Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘oxytocin

Female Orgasm: Where it fits in evolution?

Many aspects of the human body have obvious purposes.

But some defy easy explanation. For biologists, few phenomena are as mysterious as the female orgasm.

While orgasms have an important role in a woman’s intimate relationships, the evolutionary roots of the experience — a combination of muscle contractions, hormone release, and intense pleasure — have been difficult to uncover.

For decades, researchers have put forward theories, but none are widely accepted. Now two evolutionary biologists have joined the fray, offering a new way of thinking about the female orgasm based on a reconstruction of its ancient history.

On Monday, in The Journal of Experimental Zoology, the authors conclude that the response originated in mammals more than 150 million years ago as a way to release eggs to be fertilized after sex.

Until now, few scientists have investigated the biology of distantly related animals for clues to the mystery.

The male orgasm has never caused much of a stir among evolutionary biologists. The pleasure is precisely linked to ejaculation, the most important step in passing on a male’s genes to the next generation. That pleasure encourages men to deliver more sperm, which is evolutionarily advantageous.

For women, the evolutionary path is harder to figure out. The muscle contractions that occur during an orgasm are not essential for a woman to become pregnant. And while most men can experience an orgasm during sex, it’s less reliable for women.

In a 2010 survey, 35.6 percent of women said that they hadn’t had an orgasm the most recent time they had sex. Part of the reason for this is anatomy: the clitoris is physically separated from the vagina.

Still, a number of scientists suspect that the female orgasm serves some biological function favored by natural selection. They just need to figure out what it is.

“My gut instinct is that something that matters so much at an emotional level — the intense pleasure of orgasm — would seem to have reproductive consequences,” said David A. Puts, an evolutionary anthropologist at Pennsylvania State University.

Many hypotheses have been put forward. Dr. Puts and his colleagues have carried out studies to test the possibility that orgasms increase the odds that a woman’s eggs are fertilized by a genetically attractive male. (Many novels mention that women knew they were impregnated from the types of orgasm they experience, though impregnation does Not happens until 2 days later)

Elisabeth A. Lloyd, a philosopher at Indiana University, isn’t buying it. In 2005, she published a book called “The Case of the Female Orgasm,” in which she reviewed 18 published theories about its function.

Dr. Lloyd thinks the best explanation for the female orgasm is that it hasn’t served any evolutionary purpose at all. It’s nothing more than the by-product of the development of the male orgasm. The orgasm is to women, she believes, as nipples are to men. (Funny. I don’t buy that)

Esther Perel shared this link. August 29 at 5:00pm ·
nytimes.com|By Carl Zimmer

Dr. Pavlicev and her colleague, Günter P. Wagner of Yale University, are making the case that the human female orgasm has a deep evolutionary history that reaches back to early mammals.

They began by getting better acquainted with the sex lives of other animals, poring through obscure old journals to gather information on species ranging from aardvarks to koalas.

They noted that many female mammals release oxytocin and prolactin during sex — the hormones released by women during orgasms. What’s more, in many of those species, females use a radically different kind of reproduction.

While women release an egg each month, other female mammals, such as rabbits and camels, release an egg only after mating with a male.

Ovulatory cycles evolved in only a few lineages of mammals, including our own, Dr. Pavlicev and Dr. Wagner found. Before then, our ancient mammal ancestors originally relied on ovulation triggered by sex with a male.

Those early mammals developed a clitoris inside the vagina.

Only in mammals that evolved ovulatory cycles did the clitoris move away. Based on these findings, Dr. Pavlicev and Dr. Wagner argue that the female orgasm first evolved as a reflex to help females become pregnant.

This arrangement has worked well for mammals that rarely encounter males. It helps females make the most of each mating.

But eventually some mammals, including primates like us, started spending their lives in social groups. Females had access to regular sex with males, and orgasm as an ovulatory mechanism was no longer so useful.

Our female forebears instead evolved a new system: releasing eggs in a regular cycle.

As the original purpose of the orgasm was lost, the clitoris moved away from its original position.

Dr. Wagner speculated that this shift was part of evolution’s dismantling of a sensor system: “You don’t want to have the old signal sending noise at the wrong time,” he said.

“Basically, we don’t know why this happened,” he added. But across mammalian species, “it’s just a very strong evolutionary pattern.”

Dr. Lloyd and Dr. Puts welcomed the new study as a provocative addition to the debate over the female orgasms.

“I’m pretty excited that it’s being published,” Dr. Lloyd said, “because people are going to start talking about female orgasms and getting a fresh look at how much we don’t know about female orgasms, and thinking hard about what we need to know.”

The new theory may shed light on how the human female orgasm first evolved, but Dr. Pavlicev and Dr. Wagner said that it doesn’t settle the debate about its current role in women. “All directions are open,” Dr. Wagner said.

Dr. Wagner said that deciphering the history of the female orgasm might improve reproductive medicine.

A neuroscience researcher reveals 4 rituals that will make you happier

You get all kinds of happiness advice on the internet from people who don’t know what they’re talking about. Don’t trust them.

Actually, don’t trust me either. Trust neuroscientists. They study that grey blob in your head all day and have learned a lot about what truly will make you happy. And here are the rituals:

  • Ask “What am I grateful for?” No answers? Doesn’t matter. Just searching will do the job.
  • Label those negative emotions. Give it a name and your brain isn’t so bothered by it.
  • Decide. Go for “good enough” instead of ‘best decision ever made on Earth.”
  • Hugs, hugs, hugs. Don’t text — touch.

 

Eric Barker, Barking Up The Wrong Tree. Sep. 26, 2015

UCLA neuroscience researcher Alex Korb has some insights that can create an upward spiral of happiness in your life.

Here’s what you and I can learn from the people who really have answers:

1. The most important question to ask when you feel down

Sometimes it doesn’t feel like your brain wants you to be happy. You may feel guilty or shameful. Why?

Believe it or not, guilt and shame activate the brain’s reward center.

Via The Upward Spiral:

Despite their differences, pride, shame, and guilt all activate similar neural circuits, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula, and the nucleus accumbens.

Interestingly, pride is the most powerful of these emotions at triggering activity in these regions — except in the nucleus accumbens, where guilt and shame win out. This explains why it can be so appealing to heap guilt and shame on ourselves — they’re activating the brain’s reward center.

And you worry a lot, too. Why? In the short term, worrying makes your brain feel a little better — at least you’re doing something about your problems.

In fact, worrying can help calm the limbic system by increasing activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and decreasing activity in the amygdala.

That might seem counterintuitive, but it just goes to show that if you’re feeling anxiety, doing something about it — even worrying — is better than doing nothing.

But guilt, shame, and worry are horrible, long-term solutions.

So what do neuroscientists say you should do? Ask yourself this question:

What am I grateful for?

Yeah, gratitude is awesome … but does it really affect your brain at the biological level? Yup.

You know what the antidepressant Wellbutrin does? Boosts the neurotransmitter. So does gratitude.

The benefits of gratitude start with the dopamine system, because feeling grateful activates the brain stem region that produces dopamine. Additionally, gratitude toward others increases activity in social dopamine circuits, which makes social interactions more enjoyable …

Know what Prozac does? Boosts the neurotransmitter serotonin. So does gratitude.

One powerful effect of gratitude is that it can boost serotonin.

Trying to think of things you are grateful for forces you to focus on the positive aspects of your life. This simple act increases serotonin production in the anterior cingulate cortex.

I know, sometimes life lands a really mean punch in the gut and it feels like there’s nothing to be grateful for. Guess what?

Doesn’t matter. You don’t have to find anything. It’s the searching that counts.

It’s not finding gratitude that matters most; it’s remembering to look in the first place.

Remembering to be grateful is a form of emotional intelligence.

One study found that it actually affected neuron density in both the ventromedial and lateral prefrontal cortex. These density changes suggest that as emotional intelligence increases, the neurons in these areas become more efficient. With higher emotional intelligence, it simply takes less effort to be grateful.

And gratitude doesn’t just make your brain happy — it can also create a positive feedback loop in your relationships. So express that gratitude to the people you care about.

For more on how gratitude can make you happier and more successful, click here.

But what happens when bad feelings completely overtake you? When you’re really in the dumps and don’t even know how to deal with it? There’s an easy answer …

2. Label negative feelings

You feel awful. OK, give that awfulness a name. Sad? Anxious? Angry?

Boom. It’s that simple. Sound stupid? Your noggin disagrees.

In one fMRI study, appropriately titled “Putting Feelings into Words” participants viewed pictures of people with emotional facial expressions. Predictably, each participant’s amygdala activated to the emotions in the picture.

But when they were asked to name the emotion, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activated and reduced the emotional amygdala reactivity. In other words, consciously recognizing the emotions reduced their impact.

Suppressing emotions doesn’t work and can backfire on you.

Via Your Brain at Work: Strategies for Overcoming Distraction, Regaining Focus, and Working Smarter All Day Long:

Gross found that people who tried to suppress a negative emotional experience failed to do so.

While they thought they looked fine outwardly, inwardly their limbic system was just as aroused as without suppression, and in some cases, even more aroused.

Kevin Ochsner, at Columbia, repeated these findings using an fMRI. Trying not to feel something doesn’t work, and in some cases even backfires.

But labeling, on the other hand, makes a big difference.

To reduce arousal, you need to use just a few words to describe an emotion, and ideally use symbolic language, which means using indirect metaphors, metrics, and simplifications of your experience. This requires you to activate your prefrontal cortex, which reduces the arousal in the limbic system. Here’s the bottom line: describe an emotion in just a word or two, and it helps reduce the emotion.

Ancient methods were way ahead of us on this one. Meditation has employed this for centuries. Labeling is a fundamental tool of mindfulness.

In fact, labeling affects the brain so powerfully it works with other people, too. Labeling emotions is one of the primary tools used by FBI hostage negotiators.

To learn more of the secrets of FBI hostage negotiators, click here.

Okay, hopefully you’re not reading this and labeling your current emotional state as bored. Maybe you’re not feeling awful but you probably have things going on in your life that are causing you some stress. Here’s a simple way to beat them.

3. Make that decision

Ever make a decision and then your brain finally feels at rest? That’s no random occurrence.

Brain science shows that making decisions reduces worry and anxiety — as well as helping you solve problems.

Via The Upward Spiral:

Making decisions includes creating intentions and setting goals — all three are part of the same neural circuitry and engage the prefrontal cortex in a positive way, reducing worry and anxiety.

Making decisions also helps overcome striatum activity, which usually pulls you toward negative impulses and routines.

Finally, making decisions changes your perception of the world — finding solutions to your problems and calming the limbic system.

But deciding can be hard. I agree. So what kind of decisions should you make?

Neuroscience has an answer.

Make a “good enough” decision. Don’t sweat making the absolute 100% best decision. We all know being a perfectionist can be stressful. And brain studies back this up.

Trying to be perfect overwhelms your brain with emotions and makes you feel out of control.

Via The Upward Spiral:

Trying for the best, instead of good enough, brings too much emotional ventromedial prefrontal activity into the decision-making process. In contrast, recognizing that good enough is good enough activates more dorsolateral prefrontal areas, which helps you feel more in control …

As Swarthmore professor Barry Schwartz said in my interview with him: “Good enough is almost always good enough.”

So when you make a decision, your brain feels you have control. And, as I’ve talked about before, a feeling of control reduces stress. But here’s what’s really fascinating: Deciding also boosts pleasure.

Via The Upward Spiral:

Actively choosing caused changes in attention circuits and in how the participants felt about the action, and it increased rewarding dopamine activity.

Want proof? No problem. Let’s talk about cocaine.

You give two rats injections of cocaine. Rat A had to pull a lever first. Rat B didn’t have to do anything. Any difference? Yup: Rat A gets a bigger boost of dopamine.

Via The Upward Spiral:

So they both got the same injections of cocaine at the same time, but rat A had to actively press the lever, and rat B didn’t have to do anything. And you guessed it — rat A released more dopamine in its nucleus accumbens.

So what’s the lesson here? Next time you buy cocaine … whoops, wrong lesson. Point is, when you make a decision on a goal and then achieve it, you feel better than when good stuff just happens by chance.

And this answers the eternal mystery of why dragging your butt to the gym can be so hard.

If you go because you feel you have to or you should, well, it’s not really a voluntary decision. Your brain doesn’t get the pleasure boost. It just feels stress. And that’s no way to build a good exercise habit.

Via The Upward Spiral:

Interestingly, if they are forced to exercise, they don’t get the same benefits, because without choice, the exercise itself is a source of stress.

So make more decisions. Neuroscience researcher Alex Korb sums it up nicely:

We don’t just choose the things we like; we also like the things we choose.

To learn what neuroscientists say is the best way to use caffeine, click here.

OK, you’re being grateful, labeling negative emotions and making more decisions. Great, but this is feeling kinda lonely for a happiness prescription. Let’s get some other people in here.

What’s something you can do with others that neuroscience says is a path to mucho happiness? And something that’s stupidly simple so you don’t get lazy and skip it? Brain docs have an answer for you.

4. Touch people

No, not indiscriminately; that can get you in a lot of trouble.

But we need to feel love and acceptance from others. When we don’t it’s painful. And I don’t mean “awkward” or “disappointing.” I mean actually painful.

Neuroscientists did a study where people played a ball-tossing video game. The other players tossed the ball to you and you tossed it back to them. Actually, there were no other players; that was all done by the computer program.

But the subjects were told the characters were controlled by real people. So what happened when the “other players” stopped playing nice and didn’t share the ball?

Subjects’ brains responded the same way as if they experienced physical pain. Rejection doesn’t just hurt like a broken heart; your brain feels it like a broken leg.

Via The Upward Spiral:

In fact, as demonstrated in an fMRI experiment, social exclusion activates the same circuitry as physical pain … at one point they stopped sharing, only throwing back and forth to each other, ignoring the participant. This small change was enough to elicit feelings of social exclusion, and it activated the anterior cingulate and insula, just like physical pain would.

Relationships are important to your brain’s feeling of happiness. Want to take that to the next level? Touch people.

Via The Upward Spiral:

One of the primary ways to release oxytocin is through touching.

Obviously, it’s not always appropriate to touch most people, but small touches like handshakes and pats on the back are usually okay. For people you’re close with, make more of an effort to touch more often.

Touching is incredibly powerful. We just don’t give it enough credit. It makes you more persuasive, increases team performance, improves your flirting … heck, it even boosts math skills.

Touching someone you love actually reduces pain. In fact, when studies were done on married couples, the stronger the marriage, the more powerful the effect.

Via The Upward Spiral:

In addition, holding hands with someone can help comfort you and your brain through painful situations. One fMRI study scanned married women as they were warned that they were about to get a small electric shock.

While anticipating the painful shocks, the brain showed a predictable pattern of response in pain and worrying circuits, with activation in the insula, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

During a separate scan, the women either held their husbands’ hands or the hand of the experimenter. When a subject held her husband’s hand, the threat of shock had a smaller effect.

The brain showed reduced activation in both the anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex — that is, less activity in the pain and worrying circuits. In addition, the stronger the marriage, the lower the discomfort-related insula activity.

So hug someone today. And do not accept little, quick hugs. No, no, no. Tell them your neuroscientist recommended long hugs.

Via The Upward Spiral:

A hug, especially a long one, releases a neurotransmitter and hormone oxytocin, which reduces the reactivity of the amygdala.

Research shows getting five hugs a day for four weeks increases happiness big time.

Don’t have anyone to hug right now? No? (I’m sorry to hear that. I would give you a hug right now if I could.) But there’s an answer: Neuroscience says you should go get a massage.

Via The Upward Spiral:

The results are fairly clear that massage boosts your serotonin by as much as 30% . Massage also decreases stress hormones and raises dopamine levels, which helps you create new good habits.

Massage reduces pain because the oxytocin system activates painkilling endorphins. Massage also improves sleep and reduces fatigue by increasing serotonin and dopamine and decreasing the stress hormone cortisol.

So spend time with other people and give some hugs. Sorry, texting is not enough.

When you put people in a stressful situation and then let them visit loved ones or talk to them on the phone, they felt better. What about when they just texted? Their bodies responded the same as if they had no support at all.

Via The Upward Spiral:

[T]he text-message group had cortisol and oxytocin levels similar to the no-contact group.

Author’s note: I totally approve of texting if you make a hug appointment.

To learn what neuroscience says is the best way to get smarter and happier, click here.

OK, I don’t want to strain your brain with too much info. Let’s round it up and learn the quickest and easiest way to start that upward spiral of neuroscience-inspired happiness.

Sum up

Here’s what brain research says will make you happy:

  • Ask “What am I grateful for?” No answers? Doesn’t matter. Just searching helps.
  • Label those negative emotions. Give it a name and your brain isn’t so bothered by it.
  • Decide. Go for “good enough” instead of ‘best decision ever made on Earth.”
  • Hugs, hugs, hugs. Don’t text — touch.

So what’s the simple way to start that upward spiral of happiness?

Just send someone a thank-you email. If you feel awkward about it, you can send them this post to tell them why.

This really can start an upward spiral of happiness in your life. UCLA neuroscience researcher Alex Korb explains:

Everything is interconnected. Gratitude improves sleep. Sleep reduces pain. Reduced pain improves your mood. Improved mood reduces anxiety, which improves focus and planning.

Focus and planning help with decision making. Decision making further reduces anxiety and improves enjoyment.

Enjoyment gives you more to be grateful for, which keeps that loop of the upward spiral going. Enjoyment also makes it more likely you’ll exercise and be social, which, in turn, will make you happier.

8 Hugs a Day per person can go a long way to increase a community life expectancy

Preity posted this Dec. 4, 2013

10 Reasons Why You Need at Least 8 Hugs a Day For Your Health

1. The nurturing touch of a hug builds trust and a sense of safety. This helps with open and honest communication.

2. Hugs can instantly boost oxytocin levels, which heal feelings of loneliness, isolation, and anger.

3. Holding a hug for an extended time lifts one’s serotonin levels, elevating mood and creating happiness.

4. Hugs strengthen the immune system. The gentle pressure on the sternum and the emotional charge this creates activates the Solar Plexus Chakra. This stimulates the thymus gland, which regulates and balances the body’s production of white blood cells, which keep you healthy and disease free.

5. Hugging boosts self-esteem. From the time we’re born our family’s touch shows us that we’re loved and special. The associations of self-worth and tactile sensations from our early years are still embedded in our nervous system as adults. The cuddles we received from our Mom and Dad while growing up remain imprinted at a cellular level, and hugs remind us at a somatic level of that. Hugs, therefore, connect us to our ability to self love.

6. Hugging relaxes muscles. Hugs release tension in the body. Hugs can take away pain; they soothe aches by increasing circulation into the soft tissues.

7. Hugs balance out the nervous system. The galvanic skin response of someone receiving and giving a hug shows a change in skin conductance. The effect in moisture and electricity in the skin suggests a more balanced state in the nervous system – parasympathetic.

8. Hugs teach us how to give and receive. There is equal value in receiving and being receptive to warmth, as to giving and sharing. Hugs educate us how love flows both ways.

9. Hugs are so much like meditation and laughter. They teach us to let go and be present in the moment. They encourage us to flow with the energy of life. Hugs get you out of your circular thinking patterns and connect you with your heart and your feelings and your breath.

10. The energy exchange between the people hugging is an investment in the relationship. It encourages empathy and understanding. And, it’s synergistic: the whole is more than the sum of its parts: 1+ 1 = 3 or more! This synergy is more likely to result in win-win outcomes.

Note 1: I like hugging. I may also mention these same 10 reasons why friendly massages, holding hands… increase community tolerance level, our self-esteem and longevity…

Note 2: I’m handicapped and unable to extend life-expectancy of any modern community:

1. My hands are mostly cold, most of the year, particularly when in the shadow

2. I’m a smoker. Must find a smoker or an ex-smoker who relishes this aphrodisiac smell

3. My circle of friends are very restricted…

4. Must negotiate with a couple of people for multiple hugs a day to make the count of 8 and over…

5. A single beautiful and lovable person can do the trick… I’m searching for this person…

Human Types: Essence and the Enneagram. Part 1 

Note: I don’t mind reviewing esoteric and controversial manuscripts.  The general public is varied.  You will realize that this pseudo-science is a combination of associating known psychological characteristics to cosmology terminology in order to make it sound as a scientifically researched field.

It is an interesting fictional reading, unless you end up believing that it is a science, simply because you indeed fit nicely into one of the described categories.

I review on Dec. 6, 2006 the book “Human Types; Essence and the Enneagram” by Suzan Zannos

I got a copy of the book that my nephew William asked me to read because he enjoyed it.  Although William is pretty much a down to earth guy and graduating in two majors: graphic design and architecture, he prefers to read metaphysical teachings and doing yoga.  I thought that this is an opportunity to get into his mind and what makes him tick.

The book is basically of two parts:

1. The first part expounds on the four functions of the instinctive mind, the moving mind, the intellectual mind, and the emotional mind and differentiating between essence and personality, and between active/passive characteristics, and positive/negative behaviors.

2. The second part discusses the seven typical types and the enneagram as developed by the infamous Russian mystic Gurdjieff.  I have already written about Gurdjief in another book review titled “The princes of the crazy years.

I have already described what I discovered to be my relationship with each typical type and my own behavior in my diary; so this review is strictly informative.  These chapters describe the planets related to these types, their main gland hormones, their tendencies along the four dimensions of intelligence processes, emotional, instinctive, and movement centers of behavior, as well as what to expect from the child and how to guide him.

I will bypass the planets description because first, it is not the place and second, I sincerely think it is hogwash to try finding correlations with the features of the planets and mankind characteristics: I believe that since Earth is closest to the Sun than Saturn or Jupiter, and that the all-powerful energies emanating from the Sun should eclipse any effects from the tiny planets such as Mercury or Mars, thus trying to affix some sort of effects of the planets on human behavior is a ridiculously pretty weak endeavor. The effects of our moon are a different subject.

I might describe briefly the gland hormones because they might be relevant at the growth stage, but their effects on human characteristics might be based on conjectures because I doubt that any data were collected by the members of the Fourth Way on individuals in their childhood to draw any conclusions.

Although these chapters provide bodily dimensions and shapes for the typical humans, I strongly ask you to forget categorizing your essence based on the physical characteristics because first, they did not apply to me and second, you might get sidetracked from the essential parts of the typical psychological, emotional, and intellectual behaviors.

Maybe the two extremes in physical characteristics such as the Saturn (the tallest and best built) and the Mercurian (the shortest and skinniest) might suggest ready fit, though all the other types can be in any shape and stature.

In addition to the seven typical types such as Lunar, Venusian, Mercurian, Jovial, Martial, Saturnine, and Solar, we have six other combinations such as: Lunar-Venusian, Venusian-Mercurial, Jovial-Lunar, Martian-Saturnine, Saturnine-Mercurial, and Martial-Jovial.  Also, these types are supposed to be based on observations, thus whatever you daydream about and how you wish to behave does not count in the practical categorizations of types.

Since it is extremely difficult to indulge in self-observation because we are prone to observe the atypical tendencies in ourselves, when normal patterns have been somehow disrupted, we however can easily discover the essence in others because the others would behave as children (the child within) when caught behaving according to their essence.

Essence is different from personality, which is related to social and cultural influences, and thus the type discuss the essence of the group. Finally, I described the Lunar, Venusian, and Solar types more extensively than the other four types, simply because they relate more to my characteristics.

The Lunar type is the only passive as well as negative type among the seven typical categories. Passivity is defined here as the tendency not to change or improve the environment or social structures, but to accept or go along with what surround us; thus the outside world acts upon the passive type and is viewed as threatening; the passive type needs to develop a hard shell as defense against the onslaught of impressions and experiences that confront him.  Negativity is defined by the tendency to focus on the weaknesses or faults in other people’s ideas, clothing, behavior, or intentions; the stimulus is something to ignore, hide from, deflect, refuse, or escape.

The Lunar body is generally frail, the features incompletely formed, the chin is weak and receding, the shoulders hunched over, and the eyesight weak and preferring dim light.  The Lunar does not like crowds or being the focus of attention; he prefers solitude to socializing.  He can be found sitting in a corner or standing by the wall, observing but not participating in the activity or conversation.  The Lunar is good with details.  The Lunar’s main feature is willfulness.

Fear is a typical characteristic of the Lunar type.. Lunars are night people, and can tolerate working the graveyard shift more easily than other types.  They can be found as night desk clerks, short order cooks in all-night diners, night auditors, night nurses and orderlies in hospitals.  They are more suited for careers in accounting, library science, legal research; they are scholars, inventors, mathematicians, philosophers, painters, musicians, and writers; any job that requires tolerance for solitude and sustained concentration.

Woody Allen, St Theresa, the New Yorker cartoonists Charles Addams, and the poet Rainer Maria Rilke are of this type.  There is an apocryphal story that, every once in a while, the editor of Adams would receive some of his cartoons, then pick up the phone and call Charles Addams psychiatrist and tell him: “Go get Charles.”  The maximum attraction is toward the Saturnine type who plans and guides and their relationship is more like parent and child. The Saturnine type is at the midpoint of masculinity while the Lunar is at the midpoint of femininity; there is a greater tendency toward homosexuality among male Lunars than among other types.

The Lunar child should not be forced to mingle, be the center of attraction, to participate in sports, or to enjoy parties otherwise you make him biter, vindictive, and vicious by trying.  The Lunar child combined tendencies toward pessimism and introspection can produce extremely low self-esteem because intellectually they are the slowest people and need plenty of time to digest the details before reacting; that is why Lunar children need the most supportive and loving environment despite the fact that they seem the least lovable and affectionate; they cannot be hurried, do not like surprises or being hugged.

The dominant endocrine gland is the pancreas which produces insulin, glucagon and somatostatin. The glucagon stimulate the liver to break down stored sugar for use.  The somatostatin hormone is a messenger hormone that controls the secretion of intestinal hormones and the release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland. The pancreas also supplies lymphocytes to the blood to fight infections.

I might be a Lunar because I can be willful when pressured, skeptical and cynical in my conversation, and need advanced notice to mull over an invitation, though I abhor being personally responsible to go over the details in anything. In my dream day projects I do think about every detail but not in real life.  I avoid bodily confrontations and conversations that have extreme positions but I turn out to be a merciless person when cornered or pressured.

The Venusian type is passive and positive; an earthly type with broad hips and thighs, commonly found in the South Sea Islanders, North and Central American Indians and the Mediterranean countries.  He is a born follower, preferring to live through others, emulating other people’s opinion and ideas, as long as he is not asked to decide for himself or select among alternatives choices.

For example, if asked: “Shall we go to a movie or a concert?” he will say: “Whatever you want to do is fine with me.”; “Would you join me for a sky dive or bungee jumping?” “Sure I join you.”  Venusians are warm and nurturing, for example they will be staying with their aging parents, content to enjoy family life through nephews and nieces, taking them to the park and joining them with their activities, rather than having children of their own.

Venusians are fond of creature comforts and familiar surroundings. If they are hungry then the left-overs in the fridge will do fine.  They may be slothful and untidy.  The chief feature is being frequently nonexistent in the mind of strangers when among a group of people, for example, if the waiter forgot the order of someone in the group, most probably it is the order of the Venusian.

I realized that many of my school mates don’t even recollect my face, even that sometimes we sat for an entire year on the next chair. The concerns of the other types don’t seem to perturb the Venusian, nor do their striving  anxieties, or problems.  Venusians can be found putting about in the garden, sometime pruning roses or trees, raking a few leaves and discarding the ones that mom rakes, watering a few patches of green vegetables.  The Venusian is a warm and sympathetic listener, always willing to hear about problems without either judging or offering advice.

The Venusian child may easily remain unnoticed if there are other children in the family who present problems or clamor for attention; the child will be content to follow his siblings around and passively watch them play, sit for hours in front of the television set lost in the cartoon characters or situation comedies.  The Venusian child is well-behaved, easy to please, and quiet; I guess that is how I grew up.

At school the Venusian child is not noticed by the teacher or quite remembers the face, thus the teacher’s remarks on his grade cards are noncommittal like, “Venus is showing progress.”  The Venusian child needs to be encouraged to make decisions like selecting his clothing, be given chores to do and be followed through like helping in preparing the food, be asked his opinion about the menu or the story he read.  I wish my parents knew better and followed these suggestions.

There probably are some “famous Venusians”, an oxymoron, but most probably they imitated some other type or what they did was atypical of a Venusian.

The dominant gland hormone is the parathyroids which releases calcium into the bloodstream, thus it causes bones to partially dissolve to add the calcium into the blood.  The parathyroids hormone also causes the kidney to excrete the phosphorus normally bound to the calcium; is that why I have to piss every 45 minutes on average?  Frequently, the Venusian has trouble with his teeth, brittle bones in later years, and symptoms of lethargy, fatigue, and weakness due to high levels of calcium in the blood.

I exhibit the behavior of almost a typical Venusian although my hips are not large at all and my thighs are skinny.  I do enjoy my comfort and I am not tidy in my life style. Unlike the Venusians, my memory is faulty and I cannot repeat what I heard or understood.  I do not recall faces or names and many, who considered me their role model, were deceived when they realized that I had completely forgotten them, face and name.

The Solar type is active and the most positive of all the typical types. He is a childlike type with delicate bone structure, fine skin, a long neck, level shoulders, tapering waist, and long legs; he is the most attractive of all the human types.  Although the other six types can have characteristics of one other type, the Solar does not have a fixed place on the enneagram; he is an anomaly and may acquire the characteristics of all the types. The chief feature of the Solar is naiveté and does not learn from experience.

The Solars frequently die young from either disease or suicide.

The typical famous persons are Judy Garland and Marlene Monroe.  In each center of the instinctive, moving, intellectual, and emotional centers the negative parts seems underdeveloped and unbalanced, thus the Solar is not able to accustom himself to the harsher aspects of reality.  The Solar can forget about time, meals, or dressing appropriately for the weather.  This type drives himself completely in his project, survives on chocolate bars from vending machines until he succumbs to sickness before finding reasons to relax and care for his body.

Solars do not comprehend jokes or have any sense of humor because of their totally positive nature.  They experience a sense of loneliness, a feeling of not belonging, not fitting in; they do not have a maximum attraction type, and are comfortable of other Solars.

If you have a Solar child you can resign yourself to seeing your pediatrician very often and spending a lot of sleepless nights because your kid is going to catch the children illnesses and a host of allergies.  The parents have to remind the Solar kids when he is hungry and sleepy and, thus he needs a great deal of parental supervision and instruction.  Since Solar kids never learn from experience when falling or hurting themselves then they need proper training in forming correct habits or following safe procedures.

The dominant gland is the thymus that governs growth in children and usually is atrophied after puberty.  This gland lies behind the breastbone and produces thymine which also controls the lymphocytes; the thymus hormone is believed to either cause disease or to allow diseases to be contracted. The life of the thymus in Solar extends beyond puberty which offers this type strong childlike characteristic of magical possibilities in a fairy tale world.

I think that I have been living a fairy tale in my day dreaming world. I might be a Solar because I am naïve in my relationship and can be swindled easily, though I lack the boundless energy of the Solar and I can never forget about my physical needs and relaxation time. I guess that I have a face that professional swindlers need only a fraction of a second to know that I am their perfect victim; I could be targeted many times and not learn much from my unfortunate experiences.

The Mercurial type is active and negative.  He is wiry and the shortest of the human types.  He is rapid in movement and well-coordinated; he is the fastest of the human types.  He is a natural entertainer and can be deceitful; the Mercurial sparkles with warmth and humor.  He uses his quick perceptions to take advantage of the unwary; when a Mercurial enters a room he notices every detail, even the worn spot in the carpet, and he understands more than the people around him.   The chief feature of the Mercurial is likely to be his manipulative power.

The dominant endocrine hormone is the thyroid which controls metabolic rate, thus in response to low body temperature the thyroid converts food into energy and the byproduct heat; otherwise the body would store calories in the form of fat.  Deficiency in thyroid hormone secretion retards brain development. Over secretion of thyroid hormone produces symptoms of hyperactivity, nervousness, and difficulty of concentration and rapid mood shifts.  The Mercurial is prone to insomnia and sleep disturbances; they wake easily and suffer from real or imaginary aches and pains.

If you have a Mercurial child there will be fretfulness, sleepless nights, colic, and demanding squalling.  As a toddler, the Mercurial child will be into twice as much mischief as other types because he has an insatiable curiosity, though he is wary and on the lookout for danger.  His energy is inexhaustible and you need to allow him plenty of opportunity to run, climb, and exercise.

In school, the Mercurial kid is smart, mischievous, and bored, and should not be drugged into a submissive apathy.  This type of kid needs help in being consistent, and following through on commitments.  This kid is extremely manipulative and is going to use any devious methods they can think of to avoid detection or punishment.

The Saturn type is active and positive. He is the largest type, tall with heavy bone structure.  He tends to occupy positions of leadership and work for the common good.  He appears slow to act and mostly serious. They have confidence in their abilities and plan every thing, considering all the factors and taking into account peoples’ inputs and opinions before deciding on a vigorous action.

For example, on finding their ways through the Paris metro maps, while the Mercurial might reach his destination first on the first day, the Saturn will be first all the remaining days and lead the group on its errands.  The Saturn women are slender and photogenic as preferred in fashion models. The chief feature of a Saturn is often dominance.  A representative cartoon in Beetle Bailey for deciding on an officer says: “We’ll consider all their qualifications and then pick the tallest one,” who is a Saturn in general.

If you have a Saturn child, the most difficult problem is to remember that he is still a child.  The Saturn child is so competent that he is often given more responsibilities that he should be shouldering; he can be left alone to care for the house and care for himself.  A few of the Saturn type are Abraham Lincoln, Prince Charles and Princes D and the USA mascot Uncle Sam.

The dominant gland for the Saturn is the anterior pituitary which regulates and monitors the amount and ratio of the other endocrine glands in the blood stream.  It is termed the master gland for its complex messenger services.  The hormone designated as ACTH is associated with the stimulation of the adrenal steroids in response to stress and affects learning and memory.

The other hormone produced by the anterior pituitary is the TSH which inhibits or stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the thyroid hormones affecting metabolism.  A third hormone produced is the growth hormone, particularly bone growth.  The fourth hormone produced is the sex hormones.

The Martial type is active and negative. He is average in height, powerfully built, developed torso, and broad shoulders.  The activity of a Martial is goal-oriented; once embarked upon a project, the Martial will work tirelessly until the task is completed, and then start another one.

He is quick to respond to stimulus and is down to earth and practical, unsophisticated and even coarse behavior. The chief feature may be destructiveness and power seeking; it might also be fear. The famous painter, Vincent Van Gogh, who failed to sell any of his paintings in his lifetime and still persisted in his undertaking everyday against all odds, is a typical Martial.

If you have a Martial child you need to be extremely vigilant; have a special rate with your family doctor for stitches by the yard, broken bones, and bruises.  Save your energies for the really important instructions such as “don’t run into the street without looking or crawl out onto the roof.  You don’t have to doubt your Martial kid’s word and don’t try to ask him to say a polite untruth; for instance, “Thank you for inviting me” is acceptable since he will not say that he had a good time if he didn’t.  Explaining to a Martial kid tact and social grace will be a difficult task

The dominant gland is the adrenals; the abundance of adrenals in the blood stream governs the flight or flight responses. The hormone noradrenaline is associated with aggressive action and adrenaline secretion with apprehension, anxiety and skin pigmentation.  Thus, the Martial has an explosive temper and is quick to attack or rapid retreat without stopping to consider the consequences of their actions.

The Jovial type is passive and positive. He is heavily built above the waist, portly or at least chubby with skinny legs in proportion to their structure. Intellectual abilities are natural to him and his learning seems effortless. He is fond for rich foods and good wine; he has the tendency to be overfed, overindulged, and overprotective of children and friends that the solicitous Jovial can become oppressive to be around.  He has a sunny nature and good humor. He gets involved with many people and many projects.

The Jovial women enjoy bright colors and rich fabric and are likely to have extensive wardrobes of loose clothing. The chief feature of a Jovial is likely to be vanity, and also nurturing and caring for people.  Benjamin Franklin, the famous scientist and statesman, is a typical Jovial, as well as Johann Sebastian Bach.

The dominant gland is the posterior pituitary. The two hormones vasopressin and oxytocin are produced by the hypothalamus and then stored and released by the posterior pituitary.  Oxytocin is associated with the smooth muscles of the interior organs and also causes the ejection of milk from the mammary glands. Vasopressin serves as a anti-diuretic by promoting water re-absorption and controls the blood pressure.  Both hormones are involved with memory, concentration, and learning.

The Jovial child is calm, obedient, and is surrounded by admirers whom he helps with their homework. Parents indulge these kids with sweets and toys because the Jovial children show so much pleasure from receiving presents and are such a joy in creating harmony.

The Jovial kid does well in school and brings home straight A on his report card and he achieves without much effort.  Parents have to help him to learn discipline and perseverance and check his natural vanity.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

September 2020
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