Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Major Saad Haddad

Fully cooperating with occupiers and participating in torturing their own citizens: Is traitor a point of view Mr. Patriarch?

Gamut of tortures Lebanese traitors aided the Israeli occupiers to commit on their citizens.

Lately, the Lebanese Maronite Patriarch Al Ra3i  paid an extended visit to Palestine/Israel, supposedly to tend to his “Maronites sheep” living in Palestine and Israel, as the religious chief of all the Maronites in Antaquia and the Middle East..

I heard lately from an interview with Kataeb minister Kazzi that Al Ra3i had previously (not as Patriarch) visited Palestine/Israel on two other occasions: It would be interesting to know on what circumstances and for what excuses.

In one of his vehement speeches, this Patriarch declared that many of the Lebanese “traitors” living in Israel are more patriotic and love Lebanon than the Lebanese.

In context:

In 1975, as the civil war in Lebanon started, the Lebanese Army began a series of splitting into factions.

One of the splitting soldiers rallied Major Saad Haddad in south Lebanon and cooperated fully with Israel, supposedly to secure the borders of Israel against the flimsy excuses of any Palestinian “infiltrations” or attacks against Israel.

The Lebanese army kept paying the wages of the soldiers way after the Palestinian fighters vacated Lebanon in 1982.

And these Lebanese “traitors” resumed their atrocious alliance with the Israeli occupiers and tortured, maimed, and imprisoned the Lebanese citizens who refused to cooperate with Israel.

Actually, Israel didn’t need any reasons to infiltrate, attack and invade Lebanon. Israel has been regularly bombing south Lebanon in order to pressure the Lebanese to vacate their homes and lands in the south.

This introduction was needed in order to explain the wrath we feel against the Lebanese Maronite Patriarch Al Ra3i who is visiting Palestine and who declared that he is unable to view these soldiers who fled to Israel in May 24 of 2000 as traitor to their country.

Many of these soldiers and officers have their sons and daughter serving in the Israeli army.

For example, Suha Bishara is a Maronite woman who suffered greatly from these Lebanese traitors who tortured her relentlessly with electric shock, beating and confinement in a tiny cell. Suha had to listen to the shrieking and weeping of countless prisoners being tortured around the clock.

Has this Patriarch ever paid a visit to Suha Beshara to get a hint of “how patriotic these traitors were?” Read this Arabic link:

Abir G shared ‎من جرائم العملاء‎’s photo (from the victims of the Lebanese traitors to Israel).
Samir Asmar shared ‎نشرناك‎’s photo  (Nasharnak, we posted you) of the prison of Khiam during the Israeli occupation of Lebanon and that was run by Lebanese traitors.
“You have your history and we have our memory: the Lebanese victims of those Lebanese living in Israel”
‎لكم تاريخكم ولنا ذاكرتنا ولن ننسى.......!<br /><br /><br /><br />
( ضحايا ) الجالية اللبنانية في معتقل الخيام.<br /><br /><br /><br />
نشرناك‎

لكم تاريخكم ولنا ذاكرتنا ولن ننسى…….!
( ضحايا ) الجالية اللبنانية في معتقل الخيام.
نشرناك

‫#‏من_جرائم_العملاء‬
بنت رعيتك يا ‫#‏صاحب_الغبطة‬ سهى بشارة كتبت في مذكراتها:
«.. منذ ذلك الحين، ألفيتني وقد عبرتُ عتبة السجن، لأكتشف العنف والألم في أفظع صورهما. فكلما كان جلادي يضربونني أو يشغلون المحول الكهربائي الموصول الى جسمي عبر مسربين، حل الفراغ في رأسي، وما عدتُ أفكر في شيء، ورحتُ أصيح من شدة ألمي. وأشدُ ما كان خوفي، من الوقفات، حين توقف الذراع، التي تحرك ممساك المحول، سباقها، وحين يجن الذهن تحت وطأة الأسئلة، منتظراً عودة الشر، برعب صارخ، ولكن أفظع الآلام هي تلك التي يستشعرها المرء وهو في قاع زنزانته، إذ يسمع صراخ الآخرين أو الأخريات وهو يثقب رأسه بلا انقطاع، لأنه يدرك ما تحياه تينك النسوة، أو هؤلاء الرجال الذي يتعذبون هنالك، خاضعين لنير اللاإنسانية نفسها، ومعذبين من قبل الجلادين أنفسهم، ومذلولين ومشوهين على أيدي الوحشية نفسها».

‎#من_جرائم_العملاء<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
بنت رعيتك يا #صاحب_الغبطة سهى بشارة كتبت في مذكراتها:<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
«.. منذ ذلك الحين، ألفيتني وقد عبرتُ عتبة السجن، لأكتشف العنف والألم في أفظع صورهما. فكلما كان جلادي يضربونني أو يشغلون المحول الكهربائي الموصول الى جسمي عبر مسربين، حل الفراغ في رأسي، وما عدتُ أفكر في شيء، ورحتُ أصيح من شدة ألمي. وأشدُ ما كان خوفي، من الوقفات، حين توقف الذراع، التي تحرك ممساك المحول، سباقها، وحين يجن الذهن تحت وطأة الأسئلة، منتظراً عودة الشر، برعب صارخ، ولكن أفظع الآلام هي تلك التي يستشعرها المرء وهو في قاع زنزانته، إذ يسمع صراخ الآخرين أو الأخريات وهو يثقب رأسه بلا انقطاع، لأنه يدرك ما تحياه تينك النسوة، أو هؤلاء الرجال الذي يتعذبون هنالك، خاضعين لنير اللاإنسانية نفسها، ومعذبين من قبل الجلادين أنفسهم، ومذلولين ومشوهين على أيدي الوحشية نفسها».‎
من جرائم العملاء Suha Bishara, a victim in the prison of Khiam (south Lebanon) run by Israel and the Lebanese traitors

‫#‏من_جرائم_العملاء‬
بنت رعيتك يا ‫#‏صاحب_الغبطة‬ سهى بشارة كتبت في مذكراتها:
«.. منذ ذلك الحين، ألفيتني وقد عبرتُ عتبة السجن، لأكتشف العنف والألم في أفظع صورهما. فكلما كان جلادي يضربونني أو يشغلون المحول الكهربائي الموصول الى جسمي عبر مسربين، حل الفراغ في رأسي، وما عدتُ أفكر في شيء، ورحتُ أصيح من شدة ألمي. وأشدُ ما كان خوفي، من الوقفات، حين توقف الذراع، التي تحرك ممساك المحول، سباقها، وحين يجن الذهن تحت وطأة الأسئلة، منتظراً عودة الشر، برعب صارخ، ولكن أفظع الآلام هي تلك التي يستشعرها المرء وهو في قاع زنزانته، إذ يسمع صراخ الآخرين أو الأخريات وهو يثقب رأسه بلا انقطاع، لأنه يدرك ما تحياه تينك النسوة، أو هؤلاء الرجال الذي يتعذبون هنالك، خاضعين لنير اللاإنسانية نفسها، ومعذبين من قبل الجلادين أنفسهم، ومذلولين ومشوهين على أيدي الوحشية نفسها

 

Part 3. Genesis of Hezbollah of Lebanon: Accounts of Robert Fisk

I have published three articles on the genesis of Hezbollah: One article described the geopolitical and social context of Iran Islamic revolution, and the living condition of the citizens in south Lebanon during the 22 years of Israel occupation.

How the Lebanese resistance to the Israeli occupation, particularly Hezbollah, got organized, developed, and managed to kick out Israel in the year 2000 without preconditions or any negotiation?

It is recommended, in order to appreciate the facts, eye-witness accounts, and reports of Robert Fisk, which points to the creation of Hezbollah and how it started to resist Israel occupation of Lebanon from 1982 to 2000, to read https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2011/09/19/south-lebanon-living-conditions-under-22-years-of-israel-occupation/

Robert Fisk wrote the book “Affliction of a Nation” and I am reading the Arabic translated version. Fisk was the correspondent to the British The Times in Beirut and covered Lebanon civil war for nine years. I am summarizing one of the chapters.

“By 1983, a tight bonding between the political demands of the citizens in the south and religious belief set in: A close relationship between seeking peace and tranquility in isolated south region of Lebanon and the duty to martyrdom.

Every blow suffered by Israel occupation force was perceived as a means to emulating what Imam Hussein Bin Ali endured in the battle of Karbalaa against the Omayyad dynasty.

When Israel foolishly named Karbalaa one of its hired factions of militias of “Lebanese guards” to maintain “peace and orders”, the Shias comprehended the gesture as direct blasphemy.

In early October 1983, Israel threatened to close the bridge of the Awali River, the only passage to the towns and villages in the south.  Sheikh Shams el Din declared “total civil disobedience to the Israeli occupation forces”.

On October 16, the 10th day of the religious ceremony of Ashoura, an Israeli military convoy barged amid the crowd in the square of Nabatieh.  The people pelted the Israeli soldiers with stones, overturned military vehicles, and set fire in them. Israel soldiers reacted by firing live ammunition, killing two and seriously injuring 7 worshipers.

Suheil Hamoura, 19 year-old, was one of the casualties, shot in the back. Suheil was not that religious, and he came from Beirut to visit his family for the holiday. Within a week, Israeli troops suffered 9 ambush attacks.  The Shia members in the stooges “South Lebanon Army” of Major Saad Haddad, resigned their posts and joined the Amal party, created by late Imam Moussa Sadr, and headed by Nabih Beri (current chairman of the parliament).

Many collaborators with Israel were  executed.  Italian landmine named Shatchi were planted on the sides of road.

Israel blamed the two sheikhs Ragheb Harb and Abbas Harb (no relation) to be behind the escalation.  Consequently, Israel bulldozed down the house of Abbas Harb in the town of Hallousieh, in January 1984. Young sheikh 3Adel Mo2ness replaced Abbas in leading the prayer.  He told me that a helicopter flew Abbas and 5 of the townspeople to the detention center in Tyr.  When Abbas was released, he was in a terrible condition.

Sheikh Ragheb was released and rumors spread that Israel intended to assassinate Ragheb.  He was indeed killed by 3 bullets on February 1984. Within a week of the assassination, Israeli troops suffered 15 ambushes.  Israel reacted by executing dozens of prisoners in Ansar prison.  When I was visiting the town of Adlun, two Israeli jet fighters flew very low over us.

A young member of Hezbollah pointed to the jets and said: “They have no power over us

In January 1984, Saad Haddad died of cancer and was replaced by General Antoine Lahd. Lahd was to sustain several assassination attempts, and one seriously injured him.  Dozens of Shias quit the “South Lebanon Army” and joined the Lebanese resistance movement.

One Christian soldier in that army told me: “The Israelis are all pimps:  They just abuse of us with daily chores“.  An Israeli soldier told me: “I don’t want to be here. Definitely, this Ariel Sharon is a testified lunatic

Israel began constructing bunkers, 60 meters long, 6 m wide, and 15 m high.  Military buses were always escorted by tanks. In April 12, 1984, the 20 year-old Ali Safi el Din crashed his car, packed with explosives, in an Israeli convoy at Jesr Deir Kanoun.  Ali had lost his brother who was detained in Israeli army headquarter in Type. (To be continued)

Note: You may read this previous article for the political context https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2011/09/11/part-1-genesis-of-hezbollah-in-lebanon-accounts-of-robert-fisk/

“Investigation into a massacre: Sabra and Chatila” by Amnon Kapeliouk (June 17, 2009)

           

            After I published the post “The culprit: vegetative Ariel Sharon” I got hold of a frightening manuscript that kept me awake all night. Amnon Kapeliouk published in 1982 a French book “Investigation into a massacre: Sabra and Chatila”.  He gathered valuable information from a wide variety of sources both in Israel and in Lebanon.  The manuscript describes in 115 pages details of the genocide that was perpetrated in the Palestinian camps in south Beirut from Tuesday September 14 to Monday 20, 1982.

            I will end the review with the political and economic reasons for this mindless and bestial slaughter house tale.

 

Before Tuesday, September 14, 1982

 

            By summer 1981, Israel defense Minister Ariel Sharon had prepared an incursion plan into Lebanon.  Israel invaded Lebanon on June 4, 1982 with the avowed intention of limiting the incursion to 40 kilometers and cleaning up pockets of Palestinian resistance in south Lebanon.  In the Knesset on June 8, Menahem Begin PM describes the Palestinians “animals with two legs”. During a monster demonstration on July 17 in Tel Aviv Menahem Begin PM declared “By the end of this year we will have signed a peace treaty with Lebanon.”  The Israeli incursion extended to the Capital Beirut leaving 20,000 civilian dead and 30,000 severely injured. “Plan Reagan” of September 2 denied Israel the annexation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.  Israel was pressured to end this invasion and Ariel Sharon would repeatedly answer “Patience gentlemen; the fruit of this war will be obvious soon”

            Minister Yaakov Meridor sent a directive to the Israeli army related to the Palestinian refugees stating: “Force the Palestinians to flee toward East Lebanon to the borders with Syria. Do not let them return”  The Israeli army (Tsahal) did their best to totally demolish the Palestinian camps in south Lebanon, in Tyr, and Saida; it effected mass slaughter among the refugees. This directive failed because the Palestinian refugees had nowhere else to go.  It was obviously that the main objective of this war was to evacuate most of the Palestinians out of Lebanon and toward Syria.  Israel knew that Lebanon was to small, weak, and with a social and political confessional fabric that would never allow the majority Palestinian Sunnis residency status.  Since the sole objective is to practically cancel out UN resolution 194 for the “right of return” of the refugees to their homeland Palestine then the other alternative was to kill as many as they could.

 

            Ariel Sharon bombarded Beirut for three weeks and closed off all access to the Capital.  The Lebanese political leaders in Beirut urged Arafat to leave Beirut and a deal with President Reagan’s special envoy Philip Habib stipulated that the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) headed by Yasser Arafat and 12,000 strong was to be evacuated to Cyprus on French navies and then head to Tunisia.  The PLO left Lebanon and the camps were not defended.  The multinationals of the USA, France, and Italy (supposed by the deal to defend the civilians) vacated their posts around the Palestinian camps by order of Israel.

            During the early years of the civil war in Lebanon there were three camps in the Christian districts such the ones in Dbayeh, Jesr al Basha, and Tell al Zaatar. The Christian militias overran these camps and forced the evacuation of the Christian Palestinians by military activities, genocide, and terror.  These camps were prime Real Estates and the developers, the deputies and ministers of the Metn district made a fortune. As Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982, the “Lebanese Forces” and Real Estates developers had plans for the even higher value Estates in Chatila and Sabra Palestinian camps in Beirut. They figured that they will rule Lebanon along side the Israelis.

 

Tuesday, September 14, 1982; (Iron Brain Operation):  

 

            The Israeli army is stationed on the outskirts of Beirut on all sides. Multinational forces of the USA, France, and Italy were brought in to protect the Palestinian civilians in the camps around Beirut.  Bechir Gemayel was elected President of the Lebanese Republic on August 23 under the bayonet of the Israeli army.  Bechir Gemayel (34 years old) was the closest ally to Israel since the civil war broke out in April 13, 1975.  Bechir Gemayel headed the Christian militias named “The Lebanese Forces” united the Phalange Party, the Party of Camille Chamoun, and other fringe parties by coercion and frightful infighting.  “The Lebanese Forces” had received from Israel military training, military sophisticated hardware, logistics, and military intelligence.  Israel Menahim Began PM and Ariel Sharon (Defense Minister) expected immediate peace pact to be signed by Beshir.  Beshir was reluctant to officially sign any peace treaty before he discuss with Arab leaders and consolidate his power.

            At 4:10 p.m. a charge of 50 kilos of TNT explodes at the above flat where Bechir was meeting with his supporters in Ashrafieh.  Sharon had accurate intelligence of the status of Bechir within minutes.  The Medias and radios would refrain from declaring Bechir dead until 10:30 p.m.

            By 6 p.m. Israel has established an air bridge to land tanks and soldiers in Beirut airport.  Sharon and Begin PM agree to enter the Capital Beirut without consulting with their cabinet of ministers.  An already detailed military plan for invading West Beirut in unfolded in the Defense Ministry.

 

Wednesday, September 15; (Israel occupies the first Arab Capital)

 

            General Amir Drori, commander of Northern Israel region, receive the order at 12:30 a.m. to take over the strategic points in West Beirut.  At 3:30 a.m. commanders of the Christian militias known as “Lebanese Forces” are assembled in their headquarters on the outskirt of south Beirut close to the Israeli headquarter.  The Israeli Generals Rafael Eytan (Fafoul) and Amir Drori are discussing plans with the militia officers Fadi Frem, Elie Hobeika, Emile 3id, Michel Zuwein, Deeb Anastase, Maroun Mich3alani, Joseph Edde and the liaison “Jessy”.  They are ironing out details of the invasion of the Christian milias into the Palestinian camps of Sabra and Chatila.

            The “Lebanese Forces” militia got busy painting their logos on walls and trees with directional arrows for troop’s movement from Chouweifat to Kuwait Embassy.  At 5 a.m. the Israeli forces have cordoned off both Palestinian camps.  By 9 a.m. Ariel Sharon is observing the deployment from a tall building close to the Kuwait Embassy and overlooking the camps, 200 meters away.  Sharon finds time at 1 a.m. to fly to Bikfaya and present his condolences to the Gemayel family; he is received coldly.  The Lebanese army in West Beirut refuses to cooperate with Tsahal.  By nightfall electicity power is shut off in West Beirut.  By 10 p.m. rockets for lighting the Palestinian camps are launched at the rate of two per minutes at each launching point.

 

Thursday, September 16 (Felicitations! Our friends are entering the camps)

 

            By noon, West Beirut has completely fallen and Tsahal is rounding up thousands of Lebanese at check points.  The Palestinian camps are shelled and Israeli snipers are active. At noon General Drori asks Fadi Frem if his militias are ready to enter the camps. They are ready and 1,500 Christian militias receive the green light for action.  They assemble by the airport and the Israeli General Amos Yaron exhibit to them aerial maps.  General Yaron confirms that Tsahal will deliver all the logistics and supplies for the “cleaning up of the camps”.  The Christian militias were never shy proclaiming at every occasion to the Israeli officers that they meant a thorough slaughter of babies, women, and elderly Palestinians. The Phalangists (Kataeb) used to utter their motto “A dead Palestinian is pollution. The extermination of all Palestinian refugees in Lebanon is the solution”

            A unit of 150 Christian’ militias crosses from Ouzai to the Lebanese army barrack of Henri Chehab to their headquarters at the UN building.  The Israeli check points let 25 jeeps packed of militias enter the camp of Chatila at 4 p.m.  The frightened civilian Palestinians go to the Israeli headquarter ad expressed their strong concerns. They are told to return and not be worried.  A detachment of soldiers of the splintered Lebanese army in south Lebanon and commanded by Major Saad Haddad, the stooge to Israel, arrives to the outskirts of Chatila.  Before 5 p.m. the dirty wolves were inside the chicken hen.

            Within an hour, hundreds of Palestinian civilians, babies, women, and elderly are slaughtered by machetes, knives, and hatchets.  Palestinians and Lebanese within the camps, regardless of being Christians or Moslems, are killed while having supper. The militias cut off limbs of women to grab bracelets attached in their forearms before finishing off their victims. Babies’ skulls are smashed on walls. Women are raped before being killed.  Nine Jewish women who married Palestinians long time ago were also killed.

            During the night delegations of Palestinians arrive at Israel’s headquarter to explain the situation and they are repulsed to the camps; most of the members of the delegations disappeared.  A militia demands a stretcher for a few wounded companions and explains “We have finished off more than 250 dirty Palestinians”.  By 11 p.m. a militia commander had expedited to the highest military Israeli echelons a succinct report stating “As of now 300 terrorists have been eliminated”.  The camps were brightly lighted with 81 mm rockets.  Two thousand Palestinians take refuge in nearby hospitals named Akka and Gaza.

            In Jerusalem at 7:30 p.m. the Israeli cabinet met for 4 hours; Chief of Staff Raphael Eytan quickly goes over the situation in the camps stating “The Phalangists are cleaning up a few nests of terrorists”.  The massacre resumed for the entire night.  The Israeli soldiers were witnessing the genocides and did not move.  A single Israeli soldier with a minimum of moral standing and with a minimum of guts could have entered and ordered the militias out; they would have obeyed!  Nobody moved. The Israeli soldiers just reported to their higher commanders who knew the plan.

 

Friday, September 17

            At day break and from their posts Israeli soldiers could see people lined up on walls and executed. The hospitals are invested; foreign physicians and nurses are chased out and everyone inside is killed.  An Israeli officer broadcast “It is not done to pleasure us. I forbid you to intervene in the camps.” Fresh militias, among them “soldiers” of Saad Haddad, enter the camps in jeeps and bulldozers borrowed from the Israeli army.

            At 11 a.m. the militias barge into Akka hospital and finish off the injured; they raped a nurse ten times before killing her.  Forty of the personnel are horded into a truck; they will disappear.  Bulldozers are digging ditches by the Israeli headquarter; a Norwegian diplomat observe a shoveling truck dumping cadavers into the ditches.

            By noon, fresh militias reinforcement are observed by the airport; ten “command cars”, 13 tanks, jeeps, and more bulldozers are filmed by an Israeli TV channel reporter Ron Ben Yichai heading toward the camps.  The militias carry with them plenty of alcoholic beverages and hashish.

            The Israeli Chief of Staff lands his helicopter at Beirut airport 3:30 p.m. and meet with the militia chief Fadi Frem and congratulates him on “a job well done” because they did not obey the American orders to vacate the camps.  Eytan flies back to his ranch in Tel-Adachim to celebrate Israel’s New Year with his family; he will call Sharon around 9 p.m. to tell him “the Phalengists are exaggerating”. Today, the militias are shooting bullets to expedite the “clean up” mission.  Trucks packed with Palestinians are taken out of camps; the detainees are never heard of.

            All night long, with the camps well lighted by Israeli rockets, the bulldozers are destroying the shantytown homes over their inhabitants.  Yesterday, the objective was to terrorize the Palestinians out of camps; they had no where to go since the Israeli check points forced them to return to camps.  This night, the goal is to erase the camp completely of any structure and clean up this prime Real Estate.  Ben Yichai called up Sharon to inform him of the horrible conditions in the camps and he reported “Ariel Sharon gave me the impression that he was updated thoroughly on the situation”.

            In the Israeli headquarters soldiers are eating lavishly, celebrating the New Year, and enjoying the carnage scene overlooking the Palestinian camps. A single Israeli soldier with a minimum of moral standing and with a minimum of balls could have entered and ordered the militias out: they would have obeyed!  Nobody moved.

           

Saturday, September 18, 1982:  (No prisoners taken)

            At dawn the carnage goes on. It will resume till after 10 a.m. the time that Israel had decided that the operation should end. At 6 a.m. the loudspeakers of the militias are encouraging the Palestinians to set out of their homes saying “Go out and you will be saved” (Sallimou Tislamou).  Thousands obey the order and they are horded into trucks; they will disappear. Many are executed on the way: “It is better to kill the maximum before delivering them to the Israelis”; the roads toward Ouzai are strewn with bodies.  The bulldozers and shoveling equipments are working full time.  The hospitals get invested again and the injured achieved.  The foreign physicians and nurses witness the activities helplessly.

            At exactly 10 a.m. Israeli tanks move toward the camps; it is the signal for the militias to vacate the camps. Over 4,000 Palestinian and Lebanese civilians in camps containing more than 20,000 will be recorded disappeared. For two weeks, the Lebanese army, Red Cross, and volunteers will not be able to “re-clean up” this human disaster. (To be continued in my posts “Reactions to the genocide”)

 

 

Note 1:  The Lebanese Shiaa in south Lebanon had strong animosity against the Palestinian fedayins since 1975 when the civil war started: Israel was constantly shelling and bombing the south “in reprisal” of the Palestinian “katiousha” and the Lebanese government and army had stopped reacting or coming to the aid of its citizens in south Lebanon.  The charismatic leaders of the Shiaa Imam Moussa Sadr managed to control their anger until he “disappeared” in 1978 while on a visit to Libya.  Probably Israel had assassinated Sadr and blamed Kadhafi for the disappearance. Israel knew that as Moussa Sadr is out of the picture then the Shiaa will welcome the Israeli invading forces with rice and joy to get rid of the Palestinian resistance forces.  That is what happened exactly; Shiaa joined the splintered Lebanese army in the south which was commanded by major Saad Haddad, a stooge to Israel.  From 1978 to 1983 the Shiaa militias of AMAL, lead by Nabih Berri, the successor to Sadr, followed the orders of the Syrian regime to enter every Palestinian camp and retrieve heavy arms; many battles with the Palestinians inside camps were routine. All that was reversed as Hezbollah was formed in 1984 by the support of Khomeini in Iran. Nabih Berry of AMAL calmed down and Israel withdrew without any preconditions from south Lebanon in May 24, 2000 as the splintered Lebanese army lacked manpower and suffered heavy casualties by the frequent well targeted Hezbollah attacks.

 

Note 2: Yasser Arafat played a central role during the Lebanese civil war that started in April 13, 1975 and ended in 1991.  He tried to maintain a balanced position in the tag of war between Hafez Assad of Syria and Sadate of Egypt at the expense of the Lebanese civilians.  The leftist Lebanese organizations relied on Arafat for logistics in arms and ammunition and he controlled them completely.  Arafat and his PLO were actually fighting Israel, Syria, and the Christian militias of the “Lebanese Forces”. Arafat once declared in Ramallah around 1998 that he was the de facto governor of Lebanon for over 20 years, even before the civil war broke out. Lebanon would have been saved 13 years of mindless civil war if Arafat had decided to relinquish Lebanon to Syria and dealt with Israel in 1977 instead of 1993 for part of Palestine as he was forced to do later during the Oslo Agreement.

 

Note 3: There are indications that ex-President Amine Gemayel, Deputy and Minister Michel Murr, and the Maronite Church are among the profiteers in the reclamation of the land of the Palestinian camps in the Christian cantons.


adonis49

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