Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘New York Times

Bono-metrics and more; (Jan. 28, 2010)

            Rock superstar of U2 Bono published his 10 ideas for the next decade in the New York Times.  I selected a few of these ideas with comments.

            Half a million children in developing countries died of diarrhea this year.  There is a vaccine for antirotavirus  that could save millions of children.  The vaccine can be delivered with the other available inoculations.  Super rich Bono has established many humanitarian associations such as ONE and the label of RED products to fighting tuberculosis, paludism, and AIDS. Super rich and supper motivated Bono can start this campaign of vaccination and then play the catalyst for other billionaires, public figure personalities, and international organizations to taking over the movement.

            Soccer “world cup” games for 2010 are organized in South Africa. During the games, many African civil wars will declare cease fire for the event. Between now and then, soccer is enflaming enmities among peoples instead of letting politicians fight it out: it is a shame that Egyptians feel so strongly of Algerians simply for a soccer game. In this century, people can still exhibit small mindedness; as if knowledge and simple common sense decency have never touched them.

            Each individual should have the right to sell his polluting conduct to the heavier polluters and receive the money for his sustainable life behavior. The Ethiopian who is polluting the environment with 200 kilos of CO2 related chemicals per year should be paid by the US polluter of 20 tons.

            I love the European Union dynamism: Do you remember the “Spanish auberge” movie where European students study in any EU State?  Well, there is an extension to that program for small entrepreneurs.  The Erasmus program offers stipends for entrepreneurs who manage to contact skilled entrepreneurs to be mentors and learn new techniques in administration and managing their business.  Damn, I love to have dual citizenship with any EU state.

            For example, the Netherland allocated one billion to cover salaries of part time workers so that companies retain qualified employees for better economic periods.  What a better strategy to keeping people off the street and feeling worth as a person during downturn period.  It is amazing that small Netherland, with no raw materials, and with flat land under sea water level can progress as a super wealthy society.  The EU should move most of its institutions to the Netherland and be kept up to date to notion of courage and organization.

Reactions to the genocide in the Sabra and Chatila camps, (June 21, 2009)

I am translating from French sections of a book published by a Jewish author, in my own style.

For three nights and two days the genocide went on in the Palestinian camps of Sabra and Chatila on the outskirts of Beirut.  It started at 5 p.m. on Wednesday of September 16 to Saturday 1982 at 10 a.m.  Of the 20 thousands refugees, more than 4,000 have been declared missing and dead; a third of these victims were Lebanese citizens living in the camps.  Less than 1,500 dead have been identified by relatives; the remaining ones had been decomposing for two days and over two thousands have been taken in trucks to Israel, never to reappear.

Saturday, September 18, 1982; Israel’s New Year

By 11 a.m., the outside world of the cordoned off camps by the Israeli army is starting to witness the magnitude of human disaster. The terrorized civilian Palestinian refugees are roaming like ghosts among the cadavers to recognize the lost ones.  All the Palestinian fighting forces had been vacated to Tunisia by the US and French ships a while ago.

By noon, the international press, radio and television reporters are flooding toward the camps. The Washington Post published “Houses were bulldozed over entire families. Cadavers are piled up as dead dolls.  Perforated walls account for lining up killing.  A baby in diaper had his skull crushed. Each alley tells its own story of savage massacre. A woman is dead by a bullet shot at her bosom.”

The ambassador to France Paul-Marc Henri is on location.  During the invasion of Lebanon by Israel in 1982 the UNICEF accounted that for every fallen resistance fighter, 10 babies were dead; but in the two camps the terrorist militias targeted specifically the babies and kids.  Among the piles of cadavers the militias inserted grenades ready to explode as survivors search for their relatives.  Members of body could be distinguished showing out of quickly and freshly dug mass graves.

Foreign journalists start counting the victims, everyone for himself; one journalist counted 80 and then vomited; another counted 150 in just one pack of houses.  Many victims have been dead since Thursday, September 16; refugees have been clamoring even then that the militias were cutting throats and slaughtering everyone they find on their way.

On the walls you can read the militias graffiti “Tony passed by here”; “God, Homeland, and Family (the slogan of the Kataeb, Phalangist militias)”; “The forces of Baabdat (a town in the Metn district)”; and “They are all fucked up”.  A mother was saying “Only those who could run fast were saved”.  The journalists are shown the nearby headquarters of the Israeli army. The Israeli soldiers are not answering questions of reporters; they received orders to say “We had no idea”.

A Phalangist militia is pretty proud of his actions and replies to an American reporter “For years we were waiting for the opportunity of entering the Palestinian camps in West Beirut. The Israeli army selected us because we are far better in the house to house operations.”

Israeli General Amir Drori orders the Israeli soldiers not to enter the camps for any pretext for fear of confirming the strong suspicion that they indeed had participated in the genocide. The Jews in the USA are feeling sick and ashamed.  President Reagan announced “Israel has justified entering West Beirut to avoid blood shedding and these kinds of tragedies”  An Israeli journalist retorted that “those tragedies took place because the USA gave us the green light to invade Lebanon and progress toward Beirut”.

The Lebanese officials have many times expressed their concerns to special envoy Philip Habib and his Deputy Morris Draper of the consequences of leaving the Palestinians unarmed within their camps.  An American diplomat in Tel Aviv proclaimed to the daily Haaretz “The Palestinian Organization and the State of Lebanon had confidence in the USA engagements; but the US displaced Lebanon’s confidence to Israel.  We realized our grave error too late”

In the mean time, the Israeli army is resuming its search and destroys activities in West Beirut, and rounding up thousand of Lebanese civilians for questioning and investigation in a location close to the Sport City.

Sunday, September 19, 1982; “Goys kill goys; then they accuse the Jews” said Begin.

The stench of pestiferous odors is polluting vast areas extending to four hundred yards around the limits of the two camps. Many of the decomposing bodies have been in the torrid sun since Thursday.  The Lebanese army is depositing cadavers at the entrance of Chatila camp by a large ditch. Red Cross’ ambulances are bringing a new load of victims.  A pregnant woman is searching among the bodies for her husband or any member of her family. Frequently, horrible screams disturb this climate of dazed zombies: someone has recognized a dead relative. Then, the identified victim is bagged in a sac of nylon to be buried decently by the remaining family members (around 1,200 victims) or simply taken to a specific ditch. Most of the time, entire families of over 10 members are survived by a single survivor who is left flapping in complete uncertainty for a tomorrow.

By night the remaining refugees prefer to sleep far from camps: they are under shock, terrorized, and need a place with odors different of what they have smelled for days.  Coordination among o the 11 disparate organizations are non-existent. The task of searching for survivors amid the 200 demolished houses is slow and hopeless.

The agency France-Press estimated on September 23 the number of vanished individuals at more than 2,000: they were taken out by truck loads during the genocide.  The Israeli government never divulged the status of the disappeared Palestinians who were supposed to be taken prisoners and handed over to the Israeli army.  An Israeli correspondent to the daily Maariv wrote “I have never witnessed such silence of our soldiers during the entire war”.

In the meantime, the Israeli army is resuming its search and destroys activities in West Beirut.  Thousands more of Lebanese are taken to questioning and investigation.

In the evening, around one thousand militants and intellectuals of “Peace Now” are demonstrating in Jerusalem in front of the residence of Began PM chanting slogans “Begin terrorist”, “Begin assassin”, “Beirut=Deir Yassine of 1982”, “Down with Sharon, the butcher of Kibya (a village in Jordan)”.  Another demonstration of Israelis in Tel Aviv is brutally dispersed by the police; a tract is distributed stating “Begin, Sharon, and Eytan are totally responsible for the massacre of thousands of babies, women, and elderly Palestinian civilians”

At 10 p.m. The Israeli cabinet met in extraordinary session: the main topic is NOT what happened in Sabra and Chatila.  Begin dispatched the entire affair as “Goys kill goys; then they accuse the Jews”.  Minister Itzhak Berman demands the constitution of a commission to investigate the massacre.  Begin replies “Such a commission would be considered by world community as confession of Israel’s responsibility”.  Begin orders that a full-page be published in both the New York Times and the Washington Post blaming only the Phalangists of the massacre; this ad announcement is to cost $54,000.

Television news all around the world are diffusing scenes of the carnage. The American journalist George Weil associate this massacre to what happened in Baby-Yar during Nazi occupation of Ukraine when Nazi allowed local Ukrainians to massacre thousands of Jews.

Monday, September 20; (War crime in Beirut)

Units of the Lebanese army (1,500 soldiers) cordoned off the two camps.  At the entrance of Chatila more than 100 corps are decomposing by two ditches.  The bodies are descended and then covered by lime. A young Palestinian tells a journalist “we will no longer put our confidence in the promises of others.  We will secure by arms our own destiny.”  Once, a truck carrying Lebanese army soldiers sent people fleeing north in horror and screaming “The militias of Saad Haddad are coming back”.

Israel resumed arresting 1,500 Lebanese citizens; they are emptying the rich library of the PLO and its center for research that was created in 1964; they carried away very old collection of dailies published during the British mandate.

West Beirut has not been receiving any food supply for 5 days and the electricity is still cut off and there is no potable water. Even the American Hospital is short on private utility because there is no mazout.

The main title of the daily Haaretz is “War Crime in Beirut”; it demands that Sharon and Eytan be destituted if Israel is to raise its head and look straight at people. The editorial of the daily Davar stated: “It very difficult to be Israelite. We have no recourse to wash our hands of this infamy.  The perpetrators of Deir Yassine (Begin PM) and of Kibya (Sharon) compromise again the people. The government has led the State to moral bankruptcy.” Israel Zamir pronounced “Pogrom is no longer exclusive to Jews. Begin and Sharon have extended it to other ethnic groups”. 

Amos Kennan writes: “Mr. Begin, you have sold without any benefice millions of Jewish babies who died in Auschwitz”.  Joseph Bourg writes: “Begin and Sharon let in hungry lions in the arena. Lions ate the people. Lions are the culprit! They are the ones who killed and maimed, aren’t they?!”  A poll taken in Israel demonstrates that 60% of Israelis assign the responsibility to their government; 80% consider that the war in Lebanon damaged Israel’s standing”

Shimon Peres talks in the Knesset: “Sharon, when the Syrian were bombarding Zahleh on May 1981 you declared that the Christians are suffering the same massacres as the Jews in 1940”.  Sharon replies to Shimon Peres: “When you were Defense Minister you sent Israeli officers to orchestrate the sacking of the Palestinian camp of Tel Zaatar (in the Christian district)”.

On September 25, 400,000 demonstrated in Tel Aviv demanding a commission of investigation; Begin bowed down to that demand on September 28.  The Kahana commission reported a toned down version for the public; the army high officers and Sharon were obliged to step down. The Israeli army withdrew from Beirut by September 29; Multinational Forces will take positions by the camps; they were there before Israel entered Beirut and they vacated their positions for the genocide plan to be executed.

Note: The same kind of genocide took place in the camp of Jenine in the West bank in 2002 and by Sharon also; he was then Prime Minister. The US pressured the UN not to investigate.  The US feared that the world community will realize that Sabra and Chatila camps genocide were not isolated cases but a patter of the tandem Begin-Sharon.  Over one thousand billions dollars were lavished on the State of Israel since 1948 in order to perpetrate the kinds of State horrors that Zionists erect Holocaust monuments so that humanity “never forgets”.   If I want to believe in Hell it is simply because it is fair for those terrorists who were never been brought to court of justice.

Who Assassinated Lebanon’s late Rafic Hariri PM? (May 26, 2009)

 

The German daily Der Spiegel reported excerpts from internet blogs posted by Syrian dissidents six months ago claiming that a special team of Hezbollah masterminded the assassination of late Lebanon Rafic Hariri PM.  The timing of that report, which the International Tribunal denied any knowledge, was evidence that the real perpetrators were scared shit of the victory of the opposition in Lebanon at the next Parliamentary election on June 7.  It meant that the opposition is not about to let the assassination case linger any longer and will pursue its own investigation or force the International Tribunal to move swiftly and close the doors to further political manipulations of that case. What exacerbated the political climate is that Lebanon has started dismantling systematically Israel’s spy webs and dangerous intelligence are accumulating relative to Israel involvement in many of the string of assassination cases in Lebanon since the murder of Rafic Hariri.in 2005.  The US Vice President Biden visited Lebanon for 6 hours before the publishing of the report and met with the leaders of the government alliances.  Lebanon has to expect the worst every time a US official pay us visit to give us orders.

Thanks to Walid Jumblat, one of the principal allies to the government, he quickly and adamantly lambasted this chimerical and fabricated report and proclaimed that the report was intended to draw Lebanon into another civil war between the Shiaa and the Sunni Moslem sects.  Saad Hariri (leader of the Future movement) and Seniora PM were forced into suspect silence; proof that they were aware of the plan that backfired on them, a plan that is backed by Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Israel, and the USA.

Seymour Hirsh has pronounced that former Vice President Cheney had formed a secret cell with purposes to assassinate a few leaders, including Rafic Hariri.  Hassan Nasr Allah, Secretary General of Hezbollah, delivered a speech on May 25 warning the Lebanese of the seriousness of the planning to resume machinations for instigating civil war in Lebanon.  Sayyed Hassan recounted the well planned dissemination process of the report.  Al Arabiya news media started drawing comments on the report but the feedback was lukewarm and the session fell flat.  Then, Israel’s dailies picked up the report on their front pages and the Israeli Foreign Affairs and Defense ministers urged that Nasr Allah be apprehended and delivered to the International Tribunal.

This report is timed before Israel’s all out military maneuver on May 31 and lasting 5 days.  This is to be the largest and most exhaustive maneuver ever in the 61 years of the creation of the Zionist State; it should involve all Israel civil and military institutions and cover all the land.

 

On March 7, 2005 I wrote an article with the same title “Who assassinated Rafic Hariri?”  The subsequent chapter is a copy of the article.

 

“Since the assassination of former Prime Minister Hariri, thousands of citizens have been gathering, every day and night, in Downtown Beirut demanding to know who assassinated Hariri.  Not many believe that the government has enough credibility to investigate properly this political crime.  The UN has sent a team headed by a former Irish police officer and then later, the Lebanese government asked the help of several criminal experts and investigators from Switzerland and Denmark.

So far, how the blast occurred and what kind of explosive was used is still not conclusive and pretty much vague and divergent.  The government is claiming that it was a suicide car bombing done by Abu Abbass who sent a video to Al Jazira channel, one hour after the incident, claiming the responsibility of an unknown group. The government hinted that it analyzed genetically remnants of the perpetrator.  A political scientist, Dr. Nakash, believes that the video is real and that two similar simple terrorist techniques were successfully used in Iraq and Saudi Arabia. Dr. Nakash produces documents published in the New York Times of many serious threats to King Fahd, owner of Al Arabiya channel and the main mentor of Hariri.  Apparently, Al Arabiya was muting news on Iraq that could damage the US presence there. Thus, Saudi Arabia bribed Alawi (Iraq’s prime minister) with two billion dollars to shut down the offices of Al Jazira channel and to crack down on the militia of Al Sadr in Najjaf.   Alawi executed the order effectively.  Hariri was for some time following the political premises of Saudi Arabia in Iraq but had a change of position lately: It was too late.

The Hariri’s deputies in the Parliament affirm that the detonating charge was planted underground and the material is so new that the labs have failed to determine its composition until now.  One of the surviving bodyguard claims that the street was clear and no visible obstructions was evident before the blast.

May be the people want to know but the powers to be, locally, regionally and internationally are not that excited to divulge the parties behind this barbaric crime. The rhetoric of President Bush, Chirac, and the European Union has already pointed the finger to Syria: an indication that any investigation is decided to be politically motivated. 

It is hardly credible that any Lebanese political party is behind this assassination.

It seems that Syria has much to lose from the death of Hariri because of his wide range of connections and the many favors he enjoys with Saudi Arabia, the main financial backer of Syria and his stabilizing power within the Lebanese political system.

 

I am leaning toward an Israeli/US connection for several reasons:

1) The next day to the assassination, Sharon dismissed or refused to extend the appointment of Yaalon as head of the army and appointed the head of Israel secret services to replace him. Was Yaalon against this assassination decision or was he not informed and expressed his position accordingly?

 

2)  Hariri failed many Israeli attempts to internationally cast Hezbollah as a terrorist organization and he succeeded in Europe and in France.

 

3)  Hariri was behind snubbing Israel for the failed May 17, 1983 peace treaty agreement with Lebanon.

 

4)  Hariri was behind the April understandings in 1997 with the direct involvement of the USA on the procedures of conducting war between Hezbollah and Israel.  This agreement seriously hampered Israel in waging its devastating traditional attacks on civilians’ targets in south Lebanon and carrying out mass detentions.

 

5)  Hariri had reversed his position on the issue of the return of the Palestinian refugees to Palestine and could certainly block any UN resolution to the contrary.  For many years Hariri on purpose heavily indebted the State of Lebanon; the plan was that the Lebanese would cow and accept the residency of the Palestinians in return of the cancellation of the international debt.  The pragmatic Hariri comprehended that his former plan was not feasible and agreed to reverse the indebtedness program.

 

6)  The timing of the assassination was appropriate because Israel was under pressures to negotiate with Abu Abbass (The recently elected Palestinian prime minister).  Israel wanted a free hand to pressure Abu Abbass into a flexible understanding about the refugees’ problems and Hariri could very well exercise effective counter attacks when he returned as prime minister after the April election.

 

7)  Israel has a history of eliminating every enemy to its plans for expansion and the timing was perfect because first, Hariri was no longer a prime minister; second, the political discourse within Lebanon was very heated for blaming Syria of the many current setbacks, especially for generating the UN resolution 1559.  The unfounded rumors that Hariri was behind this resolution could divert the guilt for the assassination to Syria for an extended period of time.

 

8)  Since Israel never makes such serious decisions before receiving the green light from Washington, it is obvious that the USA government has an interest in eliminating Hariri at this junction.  Hariri was to be reelected in April and be appointed prime minister again.  With this international heavy weight and with his personal friendship with President Chirac of France it would be very difficult for the US to pass a resolution in the UN council to attack Syria in due time, especially after the State of Palestine is recognized internationally.

As newspapers in Israel rightly analyzed the situation, Syria is very probably not directly the guilty party in the crime, but Syria is certainly the party to pay the price and the consequences.  Bashar Assad, President of Syria, gave Israel the proper ammunition and the excellent timing for his inexperience and his hubris responses to international pressures.   I am certain that it is the Lebanese citizens who are and will pay the price for years to come.”

 

This is going to be a lengthy article. On March 31, 2005, I wrote another article on the same subject entitled “Okay, let us Cut Out the Crap, Who Killed Rafic Hariri?”

 

“If anyone is still waiting for the results of any kind of investigation into the assassination of Hariri, I suggest that he build himself a shack in Downtown Beirut and wait there for at least twenty years. If anyone did not get it that more than two great States are behind this assassination he better not stock up on Lebanese flags hoping for another big demonstration with the slogan of “We need the truth. Who killed our martyr Rafic?” 

If anyone is still wondering why a thousand kilograms of TNT explosives are needed to assassinate Hariri, or who can stock pile that amount of explosives, or how Hariri was killed by a moving truck, or a suicide bomber, or the detonation technique used or any kind of these stupid details he sure will no more hear any of that crap anymore.

Why Yasser Arafat, the symbol of the Palestinian resistance to Zionism, had to be assassinated, in the meanest possible alternatives, by slow poisoning when even the meanest British allowed Napoleon to dictate his memoirs before dying his slow death with arsenic poisoning?  Why Hariri had to be done with in pomp and in grandeur that left dozen killed, a hundred injured and part of Beirut destroyed?

Are the assassins sending an honorable farewell to the overbearing friend, the worthy enemy, the great leader who was much bigger than his tiny country?  Apparently the Western Powers have set up a style coding system for eliminating leaders whose time had come and are becoming huge liabilities.  I would hypothesize that the number of times the unfortunate bugger was invited officially to visit the leaders of the Western Powers and the frequency of friendship expressions are main factors for this pomp in the assassination; perhaps secondary factors such as the quality and number of citizenships he accumulated in the Western World and less probably the number of honorable degrees which were bestowed on him by universities.  

Hariri died on Valentine day.  What was his wife Nazek doing in Paris on that day?  Was she expecting Rafic to join her in Paris or was she to return that evening to Beirut, or was she held in Paris on purpose so that she might not be a member of the deadly motorcade?  Why Hariri was so happy in the morning of his death?  Did he receive the good news from Chirac that Syria will be soon be withdrawing its troops but failed to warn him that his hours were counted?

Does anyone still believe that Chirac, a President of a proud country, stayed more than six hours with the Hariri’s family to mourn such a great friend of his?  Or may be he is so guilt ridden that he had to shift attention somewhere else?  How come France was so chummy with Israel lately as if missing an old friend and cannot stop chatting and cuddling with?

How come the US Administration has been moving its butts in and out of Lebanon and shaking them much more than it did during its Iraq invasion?  How come the US Administration has been admonishing Israel to stop affirming the US agreement on its policies whether in Israel or in the Middle East?

I stated in a previous article that the USA and Israel are the culprits and provided the rationales. I stand a little corrected because I am adding a few more culprits. 

 

The 1559 UN resolution that was sponsored by the USA and France was the tip of the iceberg of the package deal between these two States and one of the little secret in the agreement was to contract out Israel to eliminate Hariri with utmost prejudice within specific constraints on when and how.  Israel was overjoyed that the opportunity finally came to erase her enemy number one off her black list.  Hariri not only attempted several times to undermine Israel plans in Lebanon and in the region but succeeded hands down in all his political counter offensives against Israel and was still capable of doing Israel great damage.

Chirac was relieved from an overbearing friend who kept reminding him of what were the right things to do toward Lebanon.  Chirac knew better that doing the right things is not necessarily the right political decisions at this crucial time.  Chirac was paying dearly from his prestige and France political positions by opposing the persistent pressures from the European Union and the USA to list Hezbollah as one of the terrorist organizations.  Hariri kept showing at the Elysee door and taking photos with Chirac that said “My dearest friend Chirac” as Egypt President Sadat used to say to Kissinger, the USA Secretary of State during Nixon, “My dear friend Henry”.

The USA and France had already agreed on plans for the Greater Middle East and time was of the essence.  These plans could not succeed for certain and on time as long as Hariri is still alive and active. France, for now, is winning big: it managed to reaffirm her protectorate rights over Syria and Lebanon like during the colonial times, secured her oil rights in Iraq and removed the American veto to selling military hardware to China.

The USA is succeeding in destabilizing Syria and weakening any resolve Syria might still have to counter the plans in the Greater Middle East.

The price for Hariri’s life was certainly worth any stupid friendship that reached the stage of no return on investment but was becoming a real liability in prestige for Chirac and France geopolitical interests. 

A practically weakening Lebanon President Emile Lahoud quickly agreed to an international investigating team without discussing the details of its composition or duration. Lebanon is going to be manhandled by the world community as President Lahoud, reluctantly, invited the wolves, through an international resolution, to come and freely investigate their own deeds and mischief. Lebanon will be welcoming an international team of investigators, about 60 of them and for 6 months automatically renewed for another 6 months. 

Citizens, what sort of political and economic stability do you expect for Lebanon in the coming year?  Another wave of immigration is taking place and no noble slogans can undo this trend.  If Syria was in cohort to this assassination plan it certainly was left to drown and take the heat alone.

Amine Rihani: A Pragmatic activist Writer (April 10, 2009)

 

Amine Rihany is a well learned, educated, activist, and pragmatic author born in Lebanon. He wrote many wonderful books and I read most of them.

Rihani had published in the New York Times since 1901; he was one of the founders of the “Association of Writers” (Al Rabitat al Kalamiah) of the Lebanese immigrants living in Boston. This association included Jubran Khalil Jubran, Michael Nouaimeh and Michael Nakhleh.

Amine Rihany was an undaunted and avid traveler and published books on his travels. He visited North Africa, the Arabic Peninsula of Yamen, Hijaz, Najd, and Kuweit and became close friends and counselors to many monarchs and leaders such as Abdalah bin Seoud, El Huseiny, al Sabbah and others.

Rihani published “The Heart of Lebanon” (Calb Loubnan) and dedicated to Charles Korm; he recounts in the minute details his trips within Lebanon in Mount Lebanon, from the Cedars, to the districts of Jubeil, Kesrowan, Faraya, Metn, Chouf, Jezzine, Marjeyoun, the south and Jabal Amel.

           

Amine Rihani is of Lebanese origin from the village of Frikeh close of my hometown of Beit-Chabab in the Metn district. He became a US citizen and lived in the USA for many decades. He died of a bicycle accident in Frikeh in 1940.  The family of Rihany established a museum in his honor.

           

Rihany was in frequent correspondence with US Presidents such as Franklin Roosevelt till 1908, Congressmen, and with the US Foreign Affairs to whom he sent reports on his various trips and conditions of the countries he visited.  Apparently, the US had no formal central intelligence services (CIA) until after the Second World War.

Before the First World War and the early part of the 20th century, the USA had no major vested interest in the Middle East, a region controlled and administered by the colonial powers of Britain and France. The US missionaries had instituted a university in Beirut around 1866, several schools and managed to convert a few Lebanese to Protestantism.  The USA had a policy of isolationism and non interference when it had no vested interests in a region.  For example, the US invaded Cuba and the Philippines and replaced the Spanish colonial power.

           

The US got interested in the Middle East in the twenties when Britain discovered vast deposits of oil in Iran, Iraq, and the Arabic Gulf. Britain had secured many treaties with Kuweit, Bahrein, and the Sultan of Najd for exclusive oil explorations.

Frank Holm, the British officer from New Zealand, managed to secure many contracts for oil explorations and Amine Rihany was part owner and counselor for his job of communicating and convincing the Arab leaders into signing these contracts in Saudi Arabia and Kuweit. 

The US Foreign Affairs started to exercise pressures on Britain to have shares in the multinational oil companies.  For example, the Turkish Oil Company had to re-distribute shares and thus, Britain/Iran got 23.75%, Dutch Shell 23.75%, France 23.75%, the US Jersey Standard and Socony 23.75%, and the mediator Kaloust Gulbankian 5%. The multinational company was renamed Iraq Petrolium Company (IPC).  Holm/Rihany secured another contract from the prince of Bahrein and sold it to the US Standard Oil and registered the company in Canada in 1928 to circumvent the British restriction treaties.

           

In 1931, King Abdel Aziz Al Seoud has conquered Hijjaz and signed a contract with Standard Oil of California (later named ARAMCO) for oil explorations.  Amin Rihany had a role in the negotiations.  Rihany played a role in securing the contract of exploration in Kuwait for the benefit of the US Pennsylvania Gulf Oil in 1934 after many political struggles between the US and Britain.

The tangible facts prove that Amin Rihany meant for the US to strategically transplant Britain and France in the Middle East.  At the time, the Palestinians were confronting the Zionist movement that planned to establish a State in Palestine and Britain had mandate over Palestine, Iraq, and Jordan.

The British Empire had permitted thousands of Jews to settle in Palestine and to establish colonies.  France and Britain aborted a nascent Arab State in Syria and Lebanon and another one in Iraq for the purpose of controlling directly this strategic region in oil and trade with Europe. 

Thus, France and Britain confiscated the political will of the people for independence and allowed the promise of Britain Foreign Affair Balfour in 1917 to establishing a Zionist state in Palestine.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

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