Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Muammar Qadhafi

Disobedience is man’s original virtue…”

In “The soul of man under socialism”, Oscar Wild wrote:

“Disobedience, in the eyes of anyone who has read history, is man’s original virtue. It is through disobedience that progress has been made, and through rebellion…”

In “On the concept of history”, Walter Benjamin wrote:

“There is no document of civilization which is not at the same time a document of barbarism…”

James Fenton in “Blood and Lead”

“Listen to what they did.

Don’t listen to what they said.

What was written in blood

Has been set up in lead”

In “The recollection of Alexis de Tocqueville 1896

In a revolution, as in a novel, the most difficult part to invent is the End

W.H Auden in “Epitaph on a Tyrant

“Perfection, of a kind, is what he was after,

And the poetry he invented was easy to understand

He knew human folly like the back of his hand,

And was greatly interested in armies and fleets.

When he laughed, respected senators burst with laughter,

And when he cried, the little children died in the streets.”

In “Sonnets from China II”, Auden wrote: “They wept and quarreled: Freedom was so wild”

Mustafa Abdel Jalil (Libya interim president) said in September 2011:

“I hope the revolution will not stumble by retribution, taking matters into your hands and oppression…”

Late Vaclav Havel (President of Austria) said:

“Decent people cannot sit back and watch systematic, state-directed massacres. Decent people cannot fail to come to the rescue when within their power…”

Joseph Joubert wrote: “Love and Fear. Everything the father of a family says must inspire one or the other”

Joseph Stalin (Absolute dictator of the Soviet Union) said:

Death is the solution to all problems. No man, no problem

Omar Mukhtar (Libya resistance fighter leader to Italian occupation during Mussolini) said:

“We win or we die.” Finally, he surrendered and was taken to Rome in chains

Muammar Qadhafi wrote in his “Green Book”:

“There are inevitable cycles of social history:

1. The Yellow Race’s dominion of the world in Asia

2. The White Race’s attempt at colonizing extensive areas in all continents

3. Now it is the turn of the Black race to prevail in the world…”

One of the first steps to disobedience is to wean yourself out of rituals and ceremonies. Start to question the rationale and historical meaning and purposes of the rituals you are submitting to.

Civil disobedience is not an easy resolution to get engaged in: Law and Order institutions have to be revisited and reflected upon their validity in the pursuit of happiness, freedom of expression, human rights, and availability of opportunities to all regardless of race, genders, religious belief, and financial status.

Gandhi has developed the guidelines for non-cooperative movements against governments that broke their oaths and pledges to serving the people and are exercising cruelty, exploitation and oppression.

The program of non-cooperation is of 4 steps, each step is meant to reach a higher level of disobedience to the authority.

The first responsibility is to exposing, precisely, the project to the population at large through meetings and focused communication.

The next step is to convince the public servants to voluntarily abandon their titled positions and charges with the government and encouraging the lawyers and judges to stop serving the government.  No pressures should be exercised on the functionaries, especially if the movement is unable to provide for the bread winners. The private employees are excluded from the requirements of abandoning their services.

The third step would ask the army and security officers and soldiers to retreat from their duties.

The last step would amount to refusing paying taxes to the government.

In order to shorten the period of resistance with a successful outcome, the organization of the non-cooperative movement should cater to the weakest members in social status or economic needs.  The members of the movement should:

1.  stop taking loans from government funds;

2. conflicts among the members must be resolved through private arbitrage because lawyers should suspend the exercise of their official profession toward the government.

3. The members should start boycotting public schools; (in this request, I would include boycotting private schools so that no discrimination in economic status should be established).

4. The members should not attend any government reunions and meetings and ceremonies; they should refuse accepting any civil or military post.

5. In case of being under occupation, the members should rely solely on local and national products and manufactures “swadeshi” and thus,boycotting imported consumer’s products from the colonial powers.

For more details on non-violent-resistance-guidelines:  https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2008/10/03/gandhis-non-violent-resistance-guidelines/

Note 1: Quotes taken from “Sandstorm (El Ghibli): Libya in the time of revolution” by Lindsey Hitsum

Note 2: Listen to Matt Damon on “Civil obedience is the problem” Howard Zinn

You Think You Know Someone, and Then He Gets on a Stage and Blows Your Mind
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Who is Qadhafi? Plausible resolution to crisis in Libya

You may read on Libya in the historical, geographical, and social context through the link in note 1:  I relegate links to notes so that readers are not prompted to be sidetracked and fail to resume reading the main article.

Muammar Qadhafi was born in 1942 in a desert town, from the modest and minority Qadadfa tribe, in central Libya by the coastal town of Syrte.  He was 10 year-old when his parents sent him to Syrte (in the middle of the 1,700 km coast line between Tripoli and Benghazi) to get education.  Qadhafi had no one to care for him, and he slept in mosques.  Even at this early age, Qadhafi exhibited natural authority over his companions. Muammar memorized the Coran and constructed his individual interpretation of Islam. 

Later, as leader of Libya, Qadhafi sent the message that every learned person is entitled to interpret the Coran and does not need a religious cheick to give his “fatwa” on conflicts. Qadhafi discouraged polygamy on the ground that the Prophet was very explicit that a husband will fail treating equitably his several wives. Qadhafi spread the notion of equality between genders and allowed women to join education systems, the army, and the police force.

At the age of 14, Muammar moved to the desert town of Sebha, in south-west Libya in the large region of Fezzan, and finishes secondary schooling.  It was there that the events of the Suez crisis (1956) broke out.  Eisenhower had summoned England and France to withdraw their occupying troops, along with Israeli troops.  Gamal Abdel Nasser was worshipped as the new Arab leader, fighting colonial powers and vanquishing them. Muammar is leading student demonstrations and marches in solidarity of Egypt and Nasser.

Qadhafi is not lacking any new excitments in that period:  Algeria is revolting against French colonial occupation, Lebanon is witnessing a short civil war, Syria asked to unite with Egypt and Nasser agreed to the short-lived union (barely 3 years), Yemen is revolting against the theocratic Imam in Sanaa, the Palestinians are expressing their indignity for the massacres perpetrated by the new Zionist State in order to expell Palestinians and expand territory…

Consequently, the student leader Qadhafi is expelled from the Fezzan schools in 1961. Muammar moved on to the coastal town of Misrata to study law, as a pre-requisite of joining the army officer corp. He is in charge of the recruitment and cooptation of superior officers.  He was sent to England to continue his military education and mastered the English language.

Back to Libya, Qadhafi witnessed Israel preempting a war in 1967.  Israel warplanes used Libya airspace and military airports of the monarchy to destroy Egypt airforce bases.  The mass upheaval in the Arab world for the indignities suffered by Egyptians, Syrians, Jordanians, and Palestinians were a catalyst for Qadhafi to plan a military coup against the monarch.  In 1969, twenty officers were successful in occupying all key military bases, while the monarch Idris I was on official visit outside Libya.

This group of officers formed a high-command and the real leader Qadhafi refrained from stepping out as the leader for over three years.  Slowly, by the way the others commanders behaved in the presence of Qadhafi, foreign leaders comprehended the main force behind the insurgents.

Qadhafi nationalized the oil industry and demanded that England close down its military bases. He paid a historic visit to Gamal Abdel Nasser, his political and national guru, and supported anti-colonial movements in Africa and the independence movements in Africa.  Qadhafi was consistent in his anti-imperialism ideology and didn’t permit the Soviet Union of establishing military bases in Libya, as it did in Egypt and Syria.

Qadhafi was an admirer of Proudhon and Bakunin who were staunch adversaries of private properties ideologies:  They considered any private ownership as blatant thefts, encouraged by the power-to-be for political support of the bourgeoisie.

How Qadhafi managed to stay in power for over 42 years? How oil revenue was distributed and handled? How Qadhafi’s sons and close relatives are monopolizing Libya economy? That would be explained in a separate article. As a hint, you may read the link in note #3 “Qadhafis-shock-strategy-of-the-rat-bag”

What is the plausible resolution for the crisis in Libya?

After WWII, England encouraged the monarch Idris I Senussi to become the monarch of Libya:  The first Constitution was of a federal-type model with two self-autonomous States, one in the east, and another in the west, with Benghazi (in the east as the central Capital).  As oil was discovered in 1953, the Constitution was changed for a unified State.  In 1969, Qadhafi succeeded in his military coup d’ etat and shifted the capital to Tripoli and neglected the eastern region that was still pro-monarchic. 

Since there is a high homogeneity of the population in Libya (90% are “Arabic” and speak the same slangs, while 5% are of Berber origin (Algeria and Morocco), and another 5% related to African tribes from Niger and Chad) the most plausible resolution, after satisfying the pre-requisite of ceasing the power of Qadhafi and his bloody sons, is the following:

First, Libya would be federated into two States:  The eastern State based in the Capital Benghazi, and the western State based in the Capital Tripoli.  The Federal government would be relocated to the city of Syrte, in the middle of the long coast line of 1,700 kilometers, or the historical dividing line between the two concentration of people and tribes (and where Qadhafi was born).

Second, the oil revenue (constituting 90% of the GNP) will be split into three parts: 40% to each State and 20% for maintaining the central government and its key federal institutions such as army, foreign affairs, currency… Since the western part is relatively more populous (6 million in total for entire Libya), it is reasonable to allocate for this State a higher share in oil revenue.

Third, federal revenues will be proportionally budgeted and allocated to the people living in the deep desert oasis such as Kufra and Sebha.

Note 1: https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2011/06/27/most-plausible-resolution-to-the-revolt-in-libya/

Note 2: You may read the French book “In the heart of Libya of Kadhafi” (Au coeur de la Libye de Kadhafi) by Patrick Haimzadeh

Note 3: https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2011/06/30/qadhafis-shock-strategy-of-the-rat-bag/


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