Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Napoleon Bonaparte

Tidbits #60

Scientists may have found a new blood test was able to detect some cancers up to four years before patients had symptoms.

Do you agree on the position that a state’s sovereignty extends beyond its physical territory into cyberspace, and that countries, in turn, shouldn’t interfere with how others regulate the internet?

In 2018 , European model for internet economy stated the privacy rules known as GDPR fragmented the internet in their own way, with the aim of protecting user data from the prying eyes of US tech giants and government surveillance.

It means “Doing politics“: Faire la greve, les marches et les mobilisations pour pouvoir vivre avec les mêmes droits que tout le monde s’appelle “faire de la politique”

The only time Lebanon had a census was in 1932 during French mandate, and Lebanon is less than 5 million. Bangladesh of 100 million and one of the poorest country had a census recently. From election campaigns, statisticians figured out that the Maronite sect increased 1.6 time, the Muslim Sunni 7 times, the Muslim Chiaa 10 times, and the Druze 3 times. These rates are Not to change for the 5 million Lebanese. Pragmatically, the Chiaa sect is already demographically the majority and increasing steadily.

The customs and traditions of the Land in the Levant (Lebanon, Syria, Palestine…) were practiced thousands of years before Judaism came to be. The Jewish religion, written in around 200 BC in Alexandria, adopted the customs of the Land and wrote in the same style of imagery, maxims, and aphorism.

The “Whites” believed that all humanity was also White in the last 4 centuries, in moral standards, taste, fashion, standard of living, culture…. And still behave accordingly.

When I hear that consumption increased, I know that nature and earth are getting sicker

We like to think we’re special, but the truth is that humans ain’t nothing but mammals. This is particularly true when it comes to sex, and Not that good at it.

Stay clear from your God. Refrain from mentioning His name, pray for Him, communicate with Him or get familiar with His company. Have you associated with a powerful person and didn’t experience frequent Loyalty tests? Your life will be reduced to constant stress and total unhappiness.

La Majorité Silencieuse s’adapte aux crimes, les violences, la peur…: Je ne voit pas un future sain à l’humanité’

It is a bad Sign: A colonial citizens visiting an isolated location overseas.

When a country is reduced to but a Land for sectarian martyrs (shouhadaa2), and nothing else to celebrate but the sectarian religious events, then who is willing to take over (mandated power) this totally bankrupt people, politically, economically and financially?

Wisdom is earned, Not given or shared. Especially wisdom coming from older people: Each generation doesn’t lend an ear but to itself. When other people give us the answer, it belongs to them and not us.

While we might achieve the outcome we desire, it comes from dependence on others that we refuse to recognize, and Not from insight.

“J’étais toujours frappé’ quand je voyais les cheikhs tomber a genoux au milieu du désert, se tournant vers l’Orient et toucher le sable du front. Qu’était ce que cette chose inconnue qu’ils adoraient vers l’Orient?’ (Napoleon Bonaparte).

En fait, Mohamad avait ordonné’ de se tourner vers Jerusaleme avant de changer d’avis 13 ans après, et de se tourner vers la Mecque. Mohamad ne voulait plus une religion de “continuit锑 mais une religion à Soi. Une religion pour les peuple des déserts. Les peuples qui n’avaient cure des dogmes abstraits. “Si une idole ne satisfait pas mes desires, je la détruis et je la remplace par une autre”

The religions of the people of the desertic regions

The peoples living the nomadic lifestyle in the desertic regions could Not appreciate abstract concepts, especially with religions that insist on including abstract dogma in their “belief systems

If my current idol does Not satisfy my desires, I destroy it and replace it by another more convenient idol.

“J’étais toujours frappé’ quand je voyais les cheikhs tomber a genoux au milieu du désert, se tournant vers l’Orient et toucher le sable du front. Qu’était ce que cette chose inconnue qu’ils adoraient vers l’Orient?’ (Napoleon Bonaparte).

En fait, Mohammad avait ordonné’ de se tourner vers Jerusaleme les 13 premiere annes de son prosélytisme, avant de changer d’avis quand il a fondé’ son City-State in Yathreb.

Et  Mohamed ordonna de se tourner vers la Mecque. Mohammad ne voulait plus une religion de “continuit锑 mais une religion à Soi. Une religion pour les peuple des déserts. Les peuples qui n’avaient cure des dogmes abstraits.

Le Judaïsme aussi est une religion du désert: Ces bédouins du désert du sud de la Palestine et du Sinaï ne voulaient pas faire parti des peuple civilisé de la “Syrie”, avec une culture écrite très élevé et développe’.

Chateaubriand a été’ invité en 1802 par Julien, le frère de Napoléon, a un gala.

Bonaparte fit son chemin directement vers Chateaubriand qui essayait de se faire invisible derrière des invités

Napoléon éleva la voix “Mr chateaubriand”. La foule se retira et se reforma en cercle autour des interlocuteurs

Napoléon qui avait peut être lu “Le génie du Christianisme” souflat:

“Les idéologues du Christianisme n’ont-ils pas voulu en faire un système d’astronomie? Si le christianisme est l’allégorie des mouvements celeste… les esprits forts ont beau faire, malgré eux ils ont laissé assez de grandeur a l’infâme (Les Voltairiens?)”

En fait, tous les religions antiques relève d’astronomie, même en ce jour des religions des peuple isolés.

Note: Mohamad Christian sect (Ebonite)  borrowed more from Judaism (daily rules) than from Christianity. Though Mohamad had a devotion for the “Virgin” Marie who raised the prophet Jesus (Issa). That was natural since  the 3 most powerful idols in the Arabian peninsula were women, each one with special tasks.

Allah was an all general idol that could not generate profit to the monopoli of the Umayyad tribe. This tribe made its wealth from caravane trade that extended from Yemen to Damascus, and Bassora (Iraq) and Palestine through the Nabataean Kingdom toward Egypt

As he took control of the City-State of Yathreb , Mohammad changed his mind and ordered to direct prayers toward Mecca instead of Jerusalem. And this Islam became the religion of the desertic regions.

Any difference between Envy and jealousy?

And God preferred Abel’s sacrifice

Envy is the most sincere type of flattering another person. It involves an object that the other person has (money, status, talent…)

The object of jealousy is the behavior of a third person toward the other person.

“Potters envy potters” and “it’s okay to be envious, only the person you aspire to become”

Otherwise, envy is a waste of time and the most idiotic of emotions. Why?

Envy is relatively easy to switch off. Contrary to anger, sadness or fear.

The idea of caring that someone is making money faster than you are is one of the deadly sins.

Envy is a stupid sin: It’s the only sin you could never have any fun at. Lot of pain and no fun. (Charles Munger)

Napoleon Bonaparte said of his countryman Gilbert de La Fayette (Hero in 2 continents and of 3 successful revolutions):'”

La Fayette political bonhomie had to render him perpetually duped by people

Do I sense the ultimate feeling of jealousy in this statement?

La Fayette at the age of 19 was already exulted, loved, adored and respected by people in two continents (America and Europe), even before he returned to America and participate in the victory of Yorktown, 4 years later.

La Fayette actively got engaged in three successful critical revolutions, in America and in France.

Napoleon must have been despised by the American insurgents as he decided to sell the vast French Louisiana Territory in 1803.

The irony is that the British extended the financial funds to the Americans. The British figured out that it is better for the nascent State of America to grab the Louisiana Territory instead of leaving the French have a foothold in that continent, now that they were kicked out.

Napoleon committed the biggest mistake that changed the course of history.

“Don’t do what I said, do what I meant.”

That’s what most leaders and owners and bosses and customers want, isn’t it?

We want employees who know the why, not just the details of the how.

We want customer service people and partners and vendors who understand.

Which is what we get, at least until we encounter the first time that we’re unpleasantly surprised. It’s in that moment, when we demand a refund, or fire someone, or insist on rules being followed to the letter—that’s when it all falls apart and stops being a relationship based on understanding and turns into one that’s built on compliance to the rules.

If you want the people you work with to act with understanding, then you must trust them to use their best judgment, even when that means you didn’t get exactly what you said you wanted.

The failure is yours, because you didn’t help people understand the reasoning.

When you accept responsibility for that failure, when you educate instead of demand, you can gain the benefits of working with people who understand, instead of merely comply.

How borders changed in Europe in the last 1,000 years?

Apparently, this video of the evolution of borders change in Europe in the last 1,000 years has been removed or deleted.

Probably from many inaccuracies denounced in the comments. This post is to relate the story as I know it, since I love history and know a great deal.

At the turn of the first millennial, Poland was the richest, most cohesive and united “catholic” kingdom in the eastern part of Europe. Poland checked Russia expansion and saved Vienna from the Ottoman siege, in the nick of time.  The large Ottoman army faced one of the worst climate handicap: It was unusually cold and rained for months on: the soldiers were ill fitted and had to march in the mud.

East Germany was a collection of Teutonic tribes and eventually it formed Prussia and expanded during Frederic “The Great” in the 18th century.

West Germany of before the fall of the Berlin Wall, was mostly small states shifting allegiance to either the Hapsburg Empire (Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and the Netherlands) or France.

Napoleon Bonaparte was the catalyst in raising the patriotic spirit in West Germany when he forced recruits in the failed Great Army that invaded Russia in 1812, and the small states started mass uprising and used the current flag.

Bismark capitalized on this new patriotism and united all of current Germany and expanded to include Poland and the Alsace and Lorraine provinces in France and transformed Germany to become the second industrial country after the USA with the most powerful land army in Europe.

Crimea borders also changed: It is now attached to Russia.

Crimea was part of the Ottoman Empire. Catherine II of Russia expanded greatly her southern territory at the expense of Turkey.

The territory of the Tatars, called the Golden Horde, was captured by Ivan The Terrible as Tamerlane had weakened this Horde in the early 15th century and burned all their towns and cities along the Volga River (mainly current Ukraine).

Tamerlane is also the warrior who defeated the Ottoman Empire and delayed the fall of Constantinople by 50 years. In a sense, saving Renaissance Europe and permitting Russia to expand. His dynasty built the Mogul Empire in India.

Peter “The Great” of Russia finally managed to defeat the young and indomitable king of Sweden and expanded westward, annexed the 3 Baltic small States of Latvia, Lithuania… and built St. Peters-burg and expanded southward toward the Ottoman Empire but failed to retain what he captured.

France was united under Louis 11 who defeated the powerful and rich king of Burgundy Jean “Le Temeraire”. Burgundy included east of France, Belgium and part of Germany.

The English occupied the western part of France for over a century before Joan of Arc started the re-conquest in the 15th century.

Throughout the next 3 centuries, France was the dominant military power in land and had a powerful navy too. France expanded its colonies after 1870 toward West Africa and the Far East.

Cromwell of England focused his energy on building a powerful navy and annexed Scotland and Ireland. England became the main sea power until WWII and was the nemesis of Germany, which supplanted England as the major exporter oversea before WWI.

Italy was a collection of mini-states after 400 AC and was occupied, its rich cities sacked and Rome burned several times. Venice and Genoa were the main sea traders and were constantly at each other throats.

France occupied the northern part of Italy in several occasions and entered Rome. It was the devastation of Rome that permitted most of the artists, educated and architects of the Renaissance period to spread all over the other European cities and kingdoms and played the catalyst for reforms.

Napoleon Bonaparte occupied Italy before he was named First Consul in 1800 and defeated the Austrian armies in several battles and snatched Venice and part of current Croatia from the Hapsburg Empire.

England gave land concessions to Italy before WWI: England had decided to wage war against Germany (the second industrial nation after the USA) and was trying hard to rally countries against Germany.  England offered Italy to annex Albania, Libya and Ethiopia. As England allowed France to annex Morocco. Giving lands that it never had, such as Palestine to the Zionist Jews…

Prussia and Russia started to nibble on the Austrian Empire until its vanished after WWI.

Spain united in the 15th century and dislodged the last city of the “Arabic” Empire in Andalusia. The Pope of Rome divided the world into two parts for the new colonial powers of Spain and Portugal. Portugal had already colonized many regions in the Pacific Ocean and in South East Asia.

The ruin of the Spanish fleet “The Armada” in its attempt to invade England during Elizabeth I had weakened Phillip II of Spain who was the most powerful monarch in Europe in the 16th century.

It was mainly the Spanish fleet that checked and defeated the Ottoman navy that handicapped any further expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.

The Ottoman Empire had already annexed all the regions around the Black Sea (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Crimea, Turkmenistan and Romania…)  and occupied Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Serbia and half of Hungary. Not counting all the Near East, Egypt, the Arabic Peninsula and the North African provinces

Watch as 1000 years of European borders change
loiter.co

Note: Vladimir Putin worked out the Crimea problem by attaching it to Russia instead of declaring Crimea an independent State.

Apparently, under Ottoman Empire treaty with Catherine the Great, if Crimea declares independence it returns to Turkey

US Presidents who expanded the 13 colonies territory…

Not before the 20th century, few people in Europe knew who was the President of the US, and much less the US citizens. Not before the advent of TV in the 1950’s did the world knew about the role of the US President and his newly acquired power…

1. George Washington (1789-97),  first elected executive chief, expanded the territory in the North-West by opening up Ohio for colonization in 1794. He dispatched 3 incursions deep 240 km inland to tame Indian resistance, without declaring war or asking approval of Congress. Waging war was a prime prerogative of Congress.

2. Thomas Jefferson (1801-09), third President, purchased the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon Bonaparte in 1803. This territory included all the States where the Mississippi River passes through. The mischievous story is that England extended the loan to the US for the purchase in order to get the French out of the American continent. Napoleon was preparing to invade England and needed funding…

That loan came with a heavy price: Alexander Hamilton convinced Jefferson to sign on the monopoly of the Rothschild family of England to print US paper money and eventually have control the expansion of the internal US market.

The second calamity attached to this monopoly is that England invaded the US in 1814 in order to pressure Congress to extend this license for 24 years…

The third catastrophe was that England (through the Bank Of US) cut-off credits to the settlers in Ohio and the North-West Territory and plunged the US in a deep financial crisis in 1819.

Jefferson was the first president to engage militarily outside the American continent: He ordered his “navy” to bombard Alger (current capital of Algeria)  in order to punish its Pasha from attacking US commercial ships, taking the few women as concubine and selling the prettier ones to the Ottoman Sultan..

3.  Andrew Jackson during President James Madison (1809-17) is elected militia chief of Tennessee and became a national hero during the 1812 war against England. The British troops entered the Capital of Washington DC and burned it.

He defeated the Indian Creeks before saving New Orleans from the British siege in January 1815.

Jackson confronted the Indian Seminole and colonized Spanish Florida. This non-declared offensive war, not approved by Congress, expanded the US territories to the east of Mississippi.

Jackson becomes governor of Florida in 1821. By 1823, he is a federal senator.

4. James Polk (1845-49) ran his election campaign under the need to annex Texas and Oregon. He ordered General Zachary Taylor to deploy the troops to the Rio Grande, 200 km south inside the Mexican borders. The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848 gives the USA an additional 1.4 million square meters in the south-west, from Texas to the Pacific Ocean

5. Andrew Johnson (1865-69) purchased Alaska for US$ 7.2 million ($116 million in 2012 dollars)

The Alaska Purchase was the acquisition of Russian America by the United States from the Russian Empire in the year 1867 by a treaty ratified by the U.S. Senate.

Russia, fearing a war with Britain that would allow the British to seize Alaska, wanted to sell. Russia’s major role had been getting Native Alaskans to hunt for furs, and missionary work to convert them to Christianity.

The United States added 586,412 square miles (1,518,800 km2) of new territory.

Reactions to the purchase in the United States were mixed, with opponents calling it “Seward’s Folly”, feeling that U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward, the primary American negotiator, got the worst of the bargain.  George Pomutz was also involved in the Alaska purchase.

Originally organized as the Department of Alaska, the area was successively the District of Alaska and the Alaska Territory before becoming the modern state of Alaska upon being admitted to the Union as a state in 1959.

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

6. Benjamin Harrison (1889-93) overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii  (a coup d’état) on January 17, 1893), Anti-monarchical insurgents within the Kingdom of Hawaii, composed largely of United States citizens, engineered the overthrow of its native monarch, Queen Lili’uokalani.

Hawaii was initially reconstituted as an independent republic, but the ultimate goal of the revolutionaries was the annexation of the islands to the United States, which was finally accomplished in 1898. (Read note 1)

7. William McKinley (1897-1901). On April 25, 1898 President McKinley declare war against Spain for lame excuses and conquer Cuba, the Philippines, Porto Rico, Guam…

8. Theodore Roosevelt (1901-09) participated in the war in Cuba against colonialist Spain in 1898, leading his “Rough Riders” cavalry regiment.  When he became president, his conquered Panama, which was part of Columbia in Latin America, in order to open up the Panama Canal.  Theodore Roosevelt was the first president who crossed the borders during his tenure and inaugurated the Panama Canal https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2012/02/10/the-panama-canal-challenges-glory-and-infamies/

He was also the first president to mediate between powerful nations such as when Japan totally destroyed the Russian Pacific fleet in 1905.

Note 1:  Timeline of US military operations https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2013/09/19/timeline-of-united-states-military-operations-since-1775/

Note 2: On July 6, 1846, U.S. Secretary of State John C. Calhoun, on behalf of President Tyler, afforded formal recognition of Hawaiian independence.  The Hawaiian Kingdom entered into treaties with the major nations of the world and established over 90 legations and consulates in multiple seaports and cities.[4] On the signing of the Bayonet Constitution in 1887 the threat began to be realized.

Note 3: Manifest Destiny of the USA? https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2008/09/21/the-manifest-destiny-of-america-and-its-long-term-consequences/

Third President: Thomas Jefferson (1801-09)

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) was behind the formation of the Republican-Democrat Party against the Federalist Party that seek a strong executive power and supported by Alexander Hamilton.

Once in power, Jefferson switched to a “strong executive” concept and nominated Hamilton for the Treasury.

Jefferson was born in Virginia and inherited from his father 1,000 hectares of land with 200 slaves at the age of 14. His was educated at College of William and Mary and become lawyer. At the age of 25, he is elected at the Chamber of the Bourgeois, the colonial assembly of Virginia (the richest and most populous of the 13 colonies).

He published in 1774 the pamphlet “Summary View of the Rights of British American” which accused the British government of killing American individual rights. and was selected to represent Virginia at the Philadelphia Congress of 1775 and to write the essential parts of the Declaration of Independence.

From 1776 to 79, Jefferson is member of Virginia legislative body where he demanded the separation of Churches from the State.

At 36, Jefferson is elected governor of Virginia and has to confront the frequent incursions of the British.

In 1781, he retired to his property in Monticello and published his “Notes on the State of Virginia”. His wife Martha died in 1782 and Jefferson decided to return to the public life.

In 1785, he is appointed ambassador to France to replace Benjamin Franklin. Consequently, Jefferson could not be physically at the Constitution Convention of 1787, but approve the text globally.

He witnessed the French revolution of 1789. On the autumn of 1789, Jefferson is nominated by George Washington to head the department of foreign affairs. He has this certitude that only France can counter balance the power of England. His ideas on foreign affairs go counter to the Washington inkling and resigns in 1794.

Aged 50, Jefferson is enjoying the life of a land grower and focus on his studies. His friend James Madison is in charge of organizing the opposition to Washington.

Jefferson took residence in the new Capital of Washington DC in 1801. It has barely 3,000 people. His inaugural address:

Minority own equal rights that an equal law must protect… We are all republicans, we are all federalists…” He walks to the Capitol without the traditional white wig and the formal reception is cancelled.

James Madison is nominated head of foreign affairs and replace most of the 600 executive employees with people of his party.

He launched in 1801 a naval attack against the Algerian Pasha for ransoming American ships.

Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon Bonaparte in 1803 for $15 million and the negotiations are held in total secrecy from Congress and invented a new procedure: The Executive Order. This territory included all the States where the Mississippi River passes through. The mischievous story is that England extended the loan to the US for the purchase in order to get the French out of the American continent. Napoleon was preparing to invade England and needed funding…

That loan came with a heavy price: Alexander Hamilton convinced Jefferson to sign on the monopoly of the Rothschild family of England to print US paper money and eventually have control the expansion of the internal US market.

The second calamity attached to this monopoly is that England invaded the US in 1814 in order to pressure Congress to extend this license for 24 years…

The third catastrophe was that England (through the Bank Of US) cut-off credits to the settlers in Ohio and the North-West Territory and plunged the US in a deep financial crisis in 1819.

Jefferson imposes an embargo toward European ports in 1807 and denied any ships coming from Europe to accost on US ports.  This decision is a blow to US trade and Jefferson decides not to seek a third term.

Jefferson returned to Monticello at the age of 66 and created the university of Charlottesville.

He died on July, 4, 1826: a date that coincides with the independence.

The most potent weapon in long-term wars: Bread!

Henri Fabre wrote:

History honors the battlefields where death strikes us, but fails to talk of the wheat fields that keep us alive. History relate the names of royal bastards, but is incapable of telling the story of wheat and cereals. This is mankind foolishness…”

I am discussing the importance of bread among the “Bread eating” civilizations such as Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, the Greek, Romans, and the western empires.

Mind you that there are civilizations who relied on rice for daily subsistence, fish, oat or dried meat.

For example, the Mogul managed to conquer quickly the vastest of lands in history because they ate dried meat, stashed under their saddles.

The Germans ate oat raw, the same way that their horses did. This is an excellent cause to resist the Romans preemptive wars for centuries. The Romans considered these Germanic tribes as barbarous for this main reason.

For the bread eating civilizations, the  empire that grew more wheat in the long-term to feed the soldiers and the people back home was set to win the war.

The term “burned land” refers to the strategic method of burning the cereal crops as the invading army advanced.

It is no surprise that the period selected by invading armies is when the cereal crops were ripe for harvest: The reasoning was that the invading army will have plenty of food to harvest for the journey.

Napoleon Bonaparte campaign against Russia ended in a tragic fashion because Russia Czar Alexander I ordered burning the cereal field ahead of the advancing French armies.  For 50 days, the retreating French Grand Army was decimated due to lack of bread. The horses died for lack of oat and the soldiers relied on horse meat and their blood to survive.

It was not the cold but lack of bread that defeated Napoleon. It is reported that the French soldier felt hungry for an entire year afterward, regardless of how many times he ate per day: Hunger lingers deep in the subconscious.

Actually, many more French soldiers died from eating too quickly and too much bread as they reached safe destination.

In the US civil war, Lincoln won the war because the Northern States grew wheat in abundance and the South persisted on growing cotton, a harvest they could no longer export or eat.  The southern army was defeated for lack of bread in the last year of the war.

The north welcomed more immigrants from Europe and distributed vast land to them to grow wheat. And the women were used to plant the field, while the women in the south were helpless in these important tasks.

The largest northern center for baking bread in Alexandra was run by experts who studied the French treatise on processing flour and baking bread. “Whatever this war reserves for us, our silos are filled with wheat grains

In contrast, the daily Savannah Republic of Georgia published: “It is the ultimate in absurdity that our planters persist in growing cotton. Without bread, the soldiers will desert the battlefield and the people will die of hunger. Grow corn!”  The bushel of wheat cost $120 in 1863 in the southern States.

Cotton export represented two third of the wealth in the USA before the civil war, and only 3% of the cotton were processed for lack of industry in the south.

When Alexander of Macedonia landed on the shores of Turkey with a 30,000 strong-army, a Greek general, at the sold of Persia and governor of the province, suggested the war tactic of burning the land as Alexander advanced.  Persia King was sure of defeating the Greek army and declined this idea.

It was the Phoenicia City-State Tyre that warned Alexander of the Persian trap in Isos, and the Greek army circumvented the trap by marching at night. Tyre meant to weaken Persia hold on its economy, and it never crossed its mind that Alexander will destroy Tyre after 7 months of siege.

The armies of Napoleon were fed the best bread in Europe, thanks to Parmentier who supervised the milling and baking processes of the wheat.

Napoleon focused on the industry (the generator of wealth) and neglected agriculture: He imported wheat and cereal from Russia and Ukraine at cheaper prices than at home. In 1805, the war resumed against England and the combined forces of Prussia and Russia. The sea was blocked for import and Russia denied wheat and cereals to the French. England even purchased wheat from Egypt Muhammad Ali at premium prices in order to prevent the French from importing any wheat.

In 1813, Napoleon ordered the distribution of 2 million dish of soup daily for 5 months, until the next harvest of cereals. The soup was constituted of leftover bread, bones and vegetable of the season. The English mocked Napoleon saying “The French are reduced to eat dirt and bones

Note 1: Part of the stories were extracted from “History of bread in the last 6,000 years” by Heinrich Eduard Jacob, published in 1954.

Note 2: Ants harvest many kinds of grains, but saw only one kind of seminiferous “Herbacee Aristida” or “ant’s rice”, performing mono-culture for survival. This grain germinates during the rainy seasons and gives two harvests.

Note 3: Before new techniques for milling wheat using metallic cylinders and powered by steam engines, the bread eating civilization suffered from bad teeth, particularly the molars: milling with stones left residue of abrasive particles of stones in the flour..

Note 4: In 1830, a certain Muller (miller) conceived of cylinders powered by steam engine of Watt and Evans to mill the grain. The manufacture consisted of 5 stories of cylinders.  Engineer Jacob Sulzberger improved on the technique. Stefan Szechenyi from Hungary hired engineers from Switzerland to install a modern mill, and Hungary became the bread basket of Austria and Vienna for many decades.

In 1873, the US got interested in this mill during the Universal Exposition in Vienna. By  1879, governor Washburn hired engineers from Hungary, and the US became the world bread basket, and going on till now.

 

The “Big Army” crossing the Beresina River; (September 15, 2009)

 

            The self appointed Emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte, had entered Moscow.  The Russian governor of Moscow burned his Capital three days after the French troops entered this “Saint City”.  Bonaparte lingered for an entire month in Moscow, hopelessly waiting for Czar Alexander to initiate negotiation.  Bonaparte finally ordered the retreat; he also ordered General Moreau to blast off the Kremlin. Bonaparte was forced to re-take the same route he used for coming to Moscow.  Bonaparte and “The Big Army” of 670,000, initially, were to re-witness the scene of carnage of the battle of Borodino; with a twist: the 80,000 victims were reduced to carcasses and the wolves and crows had done their cleaning job.

            Finally, after weeks of walking in the Russian winter weather half the army was dead from freezing, famine, drowning, and diseases. The guerilla Cossacks harassed this multinational army into lunacy; many soldiers were acting up crazy and irrationally. Then this big army had to cross the Beresina River.  The Russian General Kutuzoff appeased the British General Wilson saying: “It is in the swamps of Beresina that the meteorite will cool down.  So far, Bonaparte has no alternative but to follow the passage that I let him take; he is not even allowed to stop and rest.”

            The main bridges on the Beresina were destroyed.  The French engineering regiment headed by Eble tried to build all night long two makeshift bridges in a valley; they had to construct the bridges dipping in frozen water. The pontoon layers knew that they will not survive the day.

            The Russian army of 40,000 headed by General Tchitchakoff was waiting on the other side of the river. Miracle of miracle, in the morning the Russians had vacated their posts to allow Bonaparte safe passage and not be made prisoner. Bonaparte crossed at 2 pm. Then mayhem ensued.

            The entire army was pressing to cross on unstable bridges. The first wave of crossers drowned or was trampled due to the heavy push from the back.  Those trying to climb from the sides were carried off by the freezing powerful river. Women were holding their babies off water to be picked up before sinking in the river; not many babies found rescuers: everybody had no time to lose.

            What is it with women and babies following armies? It has been the custom since antiquity for whole families to follow their “noble warriors”, not those mercenaries or poor soldiers. Perhaps the noble warriors didn’t feel excited being deprived of their tasty dishes or the warmth of female bodies. But what is it with babies and kids following an army? I never knew of a noble warrior caring of providing sympathy and affection to their kids. Obviously, women were of great help washing, cooking, cleaning after, gathering woods, tending the wounded, and rejuvenating the illusion of a peaceful period.  In this Russian campaign the civilians following the armies were caught between fires, crushed by horses and carriages, and killed when made prisoners.

            Then the Russian shells aimed amid this dense army increased the havoc. The bridge reserved for the artillery broke down. The masses surging from behind prohibited the column from backtracking. Everyone was precipitated in the river.  Thus, there was a surge to the only remaining bridge; men and materials were to be using this bridge. The carriages could not be stopped and entered in the masses and crashed into the compact assembled soldiers.  Nobody was hearing the moaning of the fallen and trampled.

            Bonaparte sent a brief message to the French Senate “During the 26 and 27 of November the army crossed.”   On December 5, 1812 Bonaparte abandoned his army and fled to Paris.

            If it was a military matter General Kutuzoff could have annihilated the French Big Army but he allowed it to cross the Russian borders.  There are two reasons for that decision: first, it was a highly political decision by Czar Alexander I.  Bonaparte was the master of Europe.  Without Bonaparte Europe would have sank into civil wars; the European leaders preferred Napoleon to stay for a short while so that he be targeted as the sole enemy and thus unite Europe until a political plan for restructuring the States is agreeable to all parties after the fall of Napoleon.  Second, it was a pragmatic decision.  The Russian army barely could afford to feed its soldiers.  It would have turned a horrific burden to caring for over 200,000 enemy soldiers who were enfeebled, sick, and crazy.  General Kutuzoff must have been extremely relieved to see the enemy has finally retreated behind the borders.

The “Big Army” crossing the Beresina River; (September 14, 2009)

 

            The self appointed Emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte, had entered Moscow.  The Russian governor of Moscow burned his Capital three days after the French troops entered this “Saint City”.  Bonaparte lingered for an entire month in Moscow, hopelessly waiting for Czar Alexander to initiate negotiation.  Bonaparte finally ordered the retreat; he also ordered General Moreau to blast off the Kremlin. Bonaparte was forced to re-take the same route he used for coming to Moscow.  Bonaparte and “The Big Army” of 670,000, initially, were to re-witness the scene of carnage of the battle of Borodino; with a twist: the 80,000 victims were reduced to carcasses and the wolves and crows had done their cleaning job.

            Finally, after weeks of walking in the Russian winter weather half the army was dead from freezing, famine, drowning, and diseases. The guerilla Cossacks harassed this multinational army into lunacy; many soldiers were acting up crazy and irrationally. Then this big army had to cross the Beresina River.  The Russian General Kutuzoff appeased the British General Wilson saying: “It is in the swamps of Beresina that the meteorite will cool down.  So far, Bonaparte has no alternative but to follow the passage that I let him take; he is not even allowed to stop and rest.”

            The main bridges on the Beresina were destroyed.  The French engineering regiment headed by Eble tried to build all night long two makeshift bridges in a valley; they had to construct the bridges dipping in frozen water. The pontoon layers knew that they will not survive the day.

            The Russian army of 40,000 headed by General Tchitchakoff was waiting on the other side of the river. Miracle of miracle, in the morning the Russians had vacated their posts to allow Bonaparte safe passage and not be made prisoner. Bonaparte crossed at 2 pm. Then mayhem ensued.

            The entire army was pressing to cross on unstable bridges. The first wave of crossers drowned or was trampled due to the heavy push from the back.  Those trying to climb from the sides were carried off by the freezing powerful river. Women were holding their babies off water to be picked up before sinking in the river; not many babies found rescuers: everybody had no time to lose.

            What is it with women and babies following armies? It has been the custom since antiquity for whole families to follow their “noble warriors”, not those mercenaries or poor soldiers. Perhaps the noble warriors didn’t feel excited being deprived of their tasty dishes or the warmth of female bodies. But what with babies and kids? I never knew of a noble warrior caring of providing sympathy and affection to their kids. Obviously, women were of great help washing, cooking, cleaning after, gathering woods, tending the wounded, and rejuvenating the illusion of a peaceful period.  In this Russian campaign the civilians following the armies were caught between fires, crushed by horses and carriages, and killed when made prisoners.

            Then the Russian shells aimed amid this dense army increased the havoc. The bridge reserved for the artillery broke down. The masses surging from behind prohibited the column from backtracking. Everyone was precipitated in the river.  Thus, there was a surge to the only remaining bridge; men and materials were to be using this bridge. The carriages could not be stopped and entered in the masses and crashed into the compact assembled soldiers.  Nobody was hearing the moaning of the fallen and trampled.

            Bonaparte sent a brief message to the French Senate “During the 26 and 27 of November the army crossed.”   On December 5, 1812 Bonaparte abandoned his army and fled to Paris.

            If it was a military matter General Kutuzoff could have annihilated the French Big Army but he allowed it to cross the Russian borders.  There are two reasons for that decision: first, it was a highly political decision by Czar Alexander I.  Bonaparte was the master of Europe.  Without Bonaparte Europe would have sank into civil wars; the European leaders preferred Napoleon to stay for a short while so that he be targeted as the sole enemy and thus unite Europe until a political plan for restructuring the States is agreeable to all parties after the fall of Napoleon.  Second, it was a pragmatic decision.  The Russian army barely could afford to feed its soldiers.  It would have turned a horrific burden to caring for over 200,000 enemy soldiers who were enfeebled, sick, and crazy.  General Kutuzoff must have been extremely relieved to see the enemy has finally retreated behind the borders.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

August 2020
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