories:  the modern sacrificial lambs targeted to die at young age for disastrous workplace conditions.

Millions working in underground tunnels, extracting raw materials, trapped in worse conditions than taupe.

Millions working in open grounds, extracting raw materials, dying young, in polluted environment, for their daily meals.

If those are the people producing something then, how come so many trillions of dollar-kind money have accumulated?

Trillions being talk about like we are meaning billions of dollars.

The world is currently  posting $60 trillion GNP per year; $15 trillion are saved by the “poorer” developing States so that multinational financial institutions move the surplus to the “powerful” States to maintain their higher standards of living.

The financial institutions cut out their commissions for facilitating the transfer of money from the poor people to the “richer” people maintaining high State indebtedness.

Last century, people were producing.  In this century, worthless paper money are being printed, shifted, transacted, and transferred around as valuable earning; fictitious wealth backed by the power of aircraft carriers and lethal killing equipment.

Millions of “men of war” in 200 official armies, begging for their daily meals in exchange for killing their own kinds, fighting for the “fatherland”.  

Millions of men of war enlisted in militia organizations fighting for the honor of the tribe, the trampled dignity of a local  leader, a religious cleric.

There was a long period in mankind history, tribes going on razzias expeditions against richer tribes and rounding up livestock.  Tribes expected razzias: They were meant for survival purposes under harsh conditions.

In the last three centuries, razzias on grand scale, are directed for pure greed.

Mankind: a specie of mendicants, with no dignity and no shame.

A specie that convinced itself that life is precious, even if they are totally worthless to producing anything spiritual.

Compassion is meant to helping the abler body.

A specie toiling a lifetime not producing a dime’s worth;  unable to write an article, even an illegible one.

A specie no longer worth surviving.

The economy did not restart.  The effective rate of unemployed citizens is increasing and converging to the dangerous critical mark of 20%.  That means 12% of the lower middle class citizens are jobless.  The Real Estates bubble is still infected.  Bursting the abscess of property ownership is not for any time soon for good reasons:  most foreclosures are illegal.  The documents of property ownership, amassed in the last three decades by banks and financial institutions, do not exist or are not available.

Paul Krugman, Nobel of economics for 2008, explains. Property rights are badly defined since nobody possesses  adequate documents for ownership.  In most cases, proper documents do not exist:  many loans have been extended by shady financial organizations intent on “showing numbers”.  The mortgages were sold to “funds” ad hoc that dismantled the loans into financial products and supported by mortgage borrowing.

The laws demand that these “funds” obtain the titles of mortgages detailing the obligations of the owners.  These legal formalities were considered to be useless and thus, were neglected by the financial institutions.  Consequently, most current foreclosures are illegal.  Facing this judicial nightmare, the courts are currently relying on sworn testimony of banks with written declarations signed by “robo-signers” or employees having no idea what they are signing on, simply because supervisors ordered them to sign.

The code order from the government to the justice system is: “If a bank declares to own a property then, you have to take their words for granted.”  The problem is that the “funds” cannot produce proper documents of ownership.  The mandatory parties (the financial institutions saved by the government after the crisis) can be sued by investors who bought the titles to ownership; these titles have fractions of their nominal values.

In my previous three articles I discussed reforms for this liberal capitalist democracy.  In this post I want to extend a reasonable way out for the bursting of the Real Estates bubble fiasco that is dooming the system to another financial crisis soon. Since the government has the legitimacy of creating the proper rights for ownership I suggest this proposal.  How about all properties “owned” by banks and financial institutions be considered as rented by the government for a short duration until laws of ownership are revised and proper documents delineated to be needed for property titles like the good old times?

It is advisable that reformed election laws that adequately represent the lower middle class and women be instituted to discussing property laws. If reforms are not to pass “peacefully and democratically”, at least, the next financial crisis will be postponed as the government is renting properties that lack legal documents for titles. People can still purchase these rented properties and State governments can extend the lease to 30 years.

The “Old Money” of the 1% oligarchy, capturing 30% of the nation’s wealth in the capitalist liberal democracy of the USA, knew of the incoming latest financial crash:  their immediate code order after the crisis was “Regaining confidence in our capitalist brand system”.   The code order meant “The common people must have lost hope that our political, social, and economic structure can continue to work as usual.  We must find a tactical scheme that extends hope that “change is very possible in our one century old-established system”.  The people must be worked upon to be re-convinced that our system is the only alternative to producing wealth; that the trickle down policy of the rich reaping the profit first before the scraps are re-distributed is still the most valid structure to contributing to a stable economy.”

Since economic reforms are out of the question and that restarting the economy any time soon is not feasible then,  a quick and dirty smoke screen effect scheme was to be generated.  The oligarchy, aided by the unethical technocrats, devised a diabolic believable smoke screen: “Let us elect a charismatic “Black Citizen” for President of the Republic. At least we will have demonstrated that our liberal democracy can absorb social change”  This scheme hides the untold purpose: The capitalist superstructure behind this ideological liberal democracy will resume functioning and will try to re-establishing security and stability in economic life after the people is exhausted and his savings depleted.

The Obama ticket did the job wonderfully.  Obama spread the requisite hope of  “confidence” in fantastic rhetorical speeches.  Then, Obama was put on short leach in order not to institute dangerous euphoric hopes that could run overboard.  The limited national health care coverage reform passed with the requisite roadblocks:  Reforms should not be taken for granted and done quickly because the people want it.  No other serious reforms were put on the table for discussion and for making decisions:  Just mentioning reasonable financial reforms were too dangerous to start with.

It does not look promising in the near future for any reforms.  The Republicans and the Democrats are sharing the same oligarchic bed and just sending angry smoke screens working on people’s fears of instability and insecurity.

Note:  I do not necessarily include the billionaires of the last two decades in the 1% oligarchy:  They might be more willing to support reasonable reforms to this brand of capitalism.

Has the unemployed reached 20%?  Then what?

Government statistics on unemployment rates never acknowledge that the effective unemployed is over 20% of the total workforce.  The statistics are always recorded to be below 12%, no matter what it takes in pressures, tempering, or censorship of real number.  Why?  

In a semi steady-state developed capitalist system, a 20% joblessness rate represents 12% of the lower middle class (LMC) being out of earning power.  I explained in the previous article “Public enemy #1:  Lower middle class”, how a capitalist system views, categorizes, and identifies  LMC and how it considers it to be the most virulent and potent power to demanding reforms: especially, fairer representation in the political system in order to revisiting laws tailored-made to satisfying the interest of the richest 10% of the population, which is hoarding 50% of the total wealth of a nation.

In summary, the lower middle class LMC has tasted the fruits of consumerism economy and is not going back to the previous conditions of humiliation, indignities, and starvation by all means possible.  LMC represents 70% of the internal buying power of consumerism goods and services and is targeted by credit card companies to accumulating debt on purchases at 20% interest rate.

LMC families constitute 50% of the population and over 60% of the work force.  LMC is mostly educated at the high school level and enjoys health care benefits and wants to acquire its first home.  The rank and file of the military machine is composed of mostly LMC citizens.  

Basically, the military is a political institution meant to quickly absorb unemployed LMC in period of economic downturn and to releasing them to the workforce pool in the rare economic upturns.

This article is meant to demonstrating that almost all wars, since the advent of industrial capitalist age, which consolidated its power on the economic and social structures, had the main purpose of absorbing the unemployed LMC in order to safeguarding the internal security of the system represented by the 10% richest class.  

These wars were either expansion wars, preemptive wars, or “national wars” (for example, against Spain, Japan, Germany…) depending on the seriousness of the rate of joblessness in the LMC.  In economic downturn and high unemployed citizens, the Federal government or Centralized government has two options, both of them directly related to safeguarding the interest and privileges of the elite 10% richest class.  

Either the elite class is cornered to ceding privileges and extending fairer representation, proportional to class number; or venturing into some sort of wars (which is the norm) in order to absorb the overflow of unemployed in the military and creating an illusion of  economic growth and recovery by supplying the military campaigns. Thus, wars are quick and dirty options to rounding up the pool of unemployed LMC and finding them a relief outlet outside the confine of the country.

In the 1840’s, the city of New York experience the worst outbursts of the unemployed.  The Federal government squashed the uprising by navy canons and the landing of the marines and army.  This solution was short-lived since the unemployed had no outlet.  The Federal government opened the expansion west in order to offering free lands for the LMC.  This initial push westward failed because the American Indians demonstrated resilience and the LMC returned to the “safety” of urban centers.  

Thus, the Federal government looked toward the southern States for an outlet to the unemployed.  Again, this tactic failed for two main reasons:  First, the LMC had no idea what kind of jobs they can secure in States focused on intensive workforce done by “negro” slaves; and second, the southern States, composed of feudal large landowners, realized that the Federal government is trying to export its brand of capitalism and refused to cooperate.

Consequently, the federal government launched a civil war under the banner of “preserving the central government”.  It was not a war for freeing the slavery system in the south:  emancipation laws remained on paper and slavery resumed for over another century.  One million in war casualties and four years later, capitalism made a slow headway in the southern parts.  But it was not enough for the thousand of released soldiers to finding work outlets.   Thus, the Federal government, encumbered by great quantities of arms and ammunition and so many soldiers, reopened the push westward and southward (Texas, New Mexico, Arizona):  The American Indians were exterminated in order to securing an outlet for the unemployed “gringos”.

An interesting smart gimmick was played by the “northern capitalists”:  They extended the concept of gold currency when the south had no gold left for exchange.  The southern States countered with the “Greenback” currency (the dollar); an offer that suited capitalists swell:  Expanding by paper money that they printed.

In the Old World of western Europe, England and France reached high levels of industrial capitalism:  The unemployed were sent to colonize Africa and Asia.  After Germany finished its unification at the expense of the Austria Empire,  Germany became another super industrial capitalist State.  

France and England denied Germany any colonial expansion.  Germany waged war against France in order to rob Belgium and the Netherlands of their colonies in central Africa (Congo) and Indonesia.  Nine million in war casualties and four years later, and another 20 million dead from the deadly “Spanish” flu, three empires disintegrated (Russia, Austria, and the Ottoman Turkey) and three new empires were created (USA, Italy, and Japan) for another round in WWII.

Interestingly, the Bolshevik revolution led by Lenin didn’t rely of the “proletariat” as it claimed, but on the unemployed LMC who were disintegrating fast after the crushing military defeats against Germany.  I can go on with the 115 modern wars after the establishment of the United nations in 1946.  I leave it to you to do the research based on this vast highway that I opened on the main cause of wars in capitalist systems.

Note: Let me explain how I comprehend the class structure in capitalist systems in order to drive my point through.  The lowest class  of the downtrodden, the illiterate immigrants, and the daily workers at kept at the 20% level of the population and used for the daily maintenance and upkeep of the system at the minimum wage: The lowest class is considered as the “Black slaves” (regardless of color)  by the elite oligarchic class of the disgustingly richest 1% hoarding 30% of the total wealth of the nation.   The middle class (divided among the lower, middle, and upper) middle classes represent 70%  of the population;  the lower middle class (LMC)  constitutes 70% of the middle class sections.  The richest class of 10% hoards 50% of the wealth of the nation and view the LMC as the “White slaves”.  When a government claims that unemployment has reached say 10% it means that the lowest middle class is suffering most of the unemployment rate of 6%; given that the daily workers are not factored in the statistics.

It is to the advantage of most of the citizens in capitalist society that effective unemployment increases to beyond 20%  in order for serious reforms to be considered and enacted in forms of laws and financial institutions control, restrictions, and constraints.  The trick is for the people not to be driven into an external war in order to releasing the pressures off the oligarchic class.

Note 1:  When a government starts drastic cut in the budget (except the military: It goes without saying) it affects primarily the lower middle class, since the 20% of downtrodden are already suffering at the bare minimum, are needed for the daily maintenance of the society, and cannot contribute to taxes.  Actually, the class of the downtrodden feels helpless and waits for the middle class to begins marching revolts and to join it and scare the richest class and their political, security forces, legal, and law institutions for a short while.  When unemployment jumps to 20%  it affects 12% of the lower middle class then, serious problems await the power-to-be in capitalist systems:  This number of 10% of unemployed lower middle class is a critical turning point for serious upheaval and revolts.

Note 2:  Are you interested how capitalism identifies you?  For example, in which economic class you are categorized for being watched closely? For example, the potential level of danger for destabilizing an exploiting system during economic downturn and how you are getting organized to adjust it to a fairer political representative system?  First, check the statistics of the medium yearly income of all the population in the nation.  The medium statistics means that half the population is below the medium and the other half earn above the medium.  The medium yearly income is smack  within the lower middle class category.   The range of the LMC is from 20% below medium and 20% above the medium.

Note 3 :  The primary purpose of most of the new Federal security agencies (over 295 created since 2002) is not for tracking terrorist activities as publicly announced but to keeping track of internal activities of the lower middle class citizens; they are in fact backing up the FBI for keeping files on the virulent elements and organizational ability.   The Federal agencies want to research the trends and mood of this dangerous class during economic downturn and political upheaval.

Note 4:  Capitalist system maintains agricultural subsidies to large farmers for a basic purpose:  satisfied “peasants” constitute internal “outposts” that hold on to the doctrine of “Law and Order” imposed by the capitalists to securing the system from any deviations.

The lower middle class (LMC) in a capitalist system is recognized to be the most virulent and potent economic force that can pressure political institutions into drastic reforms.  The LMC has tasted the fruits of consumerism economy and is not going back to the previous conditions of humiliation, indignities, and starvation by all means possible.

LMC represents 70% of the internal buying power of consumerism goods and services and is targeted by credit card companies to accumulating debt on purchases at 20% interest rate.  LMC families constitute 50% of the population and over 60% of the work force.  LMC is mostly educated at the high school level and enjoys health care benefits and wants to acquire its first home.  The rank and file of the military machine is composed of mostly LMC citizens.  Basically, the military is a political institution meant to quickly absorb unemployed LMC in period of economic downturn and to releasing them to the workforce pool in the rare economic upturns.

Let me clarify how I comprehend class structure in capitalist system in order to drive my point through.  The lowest class  of the downtrodden, the illiterate immigrants, and the daily workers at kept at the 20% level of the population and used for the daily maintenance and upkeep of the system at the minimum wage: The lowest class is considered as the “Black slaves” (regardless of color)  by the elite oligarchic class of the disgustingly richest 1% hoarding 30% of the total wealth of the nation.

The middle class (divided among the lower, middle, and upper) middle classes represent 70%  of the population;  the lower middle class (LMC)  constitutes 70% of the middle class sections.  The richest class of 10% hoards 50% of the wealth of the nation and view the LMC as the “White slaves”.  When a government claims that unemployment has reached say 10% it means that the lowest middle class is suffering most of the unemployment rate of 6%; given that the daily workers are not factored in the statistics.

For example, if we say that at least 70% of the “working people” are from the middle class (divided among the lower, middle, and upper) middle classes and that 70% of the middle class are represented in the lower middle class section then, at least 4.9% of the unemployed are from the lower middle class (for example: 70%*70%*10%) or more accurately 6% of the active workforce.  The other 4% of the unemployed are constituted from all the other classes (excepting the 10% of the richest class:  Its amassed wealth works for them instead of actually producing wealth)

When a government starts drastic cut in the budget (except the military: It goes without saying) it affects primarily the lower middle class, since the 20% of downtrodden are already suffering at the bare minimum, are needed for the daily maintenance of the society, and cannot contribute to taxes.  Actually, the class of the downtrodden feels helpless and waits for the middle class to begins marching revolts and to join it and scare the richest class and their political, security forces, legal, and law institutions for a short while.  When unemployment jumps to 20%  it affects 12% of the lower middle class then, serious problems await the power-to-be in capitalist systems:  This number of 10% of unemployed lower middle class is a critical turning point for serious upheaval and revolts.

Are you interested how capitalism identifies you?  For example, in which economic class you are categorized for being watched closely? For example, the potential level of danger for destabilizing an exploiting system during economic downturn and how you are getting organized to adjust it to a fairer political representative system?  First, check the statistics of the medium yearly income of all the population in the nation.  The medium statistics means that half the population is below the medium and the other half earn above the medium.  The medium yearly income is smack  within the lower middle class category.   The range of the LMC is from 20% below medium and 20% above the medium.

The primary purpose of most of the new Federal security agencies (over 295 created since 2002) is not for tracking terrorist activities as publicly announced but to keeping track of internal activities of the lower middle class citizens; they are in fact backing up the FBI for keeping files on the virulent elements and organizational ability.   The Federal agencies want to research the trends and mood of this dangerous class during economic downturn and political upheaval.

In economic downturn and high unemployed citizens the Federal government or Centralized government has two options, both of them directly related to safeguarding the interest and privileges of elite 10% richest class.  Either the elite class is cornered to ceding privileges and extending fairer representation proportional to class number; or venturing into some sort of wars (which is the norm) in order to absorb the overflow of unemployed in the military and creating an illusion of  economic health and recovery by supplying the military campaigns.

Depending on the seriousness of unemployed LMC, wars can be expansion wars, preemptive wars, or what is called national wars such as “The nation has declared war” on Spain, Japan, Germany…  More on these facts in the next article since the advent of industrial capitalist age that consolidated its power on the economic and social structures.

It is to the advantage of most of the citizens in capitalist society that effective unemployment increases to beyond 20%  in order for serious reforms to be considered and enacted in forms of laws and financial institutions control, restrictions, and constraints. (to be continued)


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

September 2020
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