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U.S. Nuclear Agency: Safety Record How close are you from an earthquake prone region? How close is the nearest nuclear power plant? Do we all need to say a prayer?

A magnitude-6.9 earthquake struck off the coast of Northern California on Sunday night, March 9, 2014, the U.S. Geological Service reported.

The epicenter was 48 miles west-northwest of Ferndale and 50 miles west of Eureka at a depth of 4.3 miles, the USGS said.

The quake, which occurred at 10:18 p.m. PT (1:18 a.m ET), was initially reported as magnitude 6.1, but seismologists revised it upward to 6.9. It was followed by about a half-dozen aftershocks, including one of magnitude 4.6.

In the tense days after a powerful earthquake and tsunami crippled the Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan on March 11, 2011, staff at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission made a concerted effort to play down the risk of earthquakes and tsunamis to America’s aging nuclear plants, according to thousands of internal emails reviewed by NBC News. BILL DEDMAN posted this March 11, 2014

U.S. Nuclear Agency Hid Concerns, Hailed Safety Record as Fukushima Melted

The emails, obtained via the Freedom of Information Act, show that the campaign to reassure the public about America’s nuclear industry came as the agency’s own experts were questioning U.S. safety standards and scrambling to determine whether new rules were needed to ensure that the meltdown occurring at the Japanese plant could not occur here.

At the end of that long first weekend of the crisis 3 years ago, NRC Public Affairs Director Eliot Brenner thanked his staff for sticking to the talking points that the team had been distributing to senior officials and the public.

“While we know more than these say,” Brenner wrote, “we’re sticking to this story for now.”

There are numerous examples in the emails of apparent misdirection or concealment in the initial weeks after the Japanese plant was devastated by a 9.0 earthquake and 50-foot tsunami that knocked out power and cooling systems at the six-reactor plant, eventually causing releases of radioactive material:

  • Trying to distance the U.S. agency from the Japanese crisis, an NRC manager told staff to hide from reporters the presence of Japanese engineers in the NRC’s operations center in Maryland.
  • If asked whether the Diablo Canyon Power Plant on the California coast could withstand the same size tsunami that had hit Japan, spokespeople were told not to reveal that NRC scientists were still studying that question. As for whether Diablo could survive an earthquake of the same magnitude, “We’re not so sure about, but again we are not talking about that,” said one email.
  • When skeptical news articles appeared, the NRC dissuaded news organizations from using the NRC’s own data on earthquake risks at U.S. nuclear plants, including the Indian Point Energy Center near New York City.
  • And when asked to help reporters explain what would happen during the worst-case scenario — a nuclear meltdown — the agency declined to address the questions.

As the third anniversary of Fukushima on Tuesday approaches, the emails pull back the curtain on the agency’s efforts to protect the industry it is supposed to regulate.

The NRC officials didn’t lie, but they didn’t always tell the whole truth either. When someone asked about a topic that might reflect negatively on the industry, they changed the subject.

NBC News requested in late March 2011 all of the emails sent and received by certain NRC staffers during the first week of the crisis.

Other news organizations and watchdogs filed similar requests. The NRC has now been posting thousands of emails in its public reading room over the past two years.

See details of the 62 U.S. nuclear power plants, along with their age and safety records.NBC NEWS

See details of the 62 U.S. nuclear power plants, along with their age and safety records.

The NRC declined to discuss specific emails or communications.

But Brenner provided an emailed statement: “The NRC Office of Public Affairs strives to be as open and transparent as possible, providing the public accurate information in the proper context. We take our communication mission seriously. We did then and we do now. The frustration displayed in the chosen e-mails reflects more on the extreme stress our team was under at the time to assure accuracy in a context in which information from Japan was scarce to nonexistent. These e-mails fall well short of an accurate picture of our communications with the American public immediately after the event and during the past three years.”

Dating back to the Three Mile Island nuclear crisis in 1979, many nuclear watchdogs and critics have said that the NRC acts first to protect the industry, and its own reputation. One critic said these emails solidify that perception.

“The NRC knew a lot more about what was going on than it wanted to tell the American people,” said Edwin Lyman, senior scientist at the nuclear watchdog group Union of Concerned Scientists and co-author of the new book “Fukushima: The Story of a Nuclear Disaster,” which relied on some of the same emails.

“They immediately put out information that implied that U.S. reactors were in a better position to withstand Fukushima type events than Fukushima reactors were, but it was clear that the what the NRC knew internally was not nearly as positive.”

‘We all need to say a prayer’

From the earliest hours of the crisis, the emails among NRC staff show deep concern about the developing crisis in Japan, particularly among the technical experts.

The first word that the powerful earthquake and tsunami waves had devastated the Fukushima plant came early morning (Eastern time) on March 11, 2011.

Throughout the day, staff at NRC headquarters in Rockville, Md., struggled to learn what was going on in Japan. The chief of the NRC Component Integrity Branch, senior engineer David Rudland, was asked by a colleague if he had any new information. [The emails excerpted in this article are shown in full in a PDF file.]

From: Brenner, Eliot Date: Friday, March 11, 2011, 1:54:57 PM While one reporter knows or has guessed that there are Japanese here in our Ops center in communication with their home authorities, we will NOT make the[m] available and we will NOT volunteer their presence. If anyone knows they (Japanese scientists) are here and wants to talk with them, they will have to make the request through the embassy to have it relayed to these folks.

The memo also instructed staff to evade any questions about efforts by the NRC’s Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) to model the effects of similar earthquakes and tsunamis on California plants:

“NRR is getting tasked with making an overlay of the Japanese conditions … to see how west coast plants stack up against it,” it said. “We think preliminary Diablo would have had no trouble with a wave that size. [For an earthquake of about] 8.9 we’re not so sure about, but again we are not talking about that.”

Find the distance from any location in the United States to the nearest nuclear power plants using this map from Esri.NBC NEWS

Find the distance from any U.S. location to the nearest nuclear power plants with this map from Esri.

In congressional testimony and interviews in that first week, NRC Chairman Gregory Jaczko was quick to say that the NRC could learn lessons from Fukushima.

“We’re going to take a good solid look at everything that comes out of Japan, and if we need to make modifications to our facilities in this country, then we’ll do that,” he told NBC News on March 16.

Gregory did not disclose that the NRC technical staff had already been reassessing, before Fukushima, increased risks from earthquakes, tsunamis, dam failures and power blackouts.

Jaczko did push for release of a report on Fukushima and its lessons just 90 days after Fukushima. Some of those recommendations have been implemented. Jaczko, who resigned in 2012, declined a request last week to be interviewed.

‘Non-public information’

The talking points written during the emergency for NRC commissioners and other officials were divided into two sections: “public answer” and “additional technical, non-public information.” Often the two parts didn’t quite match.

One topic the NRC avoided in the talking points, even when responding to a direct question: meltdown.

“Q. What happens when/if a plant ‘melts down’?

“Public Answer: In short, nuclear power plants in the United States are designed to be safe. To prevent the release of radioactive material, there are multiple barriers between the radioactive material and the environment, including the fuel cladding, the heavy steel reactor vessel itself and the containment building, usually a heavily reinforced structure of concrete and steel several feet thick.

“Additional, non-technical, non-public information: The melted core may melt through the bottom of the vessel and flow onto the concrete containment floor. The core may melt through the containment liner and release radioactive material to the environment.”

The Japanese public television network, NHK, asked if the NRC could provide a graphic depicting what happens during a meltdown of a nuclear reactor.

From: McIntyre, David Date: Friday, March 18, 2011, 9:02 AM NRC would not have such a graphic. I suspect any number of anti-nuclear power organizations might.

When reporters asked if the Japanese emergency could affect licensing of new reactors in the U.S., the public answer was “It is not appropriate to hypothesize on such a future scenario at this point.”

The non-public information was more direct: This event could potentially call into question the NRC’s seismic requirements, which could require the staff to re-evaluate the staff’s approval of the AP1000 and ESBWR (the newest reactor designs from Westinghouse and General Electric) design and certifications.”

On the subject of tsunamis, the public assurances omitted the “non-public ” nuances that might have given the public reasons to doubt nuclear power safety:

  • Design standards varied significantly from plant to plant in the U.S.
  • The experience in Japan had taught the NRC that it needed to study the dangerous effects of “drawdown,” the powerful receding of ocean water near the shore that can precede a tsunami’s arrival.
  • And although the U.S. was developing new tsunami standards, those wouldn’t be in draft form for another year.

‘It was a hydrogen explosion’

The NRC spokespeople sometimes had trouble following the public debate, because for days their computers were blocked by security rules from accessing Twitter and YouTube. And they often had incomplete information about events in Japan.

From: McIntyre, David Date: Saturday, March 12, 2011, 10:02 PM Just saw an incoherent discussion on cnn by Bill Nye the science guy who apparently knows zilcho about reactors and an idiot weatherman who said Hydrogen explosion? Pfft. I’m not buying it.

His boss sent back the following reply, correcting the staffer and explaining plans to ask the Obama administration to help blunt critical news coverage.

From: Brenner, Eliot Date: Saturday, March 12, 2011, 10:07 PM 1: There is a good chance it was a hydrogen explosion that took the roof off that building, though we are not saying that publicly. 2: I have just reached out to CNN and asked them to call (former NRC Chairman Nils) Diaz, and reached out to push the white house yet again to start talking on background or getting out in front of some of this crap.

On March 20, when Energy Secretary Steven Chu hesitated on CNN when asked if U.S. plants could withstand a 9.0 earthquake?

McIntyre, one of the agency’s spokesmen, suggested to his bosses what Chu should have said:

From: McIntyre, David Date: Sunday, March 20, 2011, 10:01:00 AM He should just say “Yes, it can.” Worry about being wrong when it doesn’t. Sorry if I sound cynical.

The public affairs staff showed disdain in the emails for nuclear watchdog groups, including the Union of Concerned Scientists.

After the UCS raised concerns about diesel backup power and batteries being inadequate, as at Fukushima, spokesman McIntyre dismissed it as “bleating” from nuclear power foes.

When Steven Dolley, former research director of the NCI and a reporter for McGraw Hill Financial’s newsletter Inside NRC, asked McIntyre for a nuclear containment expert to speak to a reporter, the spokesman asked if the reporter had contacted the industry’s lobbying group, the Nuclear Energy Institute.

Dolley asked, “So, should I say NRC is deferring inquiries to NEI?” suggesting that the NRC was deferring to the industry it is supposed to regulate.

McIntyre shared this exchange with his bosses, adding the comment, “F—ing a-hole.”

There is NO SUCH NRC REPORT!

The NRC’s Public Affairs staff attempted to discredit news reports that raised questions about nuclear plants, even when they were based on NRC data.

A story by this reporter for msnbc.com (now NBCNews.com) reported that the NRC had published a study 6 months earlier with new estimates of the risk that an earthquake could cause damage to the core of U.S. nuclear power plants. The plants were listed in alphabetical order, along with the NRC’s risk estimates.

The msnbc.com story, published on March 16, ranked the U.S. nuclear plants by those NRC estimates.

Surprisingly, the highest risk was not on the Pacific Coast, where plants are designed and built with severe earthquakes in mind, but in the Central and Eastern states, where scientists have raised their estimate of the earthquake risk since the plants were designed and built. The story said that the NRC still described the plants as safe, but also said the margin of error had shrunk.

We had checked our understanding of the report with NRC earthquake experts, but NRC spokesman Scott Burnell responded to the story by asking the same staff to find fault with it.

From: Burnell, Scott Date: Wednesday, March 16, 2011, 6:22 AM I know you’re going to have a cow over this – somewhat inevitable when a reporter new to the subject tries to summarize things. Apart from “you’re totally off-base,” what specific technical corrections can we ask for?? OPA (Office of Public Affairs) – this is likely to spark a lot of follow-up. The immediate response would be “that’s a very incomplete look at the overall research and we continue to believe U.S. reactors are capable of withstanding the strongest earthquake their sites could experience.” I’ll share whatever we get from the experts.

Senior officials at the industry’s lobbying arm, the Nuclear Energy Institute, sent emails asking the NRC for help rebutting the story. Burnell urgently asked again for errors in the article.

From: Burnell, Scott Date: Wednesday, March 16, 2011, 11:11 AM Folks, the expected calls are coming in — We need a better response ASAP!

But the NRC experts found nothing to correct.

From: Beasley, Benjamin Date: Wednesday, March 16, 2011, 12:31 PM I have received no concerns or corrections regarding the MSNBC article.

Nevertheless, the Public Affairs staff waved other news organizations off the story, particularly after New York Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo reacted to his state’s Indian Point nuclear power plant having the worst risk in the NRC data.

From: McIntyre, David Date: Thursday, March 17, 2011, 2:20 PM I just filed this request for correction with The Huffington Post, which has a report of Cuomo wanting to shut IP based on the MSNBC report: There is NO SUCH NRC REPORT! The NRC does not rank nuclear power plants according to their vulnerability to earthquakes. This “ranking” was developed by an MSNBC reporter using partial information and an even more partial understanding of how we evaluate plants for seismic risk. Each plant is evaluated individually according to the geology of its site, not by a “one-size-fits-all” model – therefore such rankings or comparisons are highly misleading. Please correct this report.

His colleague in Atlanta, spokesman Joey Ledford, replied, “Great talking point, Dave. I wish I had it during my 10 or so calls today trying to debunk this thing.”

The New York Times, which was reporting a story about Indian Point, was dissuaded from using the NRC’s risk estimates. We asked the New York Times reporter, Peter Applebome, why he ignored the NRC data. He replied in an email, “Burnell said it wasn’t accurate and included rankings the NRC never made. I have no idea if that’s correct, but I was writing a column on deadline and figured I did not have the ability to figure out who was right in the time I had.”

In his piece, Applebome quoted the NRC downplaying the risk: “Officials with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission say the site is safe and that its earthquake threat is on the lower end nationally and in the Northeast.” The NRC’s recent study with a different picture was ignored.

The NRC followed up with a blog post from Brenner, the public affairs chief, cautioning the public, “Don’t Believe Everything You Read.” Brenner called the msnbc.com report “highly misleading.”

He didn’t mention that its figures came from the NRC.

Emails excerpted in this report can be read in full here in a PDF file.

A cache of many emails is included in larger PDF files No. 1234, and 5. More are available in the NRC’s online public reading room.

Maps:

Age and safety record of U.S. nuclear power plants

How close are you to a nuclear power plant?

 

Atomic Anne”, Nuclear power plants, Areva, Fukushima

Atomic Anne” was a nickname bestowed on Anne Lauvergeon by the US media. She was heading the French power plants conglomerate AREVA.

Why economically decrepit France is shifting its policies to military preemptive strikes war games, in every location that France was a colonial power or had a mandate power over the people after WWI?

France has sound industrial sectors in space, telecommunication, high-speed trains, nuclear power generation and aerospace…

All of these sectors are of no use to the former colonial and mandated States who earned their independence. These states wants industries and an economy that keep them floating for survival, and France has lost the industries that can profit the needy States for export and France has no economical policies to encourage importing products from its former colonies to keep the ties strong and sustainable.

Consequently, currently France is of no use to the Middle-East countries and North Africa, and has not much to offer in matter of trade.

In the last decade, France failed to offer any cultural alternatives: Instead, France shifted its strategic priorities by waving the stick, a ridiculous stick that nobody care to take seriously.

France wants to export sophisticated and useless products to these under developed countries, hardware products that do not fit the needs of these States.

All that France wants is the oil and gas and showing off its fighter jets, nuclear submarines, space launching of spatial vehicles…

During Nicholas Sarkozy tenure as President, he behaved as if he was Louis 14 “The State is I”. The French government ministers and the Prime Minister were mere counselors and their decisions were frequently reversed at will of the President…

France was run by a parallel government, counselors to the President like Henri Proglio (who knew nothing about nuclear power but behaved as if he was the boss of this industry), Herve Marchenaud, and Claude Guerant

Sarkozy economic policy was to desist funding industrial enterprises that the State owns share in it. The predominant idea was to rely on Chinese and other emerging nations products that are cheaper…

This parallel government excited Gadhafi and Tunisia Ben Ali to purchase archaic first generation nuclear plants, against the adamant refusal of the safety minded authorities in France.

In 2007, Mohammad al Mubarak of the Gulf Emirates approached France saying: “We want to do nuclear…”

No problem, Sarkozy was ready to expedite this trade, even if the safety of running nuclear plants was not taken seriously.

The harshest among the barriers was to create the authority for the Safety of nuclear plants, and by magic, this serious constraint was crossed quickly.

Mind you that Areva cannot sell nuclear power plants to a client who is NOT a nuclear electrician, and is not capable of making the plant function properly…

Historically, the French Safety Authority has trained the Chinese, South Africa, Finland…  Usually, The safety training procedures take 3 years to complete forming and instituting the proper staffs.

Actually, it was France that built most of the nuclear plants in the third world, like in Iran, in Iraq in the 1980’s and in Israel in the 1960’s…

The problem was that Sarkozy had planned to destitute Atomic Anne Lauvergeon who headed Areva for 10 years and made this nuclear company first among the international power companies.  Why? Anne was perceived as more powerful than the President by the developed nations. And the deal failed and the American picked up the pieces in the competition.

The Fukushima nuclear disaster shook the world of nuclear power, Anne tried hard to extend AREVA expertise, but the Japanese refused to reply. In the meanwhile, Areva airlifted two cargoes of:

1. 100 tons of boric acid, an excellent absorber of neutrons that aid in regulating the fission processes

2. Safety materials for the workers engaged in the cleanup of the plants…

Three weeks later, on March 29, Japan asked Anne to visit Japan and help with her suggestions and the expertise of Areva.  Everything has melted down and the catastrophe had set in.

Anne landed and conducted a chain of meeting with the high level persons in charge of finding a resolution to the catastrophe. Anne was the main foreign personality who grabbed the Japanese media.

It happened that Sarkozy was visiting Far Eastern countries and paid a short 4-hour visit to Japan, and refused to invite Anne to any French gathering: Anne had snatched the front page attention in japan, which angered and antagonized the President even further.

What happened in Fukushima according to Anne in her autobiography “The Woman who resists“:

The painting of the Japanese Hokusai Great wave of Kanagawa” takes shape on March 11, 2011.

An earthquake of magnitude 9.1 hit the coast of the Island of Honshu. The tsunami generated waves as high as 30 meters (90 feet).

The sea entering 10 km inland ravaged 600 km of coastline (towns, villages…)  Over 21,000 people were killed from this monstrous tsunami.

The nuclear power plants in Fukushima of 1,000 Megawatt is halted for electrical production. There is just 60 Megawatt of heat generated from the combustibles that need to be evacuated to cool down the engine, and this was to be done by Diesel engines.

All is functioning smoothly, until a gigantic wave demolished the barriers designed to protect the reactor.

The sea water invades everything and destroys all in its passage. The Diesel engines are submerged and ruined.

The tubes of Zirconium enveloping the combustible might melt and hydrogen explosion will start a chain reaction that will contaminate the environment.

A hydrogen recombinator might have saved the situation, but its cost of a mere %00,000 Euros was turned down by Japan Tepco, a year earlier.

Without cooling, the lozenges (pastilles) of refractory combustible melted in the bottom of the tank or vat.

What’s going on in the Gulf Arab Emirate States?  Mercenaries of Erik Prince got a lucrative contract?

Why these Gulf  “Arab” Emirate States, about seven of them, recognized by the UN in 1971-72, at the instigation of the British previous colonial power, are frenziedly hiring Western mercenaries?  These absolute monarchies of previous nomadic tribe leaders are named Abou Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah,  Ajman, Umm al Qaiwan, Ras al Khaimah,  and Fujirah.  Abou Dhabi is the political Capital, while Dubai is the economic Capital.

Are Pakistanis no longer good enough to defend these fictitious States from the ingenious and historically powerful neighbor Iran?  The Emirates don’t want to hire Moslem mercenaries because they cannot guarantee that Moslems would consistently murder Moslems.

In November, dozens of Colombian mercenaries landed in Abu Dhabi airport, late at night, and intelligence service personnel facilitated the bypassing of control processes and inspection of the alleged construction workers.  The group was whisked to a military complex, to be integrated to Erik Prince “Reflex Response (R2)” newly named mercenary enterprise.  The cost of the contract is about $530 million.  When Erik Prince enterprise pays $42 million for flaunting the US regulations in training troops in Jordan and other countries, that is samll pittance.  Implicitly, Erik is getting green light from the US government for these illicit contracts.

For example, the FBI agent Ricky Chambers (CT), is facilitating recruitment from ex-military personnel who participated in Iraq and Afghanistan.  The hired mercenary is paid about $200,000 per year.  The Thor Global Enterprises, located in the Caribbean Island of Tortala is subcontracted for hiring the mercenaries from Latin America.

The Colombian Calixto Rincon (42 year-old) said in an interview that the Emirates were on the lookout, since the year 2010, for combatants from troubled countries like Columbia.  He said: “We were confined in our camp, except for our morning jogging exercises.”  Occasionally, buses drive these mercenaries to hotels in Dubai to meet with prostitutes.

Basically, Erik Prince is planning to locate the major business of training mercenaries to the Gulf Arab Emirates, securing contracts in the billion of dollars.

The New York Times divulged this piece of intelligence that the Crown prince is planning to hire a battalion of 800 foreign mercenaries. Officially, the mercenaries are to defend oil pipelines from sabotage attacks and high rises.  Everybody understand that this battalion is to trained to counter internal revolts, particularly these populous camps trapping foreign and “Arab” workforce.

The training military camp is baptized Zayed Military City.  Humvees and diesel trucks are aligned in covered garages. American, British and German ex-special operation officers, as well as French Foreign Legion are the major cadres.

Worse, the Gulf Emirate States have signed a contract with South Korea in 2009 to build four nuclear power plants, costing over $15 billion.

How do these Gulf States forcefully erected an enemy, when full cooperation with Iran should have been the most useful and sustainable in the long-term?

Note 1:  Most information were gathered from an article published in the French weekly “Le Courrier International”

Note 2: A friend of mine living in the Emirates told me that the government forced the company he is working for to hire Eric Prince’s employees as guards, instead of the far less expensive Indians at the employ of his company.  More than 50% of the pay of the newly hired goes to the security company…

It is a fact: Major devastating solar winds in 2012; (Jan. 1st, 2010)

A nasty solar eruption (winds) is predicted on September 22, 2012 at midnight. Scientists at NASA published a report warning of high volume sun flare up.  This flare up is not your run of the mill gorgeous aurora borealis in the Arctic. The sun will eject one billion tons of plasma of particles (ions and electrons) that will grill all electrical infrastructure and electrical machines in the northern hemisphere, if no precautions are programmed.

When solar winds come in contact with earth magnetic field, a major catastrophe sets in.  This solar eruption will be witnessed around the equinoxes (periods when the center of the sun faces directly the equator). Mind you that the sun is far hotter and much more active than it was a million years ago.

At the onset of the solar wind, State governments will enjoy a window of opportunity to shut down all electrical power sources and facilities.  The main decision is to prepare for the worst case scenario: the winds might last for over two weeks and potable water should be available for the duration of the eruption.  People living in high-rise buildings should be accommodated in makeshift camps for the period of the cataclysm, because potable water cannot be pumped up electrically.

In case no emergency policies are planned then, what are the effects after electrical power goes dead? Potable water is the major immediate problem, since most potable water is purified electrically and distributed electrically in urban centers. Citizens will have to survive for at least a year, before electrical infrastructure and electrical equipments are renewed and fabricated.  Urban people will try to relocate to regions enjoying clean potable water sources (which are becoming rare almost anywhere, even in Africa).

This “Sun winds” phenomenon occurred in 1859 (Carrington eruption) and lasted for 8 days; telegraph services were disrupted.  Luckily, potable water and clean water sources were intact at the time.  Thus, no transport relying on electricity in any part of it will function.  Hospital will have to replace their generators after the solar wind episode; unless tight enclosures that are magnetic field proof are constructed.  Mostly, modern health providing facilities will be at an end.  Pharmaceutical industry will stop producing vital medicines for an entire year or as generators and infrastructure are renewed.

The most worrisome problem is nuclear power plants that are cooled by water.  If cooling water is not flowing adequately by other mechanisms than electricity then what could happen? A chain meltdown around the world.

Another problem is that the main decision makers might not be credible or considered legitimate enough; thus, waiting till the onset of the flare up may cause serious political difficulties in addition to technical difficulties that may prevent many States and private providers from shutting down in a timely manner. It would be much preferable to shut down power ahead of prediction and consider the order as an emergency exercise.

What do you think technology can offer to resolve the consequences of this solar wind hazard? In the meantime, diseases will spread; rats and roaches will invade urban centers in broad day light. Time to get used to eating rats, but how to finding potable water?

Best to be prepared for worst case scenarios since sun winds can be predicted ahead of time and start thinking of alternative technologies for pumping and purifying water.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

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