Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘militia/mafia

Lebanon militia/mafia Big Rodents:

Leading the Assault for Mother Freedom, Liberty and Independence?

Note 1: Re-edit of “Big Rodents Leading the Assault for Mother Freedom (March 1, 2005)”

15 years later, these Rodents have bankrupted Lebanon at all levels: Economy, finance, public institutions, Central Bank, private banks, government, justice system…

Note 2: I had to re-edit this article to put current Lebanon in context. The role of opposition and allied political parties to the government have been reversed shortly after this article.

In the last two weeks, since the assassination of former Lebanon Prime Minister Rafic Hariri on February 14, a milestone achievement was supposed to be won in Lebanon.

Every night, thousands were converging to Downtown Beirut to mourn at the tomb of Prime Minister Rafic Hariri in the Place of Martyrs.

Every Monday, thousands were gathering there to demonstrate and protest.

The Lebanese people want to know who assassinated Hariri, 9 of his bodyguards and counselors, ten bystanders and about a hundred civilian injured in a road blast.

The people want effective, impartial and speedy investigation in the matter.

The political leaders of the opposition to the Syrian mandated power  in the last 2 decades refuse to do political business as usual until the perpetrators are divulged.

The people refuse to do business or are forced to shut down their stores.

In fact, Lebanon is becoming a poor country and much so lately and no refreshing indications are pointing to any economical recovery. The people are duplicating the Ukrainian example by constant presence and persistent political pressures.

This Monday, February 30th, the students from various universities slept overnight in Downtown Beirut in order to circumvent the order of the Minister of the Interior, Suleiman Frangieh, to ban any demonstrations and gathering the next morning.

By day break, they peacefully forced the lines of the Army units barring entrances to Beirut and flocked by the thousands to encircle the Chamber of Deputies.  The Chamber was summoned to ask the Cabinet one question: “Who assassinated Hariri?”

After the interrogation in the Chamber of Deputies, the current Prime Minister, Omar Karame, was to submit to a vote of confidence. The main slogan was: “We want our freedom, self determination and independence from the Syrian tutelage”.

A few of the corollary slogans were: “Syrian troops out of Lebanon”, “Syrian intelligence services out of Lebanon”, “Down with the Lebanese heads of intelligence services and all security agencies”, “The resignation of the shadow government” and “Bachar Assad is nominee” which means that the Syrian President should be next to go.

The only flag raised was the Lebanese flag which helped mollify the orders of the Lebanese army and internal security units to disperse demonstrators and provided a common denominator to all political factions.

The morning session of the House of Representatives saw many deputies taking full advantage of this climate of freedom and popular support.  They delivered speeches that crossed all the red lines in political discourse, euphemisms in coded words and taboos statements since 1991.

They were about to divulge details about the perfidies, machinations, threats and mafia dealings among the Syrian and Lebanese biggest rodents of the public funds.

The evening session climaxed by the resignation speech of the prime minister along with his whole Cabinet members.  It was rumored that he was the last one among the powerful ministers to be conveyed the order for the resignation of the government.

The main question now is: “What next?

The opposition is demanding a neutral government to prepare for a free election for the House of Representative in mid April.

Who ever heard of any neutral government?

How any neutral government can function if indeed the real and de facto government is in the hands of the security and intelligence forces?

The only option for the opposition forces in order to secure its credibility is the pressuring of the President of the Republic, General Emile Lahoud, to step down.

It is clear to all Lebanese that the security and stability of Lebanon is based on a free, democratic and stable Syria.

Until that development happens, Lebanon is in for a dangerous and very uncertain phase in its political life regardless of the vocal supports from the United States, France, the United Nations, Egypt or even Saudi Arabia.

This is a very exciting moment that we are experiencing but the nagging question remains:

Lebanon was suffering many infamies and the same humiliations for many years under the same and current deputies, political leaders and ministers who are now in the opposition, but used to be part and parcel of the same régime for many years before they were removed from the current government.

In fact, our House of Representatives itself, elected by the Lebanese, was indeed assassinated several times in grotesque circumstances.

Under the two Hariri governments, which included many of the current opposition leaders, several human rights laws were enacted and rescinded the next day by the same deputies by orders from Syria.

For example, the procedures for legally arresting citizens are a case in point.  Not only freedom was banished but self determination was blatantly and ignominiously trampled without major protests.

Isn’t a tangible act for freedom more important than a general notion of freedom?

Isn’t a heroic stand for self determination of the highest power in the land more important than a general concept of self determination?

Since when did political leaders attempt to rationally explain complicated matters to their supporters in order to show their strengths?

All they had to do was to galvanize their supporters under the banners of freedom, self determination and independence from Syria in order to gather as many demonstrators as today.

So, what gives that the same leaders are so much more conscious about freedom and self determination after the assassination of a former prime minister?

In fact, several months earlier, a failed attempt at the life of an opposition deputy was perpetrated; His bodyguard died and the deputy was in serious health conditions. Why no major demonstrations for investigating the attempted assassination were called for and political pressures not activated?

It seems that a dozen of big rodents who were devouring large holes in the cheese of our public funds and who were left out in the cold were relying on Hariri’s funding of the opposition to refill the shortages in their resources.

Now that the alternative funding was assassinated the options were limited and drastic.

If a political leader (zaim) is faced with the two alternatives of choosing between physical threats on his life or the cutting of funding, I have no doubts that the latter option is by far the less dangerous and less damaging to his life.

I agree with Deputy Walid Jumblatt, a leader of the minority Druze sect and speaking for the opposition, that the new generation of Lebanese youth who did not experience the long and protracted civil war has dreams that do not match the views of the traditional political parties and their leaders. (But Walid always acted opposite to the interest of the citizens and his main objective is to remain the uncontested leaders of the Druse sect))

The new generation does not want to be associated with the infamies and atrocities committed by their predecessors.  They care less for the sectarian rationales and little minded behaviors that drove their predecessors to eliminate one another and crawl safely into their own stuffy and narrow cantons.

The social and political climates are different and the instinct of survival of the new generation is forcing issues that the traditional local and regional powers prefer to be dormant as long as possible.

The new generation is ready to accept any foreign support and aid in order to bypass this stagnant environment that is killing any opportunities for progress and self development.

The perception of the new generation is that if the old guards of Lebanon political system, including the opposition, are left to decide for its status then priorities will not change that much.

For now, freedom, self determination and independence, why not?

Next, what are the dreams and objectives of the new generation?  Would they like to have civil marriage enacted as the law of the land?

Would they like to have greater job openings and affordable lodging in order to gain the first step toward independence?

Are they claiming decentralization of the administration?

Are they seeking to abolish all kinds of discrimination on the basis of origins, sects, sex, race and physical handicaps in jobs, education, and government functions?

The old guard would like to have quickly an inefficient neutral government to perpetrate the status quo.  They would like to have, pronto, a huge piece of the pie now and fast.

They are used to always have a piece of the pie regardless of the shape, form and content of the government. 

Would the new generation fall in the trap again, like the previous generations, for quick relief in the political system with no pain and hard sacrifices or a new spirit is born that is not ready to take dictates from the conventional political leaders?

The new generation has to organize itself and decide for themselves what they want and what should be the next steps from this critical impasse that can decide the future of Lebanon in the coming two decades.

And the Lebanese banks responded to the government attacks: All decisions were taken by the State institutions

رد مصرفي عنيـف علــى اتهامات الحكومـــة:*

طفح الكيل ولينتظروا منا ما يضع النقاط على الحروف!*

المركزية- تعتبر جهات مصرفية في مجالسها الخاصة، وفي اجتماعاتها المغلقة أن الكيل بدأ يطفح من حملات السياسيين الرسميين والحزبيين ومن الإعلام الدائر في فلكهم على خلفية تشويه صورة القطاع المصرفي واتهامه بإخفاء الأرقام والتلاعب بها،

في حين أن الحقيقة تكمن في أن الحكومة ووزارة المال هي التي تقوم بذلك بغطاء من مجلس النواب وتحاول الإفلات من محاسبة الناس والرأي العام باتهام القطاع المصرفي بشقيه مصرف لبنان والمصارف التجارية زوراً!

ويتساءل مرجع مصرفي عبر “المركزية”: “أيجوز للحكومة ومجلس النواب اللذين يضعان الموازنات ويقرانها بدون قطع حساب أن يوجها أصابع الاتهام الى المصارف التي تنشر موازناتها السنوية وتدفع على أساسها الضرائب للدولة اللبنانية، وتخضع لرقابة الجهات الرسمية كما للمساهمين والجمعيات العمومية؟

وهل يجوز لمن يخفي الأرقام الحقيقية للعجز في موازانات الدولة اللبنانية من خلال ألاعيب تأجيل الدفع وعدم إدراج الكثير من القروض التي حصلت عليها الدولة من الدول والصناديق ومستحقاتها في الموازنات أن يتهم القطاع المصرفي بعدم الشفافية والتلاعب بالأرقام وإخفائها”؟

ويتابع المرجع المصرفي: “ألا يخجل السياسيون من أسئلتهم المشبوهة حول حقيقة أرقام القطاع المصرفي وهم لغاية الآن لم يتمكنوا من حصر كلفة سلسلة الرتب والرواتب التي أقروها قبل سنتين بالتهور والشعبوية على سبيل رشوة الناخبين ومن إعطاء رقم صحيح وثابت لكلفة هذه السلسلة وما ترتبه على الدولة سنويا وانعكاساتها على المديين المتوسط والبعيد بالنسبة الى حجم الرواتب التقاعدية وتعويضات نهاية الخدمة، على رغم مرور أكثر من سنتين على أقرارهم سلسلة الرتب والرواتب”؟

وعن اتهام المصارف بالتواطوء مع مصرف لبنان لتأمين الديون المطلوبة للدولة على حساب المودعين بفوائد مرتفعة،

يسأل المرجع : “إذا كانت المصارف “متآمرة” مع المصرف المركزي لغايات تجارية وربحية كما يقولون، فما دخل المصارف بسندات الخزينة التي اشتراها الصندوق الوطني للضمان الاجتماعي لتمويل عجز الخزينة،

وهل أن القيمين على الصندوق ومرجعياتهم السياسية مستثنون في هذه الحالة من التهمة التي يوجهونها زورا الى المصارف؟

وهل المصارف اكتتبت في سندات الخزينة سرا وتهريبا أم بناء على قوانين أصدرها مجلس النواب بناء على طلب الحكومة.

وهل المصارف والمودعون هم الوحيدون الذين استفادوا من الفوائد المرتفعة؟

ألم تستفد الدولة من الضرائب على الفوائد؟

وكم تبلغ قيمة الأموال التي جبتها الدولة من هذه الضرائب علماً أن الضريبة التي جبتها الدولة اللبنانية من أرباح المصارف من الهندسات المالية بلغت لوحدها 800 مليون دولار”؟

ويمضي المرجع في تفنيد الحملة على المصارف بالقول: “يتهمنا بعض السياسيين والحزبيين زورا بتبديد أموال المودعين، علما أن هذه الأموال معروفة وجهة التوظيف والاستثمار في القطاعين العام والخاص بكل دقة،

ولكن هل بإمكانهم أن يشرحوا لنا وللبنانيين أين وظفوا هم وكيف صرفوا أموال سندات الخزينة وأموال الضرائب والرسوم والعائدات التي جبوها بالمليارات من الشعب اللبناني؟

وأذا سلمنا جدلا بأن اتهاماتهم صحيحة للمصارف ومصرف لبنان بتبديد اموال المودعين من خلال توظيفها في سندات الخزينة، فإن السؤال البديهي هو أين بددت الدولة أموال المودعين والمصارف الذين استثمروا في سندات الخزينة، فسندات الخزينة موجودة بيد من اشتراها

لكن أين هي الأموال التي أخذتها الدولة؟ وهل تُسأل المصارف في هذه الحالة عن تبديد الإيداعات أم الدولة؟”

ويضيف المرجع المصرفي: “يطالبون المصارف بأن تأتي بأموال أصحابها، وبأموال المستثمرين اللبنانيين والعرب والأجانب فيها من الخارج لتأمين السيولة بحجة الحفاظ على أموال المودعين وحقوقهم، وهي محفوظة ومضمونة بالنسبة الى المصارف،

ولكن هل يمكن لأحد من المسؤولين السياسيين في الدولة أن يجيبنا من أين سيأتون هم بالأموال لسداد تعويضات نهاية الخدمة وحقوق المستشفيات والمتعهدين والمضمونين في الصناديق الضامنة للدولة اللبنانية”؟

ويتابع: “إضطرت المصارف تحت ضغط حالة عدم الاستقرار السياسي والأمني والإقتصادي الذي تتحمل مسؤوليته الحكومة أن تتخذ إجراءات موقتة لتنظيم سحب الأموال النقدية،

لكنها لم تتوقف يوما عن تلبية ما يمكن تلبيته من حاجات المودعين وتأمين حقوقهم ولو بالحد الأدنى الممكن والمتاح، فهل يحق للحكومة والسياسيين الذين يعملون على اتخاذ قرار بالتخلف كليا عن الدفع للدائنين الداخليين والخارجيين أن يأخذوا على المصارف التقنين في مواجهة الهجمة على السحوبات وتخفيض قيمة الأموال النقدية المسحوبة”؟

ويسأل: “بأي منطق تريد الحكومة التخلف عن دفع سندات الخزينة عنوة وقبل التفاوض وتنظيم الجدولة مع الدائنين، علما أن 80 بالمئة من دين الدولة اللبنانية هو دين داخلي، وهي في الوقت ذاته تتهم المصارف بحجب الأموال عن المودعين؟

من أين تأتي المصارف بكامل الأموال الموظفة في سندات الخزينة إذا تخلفت الدولة عن الدفع؟

وماذا عن سندات الخزينة التي اشتراها اللبنانيون مباشرة من الدولة؟

ألا تحاسب الدولة على عدم تسديدها؟ وألا يعتبر ذلك سرقة لأموال الناس مشابهة لسرقة أموال المصارف؟ ومنذ متى، وبأي منطق أو قانون تحاسب ضحية المتخلف عن الدفع ويُبرأ المتخلف”؟

ويخلص المرجع المصرفي الى التأكيد بأن المفلس هو الدولة اللبنانية وليست المصارف ولا الشعب اللبناني!

وبالتالي فالمفلس المبذر الذي تصرّف بأموال المصارف والناس هو من يجب أن يكون في قفص الاتهام والمحاسبة والمحاكمة وليس ضحاياه.

ومع ذلك فالمصارف مستعدة لتحمل كامل مسؤولياتها، ولكن هل تتحمل الحكومة والسياسيون مسؤولياتهم الأخلاقية والأدبية والمعنوية قبل القانونية؟

ويختم:”طفح الكيل أو يكاد من الكذب والتزوير والتجني والافتراء! ومن الآن وصاعداً لن نسكت على هذه الحملات… ولينتظروا منا ما يعجبهم وما يضع النقاط على الحروف”!

Note: Political system of civil war militia/mafia “leaders, Central Bank, banking system, and parliament controlled by the chief of all mafias  coalition Nabih Berry, and the Hariri clan controlled Lebanon since 1992.

Any prophecies for hanging which Lebanon militia/mafia “leaders”?

If this mass upheaval escalates into a bloody revolution

Note: Enjoy editing old posts that make sense in current events

Prophecy of Reign of Terror: La Harpe to Jacques Cazotte

Who in the audience will be decapitated during the French Revolution?

This caption should be asked during Lebanon mass upheaval, once the upheaval devolves into a bloody revolution.

Jacques Cazotte  (1719-1792) who published “The Amorous Devil“, which started the fantastic kind of literature, was a member of the group that met in 1788 with La Harpe and several illustrious people at a dinner.

Many were academicians and of the aristocratic sphere.

La Harpe stated:

“You, Condorcet you’ll die in prison. Chamfort, you’ll cut your veins to death. Nicolai, you’ll end at the  scaffold (echafaud, guillotine),

You, de Malesherbes on the scaffold. You Bailly sur l”echafaud.

You, duchess of Gramont along with many of your genders you’ll end at the scaffold…

And only the King Louis 16 will be granted the grace to confess before being beheaded

It turned out that even Cazotte ended up at the guillotine.

The reign of Terror of the revolution during Robespierre lasted 2 years (1792-93) and witnessed 17,000 citizens of all classes being decapitated.

Only 15% of these victims were from the noble or aristocratic classes.

Every morning, two to three carriages filled with convicts were sent to the guillotine.

Marshal Rochambeau, hero of the Yorktown victory during the American insurgency was saved at the last minute because the carriage was already full and the guard shoved Rochambeau aside saying: “Your turn is tomorrow old Marshal”.

Tomorrow happened to be the day Robespierre himself was guillotined and the old Marshal lived a very comfortable live in his castle.

“The lover of former king Louis 15, Madame du Barry said to the  butcher: “Please, give me a minute more

Many illustrious scientists were decapitated such as Lavoisier, the discoverer of the proportion of Oxygen in the air.

The butcher kissed the hand of his Queen Marie-Antoinette before activating the guillotine.

In Lebanon mass upheaval, I cannot claim that famous academicians and scientists will meet and someone among them will deliver a horror prophecy: Most of them had emigrated long time ago and never returned.

I can conjecture, if our militia/mafia “leaders” don’t die before them, the potential criminals that should be hanged amid the piles of waste that they couldn’t resolve are:

Former Presidents: Michel Suleiman and Amine Gemmayyel

Former Army chief: Kahwaji

Former Prime ministers: Seniora, Mikati, Salam, Saad Hariri

Parliament chief: Nabih Berry

Militia leaders during the civil war: Walid Jumblaat and Samir Ja3ja3

Movable fairs in Beirut: 1971-74

I decided to re-edit my old article “Wonderful early 1970’s:  Movable fairs in Beirut” in order to demonstrate to the current generation in Lebanon that it is highly feasible to generate a mass upheaval as was done in Tunisia and Egypt. It is a scream against the total impunity that our politicians, in this semi-State of Lebanon, are enjoying, those militia/mafia “leaders” of our civil war, a war that no one was a victor.

Our movable fair lasted 4 years, 3 years behind Paris and Woodstock, and if it were Not for the control of the PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) over our political system, which diffused the purpose of the movement, Lebanon would have reformed against all odds.

Woodstock musical fiesta was organized in 1968 and disbanded three days later.  The French students revolt in Paris of 1968, then joined by the working organizations,  ended a week later. The French students revolt of 1968 was a big party with deep lucidity:  banners read “Run, comrade, run.  The old world is chasing after you.” Youth was taking a reprieve by running joyously, a week of total freedom, running as fast as he could, knowing that the old world will invariably catch up with him.

These students and youth movements crossed to Lebanon in 1970 and lingered for 5 years as movable fairs in Beirut, before the civil war set in.

I witnessed that wonderful and crazy period as a university student, witnessing far more than studying.

By 1970 I was attending university, mainly math, physics, and chemistry courses.   Once the morning courses were taken care of, I roamed Beirut freely and all alone. (Would have been more pleasurable and instructive if I had friends to join me then)

For less than 5 Lebanese pounds ($2 at the time) I could see movies, watch theater pieces, or go to the empty beaches in mid September and October, eat local sandwiches of falafel, shaworma, and freshly pressed fruits.

Most of the days I ended up attending conferences, political party meetings, joining regular demonstrations and marches by university students, sit-ins, hunger strikes on the street in front of the education ministry (I tried once for half a day).

Fleeing police tanks and water hoses, or just walking all around Beirut circulating where the “movable fairs” crossed my path, gathering of people chanting slogans against the sectarian and mercantile political system, the defeatist government, not responding to the frequent bombardment of Israel in south Lebanon...

The citizens (mostly Moslem Chiaa) in the south flocked to the suburbs of Beirut, mainly in Dahieh, and labelled the “Red belt of poverty” in order to flee the successive incursions of Israel, under all lame excuses.

The Palestinian Liberation Organization, led by Yasser Arafat, and its institutions were firmly established in Beirut and in a dozen Palestinian camps.  Cash in hard currency spent by the PLO and the various resistance movements maintained the Lebanese currency very strong.

In May 1972, Beirut Cinema Club in cooperation with the US Cultural Center projected a series of Orson Wells movies such as “Citizen Kane”, “The lady from Shanghai”, “Secret report”, “Satan’s touch”, and “Falstaff”.  Wells mostly recalls the negative critics: for example, a critic said that Orson shouts like a rhinoceros” when Orson played “Candid” of Bernard Show.

Wells and Charlie Chaplin might be the greatest American directors.  Wells prefers that producers invest massively on many movies, even if one of his films are not marketed.  He said: “Without men there is no art.  Without women, men never become artists”

In May 1973, the film “Red Weddings” by French director Claude Chabrol was projected in Eldorado movie theater. There was a curfew in the previous week:  The Lebanese army tried to enter the Palestinian camp of Dbayeh (mostly Christians).

A few feddayins escaped and fled through the valley of river Nahr Kalb (Dog River); and we provided them shelter for three days in Beit-Chabab and they were to resume the trip to Dhour Showier.  An ambush by the Phalange (Kataeb) Party killed several of them on the way.

Chabrol has a particular style and a deterministic view on how events should unfold:  His movies are about illicit love affairs, murder, then punishment by the “bourgeois” legal system:  that genuinely falling in-love is irrelevant and thus must be punished, one way or another.

In June 1974, “The hour of liberation has chimed.. Out colonialists” by the young woman director Heine Srour won a special acclaim in Cannes.  This movie is about the popular revolutionary struggle of the people in Zofar (Oman, Hadramout, and south Yemen) from the British colonial power and archaic monarchic structures.

Heine invested two years in preparation and shot the one-hour movie with the rudiment of equipment and finances.  Heine and three technicians walked hundreds of kilometers with the fighters under scorching sun and the bombing of British jets.

Heine conducted interviews in the local Arabic slang the “Himyari” and projected the essential roles that women shared in that revolution along the fighters.

This movie was one of the first to broach situation in other Arabic States outside of Syria, Egypt, Iraq, or Palestine.  Movies on the Algerian revolution were to be produced shortly after.

In February 1975, director Borhan Awalweyeh showed his movie “Kfar Kassem“.  Hundreds of spectators remained in the theater way after midnight discussing the movie.

The film is a retrospective documentary of the genocidal massacre that Israel committed against the Palestinians in the village of Kfar Kassem in 1956 before it invaded Sinai.  Peasants returning from the fields were killed because they could not know about the curfew that the Israeli troops declared in their absence.

This movie was based on the novel of the same name by Assem Jundi.  Issam Mahfouz wrote the dialogue in the Palestinian Arabic slang.

Lebanon of 1974, and particularly the Capital Beirut, experienced extraordinarily cultural, social, and political activities, quantitatively and qualitatively.

First, the number of women writers increased dramatically.  As Georges Rassi wrote: “In the Arab World, every woman writer is worth 100 free minded men“.

Second, many famous authors and poets opted to write columns in dailies; a move that brought them in close touch with the people and the daily difficulties.

Third, artists and thinkers from all over the Arab World settled in Beirut.  Most of these intellectuals were fleeing oppression and persecution for free expressions.  The Egyptian intellectuals flocked in great number as President Sadat had decided to connect with Israel and leave the Arab problems and the Palestinian cause way behind.

Fourth, the Lebanese TV witnessed a big jump in quality of local productions thanks to the director Paul Tannous.

Fifth, many cultural clubs were instituted and Arab States organized exhibitions and cultural events.

Most importantly, women became very vocal and active for women rights and drastic reforms in the laws and social awareness.

Late author Mai Ghoussoub was very young then, but she was one of the leaders of “Committees for Free women.”

Initially, men were permitted to join in the discussions until they proved to be elements of heckling and disturbances.  The committees of free women decided to meet among women because their cause must be priority in urgent reforms and not a usual side-show tackled by reformist political parties.

Arab movies of quality were being shown such as “Events of red years” by Akhdar Hamina;  “Beirut…O Beirut” by Maroun Baghdadi; “May… The Palestinians” by Rafic Hajjar; “The bird” by Youssef Chaheen; “Al Haram” by Henry Barakat; “Hold on… O Sea” by Khaled Seddik.

Karl Marx said:  ”When history repeats its cycles, the next time around is a farce.”  Spring of 68 was a sympathetic and spontaneous farce; it was an innovating and creative revolt with no arms.

Spring in Paris was a movable fair, an all free-invited party.  It was a movable feast for sharing ideas and desires for justice, peace, liberty, and pleasure. There were plenty of generosity and compassion:  Youth was feeling bored of the old world system of unjust order, capitalism, petrified ideologies and dogmas.

It was a humongous fair where affluent lifestyle in the western States of plenty hide the miseries of the lowest classes living in shantytowns.

It was in a period for the third world struggling to emerge from the slavery stage of colonialism.

Spring fairs in the western world spread to most nations where the partying lasted and lasted.

The virus of the movable feast reached countries with old systems destroyed by the colonial powers:  The newer power systems were unstable and mostly haphazard to come chasing after mass movable fairs.

Spring of 68 crossed to Lebanon and lasted 5 years and emerged on a civil war that lasted 13 years and produced 300 thousand casualties (10% of the population!)

Note 1:  Details of this introspection were supplied by Georges Al Rassi in “Stations along the trail of Lebanese and Arab movies

Note 2: This student movement in Lebanon was mostly let by the students of our public university. The public university, in Choweifat, was mostly controlled by leftist-leaning organizations, including the teaching staff. Most probably, the colonial powers got weary of the growing influence of this university that was spreading to the private universities. The right-wing parties , the president and the army were ready to confront this movement by strong arm tactics.

Note 3:  You may read more details on my next post https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2010/10/19/movable-fairs-beirut-1970-74/


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

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