Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Pascal

 

Philosophie : Qu est-ce que l’homme ?

Du latin humanitas, le terme se traduit par nature humaine, culture générale de l’esprit.

L’Humanitas est le caractère de ce qui est humain.  Elle désigne aussi « les hommes » en général, le genre humain considéré dans son unité.

La plupart des philosophes définissent comme humain tout être doué de raison. Qu’est-ce que l’homme ? est la question métaphysique par excellence. A noter également que la définition de l’homme préoccupe les scientifiques.

Chez les Grecs, le but de la philosophie était d’enseigner aux hommes comment devenir humain, c’est-à-dire comment “coller” à la nature humaine (et à ses vertus) alors que les modernes, depuis Nietzsche, ont déplacé la question de la manière suivante : Comment l’homme, en dehors de toute nature humaine, peut-il devenir lui-même, s’inventer en toute liberté  ?

Définitions de l’homme par les Philosophes :

– Simone de Beauvoir:

« L’humanité est une suite discontinue d’hommes libres qu’isole irrémédiablement leur subjectivité. »


– Husserl sur l’homme :

« Chaque figure spirituelle se situe par nature dans l’espace de l’histoire universelle […]. Ce procès fait apparaître l’humanité comme une unique vie embrassant hommes et peuples et liée seulement par des traits spirituels : elle enveloppe une multitude de type d’humanité et de culture, mais qui, par transitions insensibles, se fondent les uns dans les autres. »

– Nietzsche sur la notion d’homme et d’humanité :

« L’humanité ! Fut-il jamais entre toutes les vieilles, une vieille plus horrible (si ce n’est peut-être la vérité ; un problème à l’usage des philosophes ? »

“L’homme est une corde tendue entre l’animal et le Surhomme, une corde au-dessus d’un abîme” (Deja une vieille corde qui va se cassee’)

– Merleau-Ponty sur l’historicité de l’homme :

“L’homme est une idée historique et non pas une espèce naturelle”

– Sartre :

“L’homme n’est rien d’autre que son projet, il n’existe que dans la mesure où il se réalise, il n’est donc rien d’autre que l’ensemble” (extrait de l’existentialisme est un humanisme)

– Heidegger :

“L’homme est un être des lointains”

– Pascal :

“L’homme n’est qu’un roseau, le plus faible de la nature; mais c’est un roseau pensant. Il ne faut pas que l’univers entier s’arme pour l’écraser : une vapeur, une goutte d’eau suffit pour le tuer.

Mais quand l’univers l’écraserait , l’homme serait encore plus noble que ce qui le tue, parce qu’il sait qu’il meurt, et l’avantage que l’univers a sur lui, l’univers n’en sait rien” (explication du roseau pensant)

 

Kind of Paradise I’m ready to sign on…

I recall reading in secondary school the convoluted bet of the French mathematician and philosopher Pascal. A probabilistic logical thinking that we have interest in believing that God exists.

I am now reflecting that the conjecture ignored the premises it is supposed to be founded on:

1. Should we consider that God has an inflated ego and care an iota that we do believe in his existence or not?

2. Should we be hugely interested that the boring Catholic idea of a Paradise is worth believing in God’s promises?

Do you really recall what paradise is supposed to offer to those who are rewarded?

An eternal boredom of total inactivates and where you don’t even have to ask anything or desire anything?

Where any opposition, freedom of expression … are the works of Satan and deemed to be banished to eternal Hell?

And what about these Islamic takfiri delinquent youths? What do they comprehend of the Prophet description of paradise in order to commit suicide bombing?

What those kids who were prohibited to dance, sing, and drink can fathom what paradise can offer?

What kind of sex or love making do these kids experienced to seek 77 or 1,000 Houris?

Are all the earthly sins permitted in heaven? And why?

An older mother asked Prophet Muhammad: What is the status of older people in heaven?

The prophet replied: They have no place in heaven.

And resuming: Older people in heaven revert to youthful ages

Kind of only youth, healthy looks, and no ailments are the prerogative of those allowed to enter paradise, (after being cured, evidently).

I recall a woman who turned down a suicide mission at the nick of time because she reflected:

Why should I care of 77 virgin males in paradise? I’d rather be allocated an excellent cook and a wonderful masseur

Apparently, cooks and masseurs are not guaranteed in paradise: They eat fresh raw fruits.

Maybe a masseuse is contemplated: anything related to sex pleasure could be judged a feasible demand.

I guess all professionals in designing sex implements are welcomed.

Any all other professions are redundant. Except maybe producers, directors and actors in movies.

Movie is the best medium to recount our daydreaming passions, projects and all kinds of loves.

In paradise, we discover that a  man is not such a demanding species:

1. He wants all the privileges he enjoyed on earth as his fundamental human rights

2. He wants all the comfort and amenities

3. He needs to do what he decided on, as he feels is right.

4. He wants all the prohibited sins and addictions on earth to be legitimate in heaven: hippodromes, casinos, card games, video games, free booze, free buffets…and all the luscious girls.

In paradise, we discover that a woman is Not as demanding as these fallacious stories told about this gender:

1. A woman wants to be explicitly the boss, in the family and in the work place.

2. She wants to barge in a pocker game, set her eyes on a man, point her finger at him and declare: ” You. Times out. Stand up and follow me”

3. She wants to enjoy all the climaxes she is powerfully endowed with and much stronger. By all means, as often and any time she desires.

4. She wants to preserves her rights to be a mother, with much less pains and responsibilities in raising kids. Anyway, human kids in paradise grow faster than puppies.

Men and women in paradise want the capability to morph into the other gender in order to experience the advantages of the opposite sex, and do this interchange at any time for any length period, and even during the intercourse.

Men and women abhor all these restrictions on how, when and what kinds of sex they should engage in. If dogs are not well viewed on earth, then dogs must be a prized member to lick pussies…

Sexual status, gay, lesbian, transvestite… are legitimate and practically irrelevant: we can morph at wish

The color of the skin is irrelevant: our eyesight will be endowed with the entire wavelength spectrum: the only discrimination will be our preference to color composition.

If all the religious clerics desist from investing so much time proving the existence of a God or yapping constantly about the virtues of a God and his terrible wrath… and focus instead on designing a model of paradise that excites the imagination and basic needs of the human species…

So far, paradise in all the current religions is such a boring and idiotic place to live in that I cannot fathom why I SHOULD SEEK a location for an eternity.

If clerics invest more time on describing appetizing models for paradise that satisfies our lust, daydreaming passions and desires on earth… I don’t see why we will refrain from signing on, and all be believers and stop proving anything of the existence of a God.

All we want is to be guaranteed a nice paradise to live in, by a God, anyone else, or any other process.

In paradise, there is No such concept of Closure: All that we do is fine tune the details of our daydream projects, select a team to execute the plans and programs, and watch how the daydream is unfolding.

We are no longer interested how the project unfolds or when it will be finished: We had already started on our next daydream project adventure. All our daydream projects are necessarily and inevitably passionate, as is the case on earth.

To be reasonable, in paradise change takes time, and nothing is instantaneous.

Consequently, it is our patience that is  the most heavily taxed, given our eternal youth.

Probably we can apply to be trans-boarded to another planet: We generally assume that additional restrictions and miseries will alleviate the burden of patience.

This is an alternative kind of paradise I’m willing to sign on.

 

The French mathematician Pascal wrote: “All afflictions of mankind is his feeling restless in a room:  He never learns to be at rest.  Man sincerely thinks that he is seeking rest and repose periods, but in fact he is after agitation.”  It is like life abhors the void; it is as keeping in restful position is tantamount to worthlessness.

Maybe idleness is mother of all vices; but it is certainly that idleness is mother of all virtues:  How else could you meditate, voluntarily inhale deeply, exhale slowly, reflect on your past achievement and plans, comprehend your limitations, capabilities, and potentials, setting up future action plans, revisit serious talks that passed you by, regain courage and the will to go forward?

Forced work and unhappy and unsafe workplace are excellent excuses to running away from pressing responsibilities at home, to delegating important responsibilities, to faking being too busy to listen and deliver on promises.  Is working for salary an excellent way out to earning some money to be freer in taking better decisions for better quality products, services, and taking longer leisure quality time?

Let me clarify how I comprehend class structure in capitalist system in order to drive my point through.  The lowest class is represented by 20% of the downtrodden or daily workers.  When a government claims that unemployment has reached say 10% it means that the lowest middle class is suffering most of the unemployment rate. 

For example, if we say that at least 70% of the “working people” are from the middle class (divided among the lower, middle, and upper) middle classes and that 70% of the middle class are represented in the lower middle class section then, about 4.9% of the unemployed are from the lower middle class (for example: 70%*70%*10%).  The other 5.1% of the unemployed are constituted from all the other classes (excepting the 10% of the richest class that hoard 50% of the wealth of the nation:  Its amassed wealth works for the richest class)

When a government starts drastic cut in the budget (except the military: It goes without sayin) it affects primarily the lower middle class, since the 20% of downtrodden are already suffering at the bare minimum and cannot contribute to taxes.  Actually, the class of the downtrodden feels helpless and waits for the middle class to begins marching revolts to join it and scare the richest class and their political, security forces, legal, and law institutions for a short while.  When unemployment jumps to 20% that affects 10% of the lower middle class then, serious problems await the power-to-be in capitalist systems:  This number of 10% of unemployed lower middle class is a critial turning point for serious revolts. 

It is to the advantage of most of the citizens in capitalist society that unemployment increases to beyond 20% for serious reforms to be considered and enacted in forms of laws and financial institutions control, restrictions, and constraints.

Are you being pressured to forced labor?  If you are not a teenager and think that you have skills then, would you work for McDonald and invite your kids to eat deadly food?  If you hate to lie and scam people then, would you work for Wall Street?  If you cannot suffer selling products and services that you don’t believe in because they are of low quality or unsafe to use then, would you work as a salesman for such a company?

First, do you know what kinds of moral values and ethical conducts that best represent your spirit and would make you happy to noticing their applications  around you and in your neighborhood?  Would you take sometime to learn and select the work you enjoy doing and stop this harassing fleeing exercises?  Would you mind getting organized around clear laws that equalize opportunities and fairness in employment?

Article #30 of “What is Human Factors in Engineering?”;  December 27, 2005

 “How objective and scientific are experiments?”

If we narrow this article to the statistical analysis of experiments and without going into details suffice us to mention a few controversies.  First, let us do a chronology of the various paradigms in statistics and statistical algorithms.  From a European perspective Pascal is believed to have started probability theory in1654.

LaPlace and Legendre contributed to the Least-Squares algorithm for how to fit a model to data (1750-1810)

Gauss developed the geometry and algebra of the multivariate normal distribution (1800’s)

Galton studied regression between two variables (1885) and Pearson the correlation coefficient in 1895.

Fisher, Snedecor and Sheffe concurrently worked on experimental design and analysis of variance algorithm (ANOVA) to statistically test the population distribution under the assumptions of normality in the 1920’s.

The data analyses of non distribution base samples to fit models to data showing structural features were developed by Thurstone in Factor Analysis, by Young and Householder (1935) in Multidimensional scaling and Cluster analysis algorithms.

Joreskog, K. G developed in 1973 the algorithm of a general method for estimating a linear structural relational equation labeled LISREL that analyses the relationships among latent variables linked to operationalized indicators. This general method considers as special cases path analysis recursive or non recursive as well as Factors analysis.

John Tukey and Mosteller concentrated on studying exploratory data analysis to fit mathematical and geometric models to data showing both structural and residual, and thus complementing confirmatory or inferential analyses.

There are divergent paradigms in the following concepts:  first, the suitability of data measurements according to measurement theory versus the distribution properties of the variable of interest (S. S. Stevens versus I. R. Savage in the 60’s); second, the need to investigate real world data prior to applying any statistical package (data snooping) so that if you perform serious detective work on the data and torture it long enough it will confess and open many ways to understand its underlying behavior (John Tukey); thus increased emphasis on graphs of individual data points and plotting to investigate the preliminary screening so as to ensure that the summary statistics selected are truly relevant to the data at hand. 

Third, the application of the Bayesian approach from the consumer or decision maker viewpoint which provide the final probability against evidence instead of the investigator standard acceptance of a p-value to rejecting a hypothesis (read the “Illusion of Objectivity” by James Berger and Donald Berry, 1988).

Fourth, the selection of an investigator for a statistical package that he is familiar with instead of the appropriate statistics for the research in question;  The acceptance of untenable assumptions on population distributions and computing unrealistic parameters simply because the investigator is not trained to understanding or interpreting alternative statistical methods of nonparametric or distribution freer population methods.

Fifth, there are examples of investigators adopting explanatory statistical packages to torture data into divulging confusing causative variables while, in fact, the science is already well established in the domain to specifically determine exhaustively the causative factors simply because the investigator is not versed in mathematics or physics (“Tom Swift and his electric factor analysis machine by J. Scott Armstrong, 1967).

Sixth, there is a need to the “mathematization of behavioral sciences” (Skelum, 1969) which involves the development of mathematically stated theories leading to quantitative predictions of behavior and to derivation from the axioms of the theory of a multitude of empirically testable predictions. Thus, instead of testing verbal model as to the null hypothesis, an adequate mathematical model account for both variability and regularity in behavior and the appropriate statistical model is implied by the axioms of the model itself.  Another advantage is that attention is turned to measuring goodness of fit, range of phenomena handled by the model and ability to generating counterintuitive predictions.

This discussion is an attempt to emphasize the concept of experimentation as a structured theory and that the current easy and cheap computational potentials should be subservient to the theory so that data are transformed to answer definite and clear questions.  The Human Factors practitioner, whom should be multidisciplinary in order to master the human and physical sciences, is hard hit by the need of performing complex scientific experiments involving human subjects and yet required to yield practical recommendations for the applied engineering fields.

No wonder Human Factors professionals are confused in their purposes and ill appreciated by the other discipline unless a hybrid kind of scientists are generated from a structural combination of engineering discipline and modern experimental methods and statistical algorithms. 

However, Human Factors engineers who have an undergraduate engineering discipline and a higher degree in experimental research and statistical analyses training can be better positioned to handle research involving mathematical modeling of theories in sciences.

The fixed mindedness in adolescents reminds us of the mind fix of old people with the assumption that the mind has the potential flexibility to grow while young.

You may look young masking and old mind or look older and exhibiting a younger mind; it is your choice how much time and energy you are willing to invest for acquiring knowledge.

Famous Manuscripts Banned by the Vatican: (Part 2, April 19, 2009)

Thousands of literary works were indexed by the Vatican from around 1200 to 1966.

Virtually no author was spared indexing. Pascal, Descartes, Locke, Spinoza, Rousseau, Kant, Diderot, Stendhal, Lamartine, Hugo, Flaubert, Balzac, Saint-Simon, Proudhon, Zola, Sartre, and even Gide were indexed for part of their work. 

Voltaire was the most indexed: each of his manuscripts was automatically indexed before reading it. Voltaire would occasionally sign Ecralinf meaning (Let us crush the despicable infamous Church of Rome)

Ironically, Darwin, Karl Marx, and Hitler were spared INDEXING.

The Defender of Peace” by Marsile of Padua (Rector of the University of Paris) is published in 1324 and banned by the Church. The manuscript said that the function of governance does not suit the Bishop of Rome (the Pope) because this urge for domination of the Church is the bane of all discords.  Communities should be governed by their own councils.

Baruch Spinoza published “Treaty on Theological-Politics” in 1670.  He is excommunicated (herem) by the Jewish Wise Men of the synagogue of Amsterdam and later indexed by the Vatican. Spinoza claimed that the Torah is false, that soul dies with the body, and that God exist only philosophically.  Religions instituted a God with 7 main characteristics so that their logical scaffold can hold: God should be One, Unique, Omnipresent, has absolute authority and rights over everything, that obeisance to God consist in justice and charity, that Heaven and Hell are the consequences of our behaviors, and finally that God is forgiving because everyone is a sinner. Faith does not dwell on whether God is fire, spirit, light, or thought.

Pierre-Augustin de Beaumarchais published “The Wedding of Figaro” in 1781. This manuscript said of the aristocrats “You were given the pain of being born, and nothing else”; and thus was blamed for disturbing the social construct.  Beaumarchais published also “The Barber of Seville”

“Praise of Folly” (L’Eloge de la Folie) by Erasmus of Rotterdam was indexed in 1511.  Under the mask of irony, Erasmus creates a Foul dominating the World and supported by ignorant idiots with humongous Ego; he attacks the theologians and scholastic specialties whom thrive in adding subtlety over subtlety in order to obscure any kind of comprehension.  In just the same century, the manuscript is re-edited 600 times.

“The Prince” of Nicolas Machiavelli is published in 1513 in Florence.  The book explains how a Prince should behave to acquire and then retain power and would be one of the founders of modern political thinking.

“The Third Book” of Francois Rabelais was published in 1532.  The previous publications “Pantagruel” and “Gargantua” were not spared indexing too.  The art of mockery far exceed that of Erasmus and his farces scorch all the princes.  Moliere would rely on Rabelais’ works for his comedies.

The Essays” of about 107 of essays by Michel Montaigne are published as of 1580 and was censured by the Church Inquisition.  The Church didn’t like the offhandedness of mixing sacred topics with profane subjects and the manuscript was judged morally too permissive.

“The new Stories” succeeds the famous fables of Jean de la Fontaine and are published as of 1674 and mocks the clerics and was indexed for “corrupting the moral and inspiring libertine behaviors”.  Before he dies, his confessor forced him to recant, and he did so that he may die in peace of that pest of cleric.

“The Spirit of Laws” by Charles-Louis of Montesquieu was published in Switzerland in 1748 to avoid censuring.  The author demanded that the three branches of executive, legislative, and justice enjoy independent powers for check and balance in governance.

“Therese the Philosopher” by Jean-Baptiste Boyer was published in 1748, in the same year that “Fanny Hill” of John Cleland was published.  This manuscript described in details the bacchant sacrilegious ceremonies that a Pope relished. The Marquis of Sade would imitate that genre of pornography.  It is rumored that these kinds of books influenced the French Revolution more than any other manuscripts.  The French National Library cataloged this book under “Hell” section.

“Emile” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau was published in 1762.  Rousseau offered a new educational system for kids so that the natural kindness of humankind is preserved; that kids enjoy their lives as kids and refrain from reading before the age of 12; that they wear loose garments to play leisurely.  The manuscript was indexed and publicly burned in Paris for inciting man to follow his instincts.  Rousseau will publish “The Social Contract” in 1766 and Geneva Council banished it.  In reaction, Rousseau abandoned his Switzerland nationality.

Article #30, December 27, 2005

 “How objective and scientific are experiments?”

If we narrow this article to the statistical analysis of experiments and without going into details suffice us to mention a few controversies.  First, let us do a chronology of the various paradigms in statistics and statistical algorithms.  From a European perspective Pascal is believed to begin the probability theory in1654.

LaPlace and Legendre contributed to the Least-Squares algorithm for how to fit a model to data (1750-1810)

Gauss developed the geometry and algebra of the multivariate normal distribution (1800’s)

Galton studied regression between two variables (1885) and Pearson the correlation coefficient in 1895.

Fisher, Snedecor and Sheffe concurrently worked on experimental design and analysis of variance algorithm (ANOVA) to statistically test the population distribution under the assumptions of normality in the 1920’s.

The data analyses of non distribution base samples to fit models to data showing structural features were developed by Thurstone in Factor analysis, by Young and Householder (1935) in Multidimensional scaling and Cluster analysis algorithms.

Joreskog, K. G developed in 1973 the algorithm of a general method for estimating a linear structural relational equation labeled LISREL that analyses the relationships among latent variables linked to operationalized indicators. This general method considers as special cases path analysis recursive or non recursive as well as Factors analysis.

John Tukey and Mosteller concentrated on studying exploratory data analysis to fit mathematical and geometric models to data showing both structural and residual, and thus complementing confirmatory or inferential analyses.

There are divergent paradigms in the following concepts:  first, the suitability of data measurements according to measurement theory versus the distribution properties of the variable of interest (S. S. Stevens versus I. R. Savage in the 60’s); second, the need to investigate real world data prior to applying any statistical package (data snooping) so that if you perform serious detective work on the data and torture it long enough it will confess and open many ways to understand its underlying behavior (John Tukey); thus increased emphasis on graphs of individual data points and plotting to investigate the preliminary screening so as to ensure that the summary statistics selected are truly relevant to the data at hand. 

Third, the application of the Bayesian approach from the consumer or decision maker viewpoint which provide the final probability against evidence instead of the investigator standard acceptance of a p-value to rejecting a hypothesis (read the “Illusion of Objectivity” by James Berger and Donald Berry, 1988).

Fourth, the selection of an investigator for a statistical package that he is familiar with instead of the appropriate statistics for the research in question;  The acceptance of untenable assumptions on population distributions and computing unrealistic parameters simply because the investigator is not trained to understanding or interpreting alternative statistical methods of nonparametric or distribution freer population methods.

Fifth, there are examples of investigators adopting explanatory statistical packages to torture data into divulging confusing causative variables while, in fact, the science is already well established in the domain to specifically determine exhaustively the causative factors simply because the investigator is not versed in mathematics or physics (“Tom Swift and his electric factor analysis machine by J. Scott Armstrong, 1967).

Sixth, there is a need to the “mathematization of behavioral sciences” (Skelum, 1969) which involves the development of mathematically stated theories leading to quantitative predictions of behavior and to derivation from the axioms of the theory of a multitude of empirically testable predictions. Thus, instead of testing verbal model as to the null hypothesis, an adequate mathematical model account for both variability and regularity in behavior and the appropriate statistical model is implied by the axioms of the model itself.  Another advantage is that attention is turned to measuring goodness of fit, range of phenomena handled by the model and ability to generating counterintuitive predictions.

This discussion is an attempt to emphasize the concept of experimentation as a structured theory and that the current easy and cheap computational potentials should be subservient to the theory so that data are transformed to answer definite and clear questions.  The Human Factors practitioner, whom should be multidisciplinary in order to master the human and physical sciences, is hard hit by the need of performing complex scientific experiments involving human subjects and yet required to yield practical recommendations for the applied engineering fields.

No wonder Human Factors professional are confused in their purposes and ill appreciated by the other discipline unless a hybrid kind of scientists are generated from a structural combination of engineering discipline and modern experimental methods and statistical algorithms.  However, Human Factors engineers who have an undergraduate engineering discipline and a higher degree in experimental research and statistical analyses training can be better positioned to handle research involving mathematical modeling of theories in sciences.

The fixed mindedness in adolescents reminds us of the mind fix of old people with the assumption that the mind has the potential flexibility to grow while young.

You may look young masking and old mind or look older and exhibiting a younger mind; it is your choice how much time and energy you are willing to invest for acquiring knowledge.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

November 2019
M T W T F S S
« Oct    
 123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
252627282930  

Blog Stats

  • 1,361,301 hits

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.adonisbouh@gmail.com

Join 693 other followers

%d bloggers like this: