Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘“Peace treaty”

Palestinians demand an independent State in Palestine: Cannot buy the alternative

The Trump administration has been working hard to establish Israel as the only viable State in the Middle-East to dialogue with. A few Gulf Emirate States have been coaxed to sign a dubious “peace treaty” with Israel, like Abu Dhabi and Bahrain.

The funny part is that the representatives of these 2 semi-States behaved as totally ignorant on what they are signing with Trump.

Egypt and Jordan had signed a treaty in 1974-75 which resulted in countless wars and civil wars in Lebanon, Syria and Iraq.

‘NYT’ coverage of Trump peace plan news quotes 5 pro-Israel voices, 0 Palestinians

Media Analysis

 on 

The New York Times covers phase one of the Trump peace plan, an economic “workshop” in Bahrain next month at which the administration is expected to dangle the money it wants to give Palestinians and states neighboring Israel, so that Palestinians will sacrifice their political demands/rights (among them sovereignty on ’67 borders; return of refugees; shared Jerusalem)– a figure said to be $68 billion.

The article quotes No Palestinians. (No Palestinian business person will attend this faked “workshop”)

It does include quotes from Aaron David Miller, Jared Kushner, Robert Satloff, Treasury’s Steve Mnuchin, and Brookings pundit Tamara Cofman Wittes. Five (Jewish) Americans, all five of them strong supporters of Israel. (Mnuchin’s background is here.)

Satloff, Wittes, and Miller are all presented as “critics” of the plan, but they are all Zionist critics of the plan. Just different shades of Zionist.(No, not shade. Stauncher Zionists than most Israelis)

Why? This is racism in journalism before your eyes.

The Times clearly has a structural bias against Palestinians. (As all colonial powers’ administrations in the last century)

Even as it demonstrates its higher consciousness in other left zones, the newspaper is stuck in the old paradigm on Israel.

How else could a newspaper publish four justifications of the killings of nonviolent protesters inside of a few months, as it did last year in Gaza?

This would never happen in any other context when a government opens fire on demonstrators.

But the Times columnists offered those justifications, in Shmuel Rosner’s case almost a bloodthirsty one, and there was no balance, let alone criticism from the Roger Cohens, David Brookses, and Michelle Goldbergs of the world.

Palestinians simply don’t count as full human actors.

The Palestinian Prime Minister released a statement rejecting the economic summit today.

He and his cabinet surely were available yesterday. So was Sam Bahour, who writes that Palestine cannot have an economic future without an independent political future, in which construction workers and university graduates will be able to find employment inside a Palestinian state.

Diana Buttu, Saeb Erekat, Hanan Ashrawi (who has been denied a visa to travel to the U.S.), Omar Barghouti, Mustafa Barghouti, Haider Eid surely would have spoken to the Times, too.

Palestine is truly teeming with sophisticated political actors on a wide range who would have something to say about the implausibility of economic peace.

And if the Times says this was an American politics piece, well, there are Palestinians here, too, who have a lot to say.

The bottom line is obvious and disturbing. Palestinians aren’t equals.

Who has this deficient strategic mind in the Middle-East? Israel or the USA?

A couple of years after its creation in 1948 as a colonial implant, the State of Israel proved that its strategic mind, to impress upon its neighboring people to recognize its legitimacy, was failing in a consistent pattern of refusal to negotiate a peace treaty. 

The State of Israel was recognized by a majority of a single vote in the UN in 1948, when most States had not earned their independence from colonial powers. And the partition of Palestine bypassed valid political negotiation by the concerned people.

Invariably, it is the Mossad agents (hired from Israelis, Palestinians, and “Arabs”) that planned and facilitated terrorist attacks everytime foreign States pressured Israel to resume peace negotiations.

Currently, the Israeli government is very unhappy:  No “terrorist activities” are witnessed because the Palestinian government in the West Bank and Hamas in Gaza are in better position to control and apprehend Israel’s Mossad agents.

Even Lebanon has dismantled over a dozen Mossad cells that initiated terrorist activities of missile launching and assassinating Palestinian leaders.

The “Wall of Shame” has been erected, supposedly to prevent external influences in this “happy ghetto”. And Israel has no excuses left to bring up terrorist scare tactics to bear on foreign States initiatives for peaceful negotiations.

Palestinians factions cannot infiltrate Israel unless aided by the Mossad and Israel’s security services.

There are no terrorist activities and yet Israel is adamantly resuming State assassinations of Palestinian leaders:  Israel is praying that armed reactions by Palestinian factions will extend stupid excuses to Israel for putting negotiation on hold.

It is the habit of Israel to refuse peace since it is only happy on terms of total capitulation and apartheid humiliation behaviors.

Ariel Sharon proved to be by far the worst strategic mind as PM and as Defense minister.

In 1982, Sharon invaded Lebanon, entered the Capital Beirut, and “liberated” Lebanon from Yasser Arafat’s military wings.

Lebanon breathed easier as the “legal occupier” in Yasser Arafat was shipped to Tunisia in French ships.

Now, instead of withdrawing from Lebanon, Sharon decided to park in Lebanon for 25 more years.

This Israeli occupation in south Lebanon encouraged the Lebanese to fine tune their resistance activities.  Israel was thus forced to vacate Lebanon in 2000 unilaterally and without any pre-conditions.

Currently, Lebanon is united against Israel: Hezbollah has captured a strategic position of military “retaliation capacities”.

Israel has to start dealing seriously with peace negotiation; it has no other options left.

Israel has no excuses left to decline negotiations with the worn out excuse “We have no reliable parties to deal with”.

Military mentality and successive military tactical “pre-emptive” victories are no basis for long-term strategic peace agreements that convince the neighboring people.

The US 6th fleet and overwhelming military and economic supports have limits.

The US can no longer convince its citizens that Israel is the best protector of its interest in the Middle East and has to shell $4bn a year to support Israel Industrial military infrastructure and vicious illegal settlements or colonies in Palestinian lands.

Israel has been encouraging “terrorist activities” through its agents in order to lay claim to its “rights” of defensive massive and disproportionate violent “reactions” and pre-emptive wars in Lebanon, Gaza, and the Palestinian camps in Palestine (West Bank and Gaza) and Lebanon.

In fact, all investigations showed that Israel undertook pre-emptive wars in periods that No “terrorist activities” were undertaken by Palestinians either in Lebanon (1982) or in Gaza (2008).

Israel behaved as if it didn’t need to delimit its borders in its Constitution and opted for an open border as pre-emptive military incursions allowed it to expand.

We are experiencing a paradox in Israel’s political and strategic decisions:

First, Israel refuses to submit to the UN an official map of its borders with the neighboring States and

Second, it built the “wall of shame”, a reminiscence of its “ghetto mentality”, under the unconvincing excuses of reducing “terrorist attacks”.  In fact, it is a tactic of “No see Palestinians, then they do Not exist”

Since its creation in the Near-East, Israel never relinquished its British “apartheid” rights and detention laws to humiliate the Palestinians youth and commit State assassinations of Palestinian and “Arabic” leaders.

Almost every year, Israel invades Palestinian camps (supposed to be protected by the UN) and lay waste to camps and kills hundreds of Palestinian refugees under various pretences that the world community stopped to believe in their legitimacy.

Israel has been winning tactical military “victories” with unlimited supports from the successive US Administrations after Eisenhower.

Israel failed so far in securing peace and recognition by the Palestinian people and the neighboring Arab people.

The peace treaties with Egypt (under emergency law and dictatorship rules since the assassination of Sadat) and the monarchy in Jordan are not convincing and basically unilateral relative to the concerned people.

Israel conquered all Sinai in 1967 and waited until Gamal Abdel Nasser declared “What has been conquered by force cannot be recaptured but by force”.  Thus, Israel was obliged to pump useless funds to defend far-flung borders until Israel was pressured to restitute conquered lands in 1973 by a victorious counter military offensive by the Egyptian and Syrian army.

The US refused to support Israel’s military expenditures in the Sinai and thus, Israel let go of desert lands after it alienated over 70 million Egyptians (currently 100 million).

In a sense, Sharon permitted Israel to rethink its strategic mind after many strategic failures against his will and Israel’s will.

In the final analysis, the US tax payers are paying the tabs twice: Once for expanding Israeli colonies and developing the Golan Height and again for Israel’s withdrawal from colonies and the Golan.

I am wondering who is the most deficient in strategic mind in the Middle East: Is it Israel or the US of America?

A Saudi Kingdom refugee in France (Saad Hariri) re-landed in Lebanon after being ousted in 2011 as PM

Actually Saad was handed the post of political inheritor (Haririyyeh) of his father Rafic Hariri who was assassinated by USA/Israel in 2004, by Bandar bin Sultan.

Note: re-edited of the post of 2014. “A billionaire refugee in France…”

Officially, the one $billion that the Saudi monarch Abdullah extended to Lebanon was meant to be spent on aiding the Lebanese army to confront all the “terrorists activities” spreading in Lebanon.

Tacitly, ex PM Saad Hariri is to be the money distributor of this huge sum and he returned to Lebanon after 3 years of vacations (as he was ousted) in order to personally supervise the spending of the money.

All this money is basically meant to be spend on the election campaign since the Parliament feels too ashamed to extend its tenure again and again on flimsy excuses of “insecurity conditions”. (Yes, Nabih Berry, head of the Parliament for 22 successive years,  and the Godfather of the militia/mafia “leaders“, refused to hold Parliamentary elections)

He had no political experience and knew nothing of Lebanon social structure: He needed 6 months to learn how to form a government and he spent most of his tenure abroad on multiple vacations, doing personal business deals.

A few months ago, Saudi Kingdom extended 3 $billion to France on the ground of providing the Lebanese army the necessary weapons to confront terrorist factions and the capability to maintain security and the shaky status quo of Lebanon political outdated system.

So far, the 3 $billion have evaporated into deep pockets in both Lebanon and France: financial transparency is not a cornerstone in our system.

Probably, France extended part of that that money to the extremist jihadist factions on our border with Syria.

The Nusra and ISIS have occupied our sprawling town of Ersal for 5 days and committed atrocities and killed scores of our soldiers and kidnapped about 40 soldiers.

Rafic Hariri set up the Ponzi scheme for Lebanon since 1994 by continually borrowing money, accumulating Lebanon sovereign debt from $3 bn to $100 bn and doing his best of destroying any productive activities in industries and agriculture. The basis of Rafic reasoning is that USA will erase Lebanon debt as soon as Lebanon sign a “peace treaty” with Israel.

Jamil Berry posted on FB: 

Mon Opinion

La période que traverse actuellement le Liban est extrêmement brumeuse, et de plus en plus illisible. Laissons nos religions aux vestiaires et réfléchissons.

Qu’avons nous comme données récentes ? Trois milliards Saoudiens évaporés? (Aide à l’armée?)

Hariri qui est rentré sous les caméras au Liban. Avec dans ses valises un milliard … Pour ? Tripoli qui s’agite à nouveau?
Ersaal avec ses vrais martyrs de notre armée Libanaise?

Et ses assaillants salafistes qui trouvent malgré tout des Janus parmi la classe politique libanaise pour minimiser, diluer, et démentir s’ils pouvaient ; nos martyrs.

Il se prépare quelque chose d’extrêmement grave je pense taillé à la seule mesure de la survie de l’état d’Israël.

Israel est plus que jamais conscient du droit du peuple Palestinien à son Etat, appuyé en cela par les rues arabes.

Israel est conscient de l’hostilité croissante des peuples des pays limitrophes face à l’injustice dont il fait preuve surtout avec un Embargo sévère et mortifère contre Gaza, et le morcellement incessant de la Palestine par les implantations juives victimes d’une Shoa économique générée par la crise dans laquelle se débattent leurs pays d’origine ( crise qui ne touche pas que les juifs , sauf que israel se propose comme issue en agitant l’étendard de l’anti sémitisme ambiant)

Rajouter à cela que de gisements immenses de gaz et de pétrole son découverts aux larges du Liban et de Palestine

Le Liban entre désormais dans le club des pays frappés par la malédiction du sous-sol. (Huge reserves of gas and oil known and confirmed even during the French mandated colonial power in 1935) 

Un exemple : l’Algérie a un sous sol infiniment riche , la Tunisie pas . Cette dernière connaitra rapidement accalmie et prospérité, la première se débattra toujours.

D’un point de vue purement sécuritaire, Israel a été contraint de rendre le Liban sud a ses Libanais (et sans condition en May 25, 2000) malgré son eau dont il a besoin. ( le prix devenait prohibitif pour israel. Trop de morts , vu le virus Ezbolla (Hezbollah) qui y sévissait)

L’Irak, La Lybie, La Syrie , étaient des menaces sécuritaires pour israel. Ces pays ont été scientifiquement et méthodiquement mis à terre en 3 temps chacun ( observez les 3 temps d’un dromadaire quand il veut se mettre à terre ) sans pour autant cesser de tambouriner qu’il faut que la résistance libanaise dépose ses armes.

Entretenir la faiblesse des pays arabes et les anémier pour les cent ans à venir, passera désormais d’après les stratèges du pentagone et d israel réunis par la semence d’une guerre Suchi ( Sunnites / Chiites) et elle commence à donner ses fruits mortifères. Les printemps se suivent mais ne se ressemblent pas.

Le Liban ”is different ” . Devenu très anglophone, très peu francophone, la France (sa mère adoptive ) en grande difficulté économique ne viendra plus vraiment à son secours car :

1/ Il s’est tourné vers les USA
2/ la France est un pays matérialiste, Laïc. Défendre la chrétienté, lui est vraiment passé de mode.

La guerre sunnite / chiite a déjà commencé dans la région, et je suis intimement convaincu que ces stratèges de l’apocalypse nous diront bientôt qu’il ne faut pas mettre tous les salafistes dans le même sac

Il y aura les bons salafistes: ceux qui se battront contre le Ezbollah , et les mauvais salafistes ceux qui se battront contre l’armée libanaise (sic!)

Plus que jamais au Liban, les politiciens Libanais ne commandent plus sur rien et n’ont de l’autorité que dans la mesure où ils ne l’exercent pas.

Bientôt , même une chatte au Liban, ne reconnaîtra plus ses chatons.

Ah les Chrétiens … J’allais vous oublier : je ne vous pense pas les vrais visés dans l’apocalypse annoncée, vous serez soit des victiles collatérales, soit des victiles de diversion. Dans les deux cas, vous aurez vos ” couloirs humanitaires ”

Déjà que le Liban est couloir en soi . Couloirs dans un couloir : rien de mieux pour couler notre pays.

( Jamil BERRY )

What Baha2 Hariri, Saad Hariri’s eldest brother, confessed of the tight connections among Saudi secret services, Bandar bin Sultan and Walid Jumblat…

In hindsight: “What could have happened if Beshir Gemayel was not assassinated in 1982?”

Beshir Gemayel was assassinated on Sept. 14, 1982 along with scores of other people who came to the meeting in Achrafieh.  Beshir was elected President of Lebanon under the bayonets of the Israeli army that occupied the Capital Beirut. He was to officially take on his duties the next day as President.

On April 13, 1975, the civil war started in Lebanon and lasted 18 years: It was a Palm Sunday. This year Palm Sunday was on April 13, and even the people in the second largest city of Tripoli celebrated in the streets, after 20 street battles last year.

This coincidence got me into thinking:

“what could have happened if Beshir Gemmayel was not assassinated in September 14, 1982, a single day before the official ceremony inducting him as President of the Republic of Lebanon?”

What if he governed for at least a year before being assassinated?

Probably:

1. Israel would not have entered West Beirut and sacked the city and stole all kinds of documents and artifacts…

2. The genocide in the Palestinian camps of Sabra and Chatila might Not have taken place. Over 3,000 elder people and children (Palestinians and Lebanese) were slaughtered in 2 nights, under the watch of a Lebanese army stationed in the nearby and claiming to be helpless.

3. Israel would have retreated to the 40 km “buffer zone” in the south, far quicker than it did, after the fighters of the Palestinian Resistance Movement (PLO) were evacuated from Lebanon.

4. The massacres in the Chouf province between the Christians and the Druze would not have happened (Samir Geaja and his militias The Lebanese Forces entered the Chouf at the instigation of Israel)

4. The massacres in East Saida between the Christians and the Sunnis would have been spared (Samir Geaja militias entered the Saida province at the instigation of Israel)

5. The thousands of new Christian refugees to the Christian canton would not have fled their towns and villages, at least not in such a hurry

6. The division of Lebanon into sectarian cantons would have been slower in the formation

7. The regular army would have assisted the UN forces in the south and the militias associated with Israel would have been disbanded.

8. A “peace treaty” with Israel would have been ratified with better terms than what was written during Amine Gemmayel tenure, and which failed to be ratified any way.

9. The Syrian troops would have stayed in the Bekaa Valley and refrained from approaching Beirut.

10. The sieges and massacres perpetrated against the Palestinian camps by the Amal militias of Nabih Berry (instigated by Syria) would have been delayed, at least.

11. The civil war would have taken another turn and saved Lebanon further deeper chasm among the sectarian forces

12. The Druze militias of Walid Jumblat would not have invested Mazra3a in Beirut with their tanks

13. Amine Gemmayel would not have been elected president and the Lebanese currency would not have devalued quickly to 1,500 times less

14. The second largest city of Tripoli would not have turned extremist Islamist, and the secular parties of the Communists and Syrian National Social would have retained stronger presence in that city

15. Yasser Arafat might not have returned to Tripoli and re-armed the Palestinian camps and cause thousands to be killed during two months of siege.

16. And most likely, Samir Geaja would not have ended up leader of the Lebanese Forces militia and left trails of calamities for the Christian population everywhere he got engaged militarily

In hindsight, which governments or political organizations were behind the planning of the assassination of Bashir Gemmayel? Israel, Syria, the Palestinian Resistance, any of the Lebanese resistance factions… All of them had a reason for this assassination

Mind you that Islamic Iran was engaged in a protracted war with Iraq of Saddam Hussein that lasted 9 long years of savage fighting.  The cease fire for that war was decided by Ayatolla Khomeini as he learned that he had a few months to live: He decided to extend a survival breathing space for his Islamic regime that was on the verge of collapse.

Question: Would Hezbollah be created?

Yes.

1. Hezbollah would have been instituted simply because the question of Palestine opens the door wide to Islamist Iran to tamper with our internal affairs. The peace treaty would have been an excellent excuse to rally the Shiaa around Iran positions.

2. The frequent tampering of Israel in South Lebanon would have inevitably alienated the Shiaa against the Israeli occupiers.

Note 1: In hindsight, the administrative institutions would have been re-structured and a semblance of a State re-constituted for a while, instead of the current militia/mafia political system

Note 2: Most probably, the Lebanese based “Syria National Social Party” took seriously the decision of Bashir to target their members and responded in kind.

Note 3: Israel tasted the spirit of resistance of the National coalition to any invaders and occupiers of Lebanon, after the Shiaa in the south welcomed Israel army with rice and flowers to get rid of the Palestinian “resistance” forces of Arafat. Arafat didn’t care of fighting Israel: He was content on settling in Lebanon and control it politically. This warmonger Sharon aided the Lebanese of ridding them from a Palestinian army and helped us breath more freely.

War criminal posting his candidature to the Presidency of Lebanon: And this is Not the main topic

Samir Ga3gea, the “historically elected” leader of the Christian Lebanese Forces, and who served 11 years in a secluded prison for terrorist activities and assassination of political leaders, has officially submitted his candidacy to the Presidency of Lebanon.

Samir is not the only criminal who submitted his candidacy and was elected.

Late Beshir Gemayel was elected president in 1982 under the Israeli occupation of Beirut. And Beshir is many fold a worse war criminal during the civil war than Samir. And Bashir was a confirmed traitor who blatantly and frequently visited Israel and formally demanded the aid of Israel to occupy Lebanon.

Before Beshir, another criminal was President of Lebanon: the late Suleiman Franjieh (grandad of current Suleiman Franjieh) massacred over 40 people in a church in the 1950’s. He was elected by a single majority vote against a clean and honest candidate.

This post is not meant to delve into details of war crimes in Lebanon, and the list is long for every war lord of each religious sect, such as the current Parliament Chairman Nabih Berry, the Druze leader Walid Jumblat…

The topic of this article is “what could have happened if Beshir Gemayel was not assassinated in September 14, 1982, a single day before the official ceremony inducting him as president of the Republic of Lebanon?”

What if he governed for at least a year before being assassinated?

Probably:

1. Israel would not have entered West Beirut

2. The genocide in the Palestinian camps of Sabra and Chatila would have taken place

3. Israel would have retreated to the 40 km “buffer zone” in the south, far quicker than it did, after the fighters of the Palestinian Resistance Movement (PLO) were evacuated from Lebanon.

4. The massacres in the Chouf province between the Christians and the Druze would not have happened (Samir Geaja and his militias (The Lebanese Forces) entered the Chouf at the instigation of Israel)

4. The massacres in East Saida between the Christians and the Sunnis would have been spared (Samir Geaja militias entered the Saida province at the instigation of Israel)

5. The thousands of new Christian refugees to the Christian canton would not have fled their towns and villages

6. The division of Lebanon into sectarian cantons would have been slower in the formation

7. The regular army would have assisted the UN forces in the south and the militias associated with Israel would have been disbanded.

8. A “peace treaty” with Israel would have been ratified with better terms than what was written during Amine Gemayel tenure and which failed to be ratified.

9. The Syrian troops would have stayed in the Bekaa Valley and refrained from approaching Beirut.

10. The sieges and massacres perpetrated against the Palestinian camps by the Amal militias of Nabih Berry (instigated by Syria) would have been delayed, at best.

11. The civil war would have taken another turn and saved Lebanon further deeper chasm among the sectarian forces

12. The Druze militias of Walid Jumblat would not have invested Mazra3a in Beirut with their tanks

13. Amine Gemayel would not have been elected president and the Lebanese currency would not have devalued quickly to 1,500 times less

14. The second largest city of Tripoli would not have turned extremist Islamist, and the secular parties of the Communists and Syrian National Social would have stronger presence in that city

15. Yasser Arafat might not have returned to Tripoli and re-armed the Palestinian camps and cause thousands to be killed during two months of siege.

16. And most likely Samir Geaja would not have ended up leader of the Lebanese Forces militia and left trails of calamities for the Christian population everywhere he got engaged militarily

In hindsight, which governments or political organizations were behind the planning of the assassination of Bashir Gemayel? Israel, Syria, the Palestinian Resistance, any of the Lebanese resistance factions…

Mind you that Islamic Iran was engaged in a protracted war with Iraq of Saddam Hussein that lasted 9 long years of savage fighting.  The cease fire for that war was decided by Ayatolla Khomeini as he learned that he had a few months to live: He decided to extend a survival breathing space for his Islamic regime that was on the verge of collapse.

Question: Would Hezbollah be created?

Yes.

1. Hezbollah would have been instituted simply because the question of Palestine opens the door wide to Islamist Iran to tamper with our internal affairs. The peace treaty would have been an excellent excuse to rally the Shiaa around Iran positions.

2. The frequent tampering of Israel in South Lebanon would have inevitably alienated the Shiaa against the Israeli occupiers.

These sweet Lebanese Christians kiss the hands of ladies and commit the worst of atrocities...”

The war crimes of Ariel Sharon are no less horrible than the crimes committed by Isaac Rabin, Shimon Peres and Golda Meir. (Asaad Bu Khalil angryarab.blogspot.com)
The worst crimes against humanity were committed during the invasion of Lebanon in 1982. The Lebanese political system has been trying hard to obliterate this criminal period from its educational program.
In his autobiography “The Warrior“, Ariel Sharon wrote:
“I came to Lebanon to have a feeling on the ground on the seriousness of the Christian Lebanese Forces intention and readiness to supporting our troops for our planned invasion of Lebanon in 1982.
I had met with Bashir Gemayel in Jerusalem, in one of his frequent visits to Israel asking for aid when I was minister of agriculture, and I sensed his determination and potentials.
I needed to pay a visit to the leaders of the Christian Forces in their homes and in their environment to acquire a better sense of adhesion to the planned invasion of 1982.
Bashir invited me to visit him in Jounieh and wanted me to meet with his father Pierre and other leaders. He also announced that a highly important Israeli personality will meet with him in early January.
When I landed from the helicopter, Bashir hugged me, as Arabs do, and said: “I knew it would be you that Israel will send to meet with me”.
After dinner, Bashir asked me: “What are we expected to do when you enter Lebanon?”
I said:
First, you must be able to hold on your land. Otherwise, there is nothing we can do if you lose your land.
Second, you see that hill? It is the Yarseh Hill overlooking the Defense Ministry. You must occupy it quickly as we enter.
Third, we are not entering West Beirut. Beirut is a Capital with embassies and ministries, and we are not about to be embarrassed with more troubles than we can handle. West Beirut is your responsibility and the Lebanese army to occupy.
I toured the Christian Mount Lebanon villages, riding in Bashir’s Mercedes that had a telephone, a facility we didn’t have in Israel. The people applauded us on the street while the Lebanese army passed by us and waved to us. Beshir even stepped out of the car to return the congratulation of the citizens: He certainly was very popular.
After a long day of visiting various villages and the civil war demarcation lines, I arrived at the house of Bashir in Ashrafieh. His wife Solange was waiting for us. I realized later on that she had a strong personality.
Solange prepared a copious dinner and the invitees ate in western style. Present were Pierre Gemayel (the father) and former President Camille Chamoun. Both of them were pretty old but still sharp up there.
Pierre was tall, slim and a perfect aristocrat. Chamoun was shorter and heavier but cooler and comfortable in our presence.
At coffee time, Pierre hoarded the talk in perfect French and a Mossad aid was translating to me into Hebrew. Pierre was crying slowly and whining on the losses and bloodshed they had suffered.
I looked at Chamoun who felt very disturbed by Pierre’s behavior and whispered in his ear in Arabic to get hold of himself.
They explained to me the election process for the Presidency and how many votes in the Parliament they need to secure… I told them that Israel is intent on securing its northern borders with Lebanon. As for the Presidency they have to rely on themselves with a small push from us in order to re-establish security and stability. We wanted a “peace treaty” with Lebanon and they have to be able to deliver on their promises.
Camile Chamoun got to the point and explained that a separate peace treaty will be an insurmountable obstacle due to the close business links with the Arab World and the presence of the huge number of Lebanese working in the Arab countries.  However, Pierre was more conciliatory on the potential for this treaty in the future.
I told them to start weaving close ties with the Shiaa and Druze sects. The Druze have never been enemies to Israel and the Shiaa were extremely upset with the Palestinian armed presence in the south.  I didn’t press on the topic of the possibility of Israel supplying the Shiaa with some weapons.
I emphasized that the Sunnis are not permanent enemies to Israel since we coexisted peacefully for two decades.
When I returned home in Israel, my wife Lily asked me: “What were your impressions?” I said: “These sweet Lebanese Christians kiss the hands of ladies and commit the worst of atrocities…
I related to Kamal Hassan Ali (Egypt counterpart during Sadat?) my visit to Lebanon and told him that the axe of Egypt, Tel Aviv and Beirut seems feasible.
My experience with Beirut is unimaginable. Cars were speeding with full horn on, the bars, restaurants and coffee shops plenty to crack… It seems that there was no civil wars for a stranger visiting Lebanon.  I was welcomed in a manner I joked that “if I needed political asylum anytime in the future, it is Lebanon that I’ll ask to stay in
I had visited Lebanon several times since then and I had the opportunity to know personally many of their personalities, writers, artists, poets and dailies.
After Bashir was elected president, I visited Bikfatya on September 12, 1982 and it was a very cheerful day: Hope and good expectation for stability were hovering among the invitees.
I had a chat with Beshir in private and tried to brush aside the negative impression that Menahem Begin had of Beshir, at their latest encounter in Naharia, two weeks ago. The chemistry between the old man and young man were missing.
Menahim told Beshir that he is not about to let go of Major Saad Haddad (the head of the Christian militia and part of the Lebanese army in south Lebanon) and Beshir was not about to reduce any of his prerogatives as President.  I was not about to let go of Saad Haddad too, but I comprehended the uneasiness of Beshir.
We discussed how to proceed with the “cleansing” of West Beirut of the “terrorists” (Palestinians and Lebanese), on account that should be the responsibility of the new Lebanese government.
I exposed the main points that Israel will propose in the peace treaty during the next meeting with our foreign minister Isaac Shamir on September 15. (Incredible, Beshir was to be officially inducted President on that day, and Israel would press for a meeting on that same day).
My meeting with Beshir lasted way after 1:30 am, and Solange had prepared a lavish dinner with all the dishes that I love.  She invited me and my children to pay a visit to the Presidential Palace once Beshir is in. She offered me an encrusted cherry box with Phoenician artifacts within.
Beshir volunteered to drive me personally to my chopper in Jounieh and I refused telling him: “These are crucial days and you should be very cautious in your travels and whereabouts”
(Beshir was assassinated on September 14 in the afternoon)
My meeting with Amine Gemayel (elder brother of Beshir) was lukewarm at best when I approached the proposed peace treaty.  During the burial ceremony of Beshir in Bikfaya, Amine was wearing a perfectly tailored white suit, shining snake shoes and his fingers were loaded with rings, and I realized that this “potential next President” will not be as easy and straightforward.
In January 1983, the poetess May Murr and her engineer husband Alfred Murr invited Lily and me. The streets were filled with welcoming people, though the government was less enthusiastic with my visit. (Amine Gemayel was elected President to replace his brother Beshir)…
Note 1: It is obvious from this autobiography that the invasion of Lebanon in 1982 was in full planning 6 months ahead of time and the intention was not to secure a buffer zone 40 km in south Lebanon. The plan was to advance toward the capital Beirut.
Over 20,000 Palestinian and Lebanese were killed and 3 fold that number fell injured and handicapped.  After the assassination of Bashir Gemayel, Sharon masterminded the genocide of the Palestinians in  the Sabra and Chatila camps, for 3 nights and 2 days, slaughtering 3,000 civilians in cold blood.
The camps had no Palestinian fighters, since they had been evacuated by sea a month earlier to Tunisia and Yemen.
The Israeli army had put siege around Beirut for 3 months, bombed the capital by air, land and sea and cut off power and water supply and prevented any foodstuff from entering.
Finally, the Israeli troops entered the Capital, robbed and looted all kinds of documents and artifacts. It was forced to retreat after 2 weeks with the increase of armed attacks against the Israeli checkpoints. They left by announcing in the streets “Stop shooting at us. We are leaving
The occupation of Israel lasted 25 years and they had to vacate in 2000 without any negotiations or preconditions. The Shiaa turned out to be fierce resistant fighters and Hezbollah is the main challenge to Israel further preemptive wars on Lebanon after the fiasco of July 2006 war.
Note 3: Part of the Arabic translation of Sharon’s autobiography

والترجمة هي من النص الإنكليزي لمذكّرات شارون وتبدأ بفترة التحضير للاجتياح الإسرائيلي في عام 1982): «وأنا أيضاً كنتُ أريد أن أرى لبنان بنفسي كي

آخذ شعوراً بالملموس عن الحالة على الأرض هناك، وخصوصاً من أجل فهم إذا كان هناك أي شيء ممكن توقّعه من القوّات اللبنانيّة المسيحيّة في حالة الحرب. وأنا كنتُ قد التقيتُ ببشير الجميّل للمرّة الأولى عندما كنتُ وزيراً للزراعة خلال واحدة من زياراته للقدس لبحث العون الذي كنّا نقدّمه (لهم). ولقد ترك عندي انطباعاً (إيجابيّاً) آنذاك على أنه رجل شاب مليء بالثقة بالنفس والعزم. تحدّث بإقناع وبسلطة، ولم يكن هناك شك بأنه كان قد أظهر قدرات قياديّة حقيقيّة. لكنني شعرتُ

بأن الطريقة الوحيدة لتقديم تقييم ملائم هو من خلال زيارته في موقعه، ولرؤية رجاله في منازلهم، ولرؤية عائلاتهم وقوّاتهم ومواقعهم لفهم كل شيء عن الرجل وعن ظروف حركته … وكان الجميّل قد دعاني بنفسه لزيارة لبنان للقائه، وللقاء والده، بيار الجميّل، وقادة آخرين. وقال إن الموقف المسيحي بات يزداد حراجة … وأعلمنا بأن «شخصيّة رفيعة جداً» ستصل (من إسرائيل) في أوائل كانون الثاني في عام 1982 … ووصلنا إلى جونية … وما إن ترجّلت من الطوّافة، عانقني بشير وقبّلني على الطريقة العربيّة وقال: «أنا عرفت أنك ستكون أنت الزائر، مع أنهم لم يعلموني، لكنني كنتُ متيقّناً من أنك ستكون أنتَ» … والتقط بشير النقاش الذي كان قد بدأ في ليلة أمس على العشاء وسأل: «في حالة الحرب، ماذا تتوقعون منّا؟»، في هذه الحالة، أوّل شيء يجب أن تفعلوه هو أن تدافعوا عن حدودكم هنا لأنكم يجب أن تعرفوا أننا لن نستطيع أن نسعفكم إذا كنتم ستخسرون الأرض شيئاً فشيئاً. ثانياً، أترون هذه التلّة هناك، تلّة وزارة الدفاع؟ هذه حيويّة. إذا اندلعت الحرب، سيطروا على التلّة (اليرزة) … ثالثاً، إسرائيل لن تدخل بيروت الغربيّة. هذه عاصمة، وحكومة وسفارات أجنبيّة. وجودنا هناك سيتسبّب بمشاكل سياسيّة معقّدة لنا. بيروت الغربيّة هي عملكم أنتم وعمل الجيش اللبناني
… بعد ذلك، تجوّلت في الجبل والخطوط المسيحيّة، في سيّارة المرسيدس الخاصّة ببشير، والتي كانت تحتوي على جهاز تلفون _ وهذا ما لم نكن نملكه نحن في تلك الأيّام. توقّفنا في قرية تلو الأخرى، وكان يشرح لي تاريخ وأهميّة كل منها. وفي كل مكان، كان الناس يتبيّنونه ويصفّقون، هاتفين باسمه، حتى إنه أوقف سيّارته وترجّل منها، فيما كانت وحدات من الجيش اللبناني تمرّ بمحاذاتنا، وكان الجنود يلوّحون ويهزجون. من الواضح أنّ الرجل كان معروفاً ومحبوباً. لا يمكن ألّا تترك هيبته والتعاطف معه أثراً (إيجابيّاً). وبعد يوم طويل في الجبل، رجعنا إلى منزل بشير في محلّة الأشرفيّة في بيروت. على الباب، انتظرتنا زوجته الجميلة، سولانج، التي تتمتّع بشخصيّة قويّة كما أدركت لاحقاً. وكان هناك والده بيار الجميّل وكميل شمعون، الرئيس الأسبق للبنان، وكلاهما كانا متقدّمين في السن مع رجاحة عقليّة
… كل شيء في منزل بشير وسولانج كان أنيقاً وبديعاً. وقُدّم لنا عشاء رائع، وكانت آداب المائدة للحاضرين مثاليّة، وتم التخاطب بأجمل لغة فرنسيّة. وكان الأب، بيار الجميّل، طويلاً نحيفاً مستقيماً وأرستقراطيّاً. شمعون كان أقصر وأسمن، وأكثر ارتياحاً … وبعد تقديم القهوة، بدأنا بالتصدّي لجملة مواضيع هامّة. وقام بيار الجميّل بمعظم الحديث في البداية، وبالفرنسيّة التي كان يترجمها لي إلى العبريّة واحد من جماعة الـ«موساد» بمعيّتي. وفيما كان هذا الرجل العجوز المتزمّت يصف الخسائر والدماء التي عانوها والمساعدة التي يطلبونها منّا، بدأ بالنحيب بصمت. ألقيتُ بنظري نحو وجه كميل شمعون ورأيتُ أنه كان متبرّماً من إظهار المشاعر. ومن خلال شفاه مقطّبة، همس للجميّل بالعربيّة: «ما تبكي» … وشرحوا لنا النظام الانتخابي (الرئاسي) وعدد الأصوات التي يحتاجون إليها لتعزيز حظوظ كسب موقع الرئاسة، وكيفيّة الحصول على الأصوات تلك … وقلتُ لو دخلنا نحن (إلى لبنان) فسندخل لحماية حدودنا الشمالية، لكن ستكون النتيجة قدرتكم على الحصول على فرصة لإعادة الحياة الطبيعيّة إلى لبنان. لكن هذا يتوقّف إلى حدّ كبير على السلام أو إجراء سلام بين إسرائيل ولبنان. وهنا قاطعني كميل شمعون ليقول إنه لا يعتقد أن بوسع أي حكومة لبنانيّة القدرة أو الرغبة على توقيع اتفاقيّة سلام مع إسرائيل. إن عمق العلاقات والمصالح الاقتصاديّة بينهم وبين العالم العربي، والعلاقة بين المصارف اللبنانيّة والمصارف العربيّة والعدد الكبير من اللبنانيّين العاملين في الشرق الأوسط والعلاقات التجاريّة ستمنعها. وإذا كان بيار الجميّل قد ترك عندي الانطباع بأن هناك إمكانيّة لإجراء سلام في مستقبل ما، فإن كميل شمعون كان أكثر تحفّظاً إزاء ذلك. وتحدّثنا أيضاً عن علاقات المسيحيّين بالطوائف الأخرى، وخصوصاً الشيعة والدروز. وكان اقتراحي أن يقوموا بمحاولة تقوية علاقاتهم بتلك الأقليّات الأخرى، حتى إنني طرحت إمكانيّة تحويل _ وإن بصورة رمزيّة _ بعض السلاح الذي نمدّه لهم إلى الشيعة، الذين كانوا يعانون من مشاكل كبيرة مع منظمة التحرير الفلسطينيّة. ومع أنني لم أخض في التفاصيل، فإنني لم أعتبر يوماً الشيعة كأعداء لإسرائيل على المدى البعيد، والدروز لم يكونوا أعداء (لنا) بأي صورة من الصور … كما أنني لم أكن أعتقد أن السنّة أعداء دائمون لنا بالضرورة. لقد تعايشوا معنا بسلام لأكثر من عقدَيْن من الزمن، وليس هناك من سبب للظن بأنه ليس بمستطاعهم ذلك من جديد … وعندما وصلت أخيراً إلى منزلي في تلك الليلة، كانت ليلي تنتظرني. «كيف وجدت اللبنانيّين»، سألتني. «الانطباع الذي أخذته _ قلتُ لها _ أنهم قوم يقبّلون أيادي النساء
ويرتكبون الجرائم». وأخبرت (كمال) حسن علي عن الزيارة (إلى لبنان) وتباحثنا في ما كنتُ أراه من شروط للسلام. وعبّرت عن وجهة نظري أن شبكة القدس _ القاهرة _ بيروت ليست فكرة مستحيلة، وأن تحقيق ذلك يمكنه أن يغيّر من وجه الشرق الأوسط» … مرّة أخرى، كانت العاصمة اللبنانيّة تجربة غير معقولة، لكن بعد زيارتي في كانون الثاني لم أكن متفاجئاً تماماً. كانت المطاعم والبارات لا تزال مزدحمة وكانت الحشود نفسها تتدفّق في الأرصفة المُضاءة بالـ«نيون»، بينما كانت السيّارات الصادحة بالزمامير تملأ الشوارع. لم يكن هناك من أي أثر يُذكر لجو الحرب. قلت لبشير: «أوتعرف. ظننت أنه ربما سيهرع الناس للقتال من أجل وطنهم، لكن انظر إلى هذا» … كان هذا (موضوع «انتشار النفوذ الإرهابي») واحداً من المواضيع التي تباحثتُ فيها مع الرئيس المنتخب بشير الجميّل في منزله في بكفيّا في 12 أيلول (1982). وكنت قد قمت حتى ذلك الوقت بزيارات عديدة للبنان، إلى درجة أنني بتّ أعرف الصحافة المحليّة والكتّاب والنخبة المثقّفة وأقمت علاقات مع عدد من اللبنانيّين الموهوبين والمميّزين. ومع الفرحة التي صاحبت طرد منظمة التحرير الفلسطينيّة، كنت أجد نفسي محاطاً بمئات من المُبارِكين المُبتهِجين. وكان الترحيب بي في بيروت كبيراً، إلى درجة أنني أكثر من مرّة مازحتُ أصدقاء هناك أنني إذا أحتجتُ إلى اللجوء السياسي فإن لبنان سيكون اختياري الأوّل. وكانت الأجواء في بكفيا دافئة بصورة خاصّة. كانت جماعة بشير، حول منزل عائلة الجميّل بجدرانه ذات الحجر القديم وأقواسه الأنيقة، مبتهجة بصورة خاصّة وكانت وجوههم مضاءة بالزهو والإعجاب بقائدهم. ومع اقتراب التنصيب، كان الترقّب يُظلّل سقف المنزل. شيء جديد كان على وشك الحدوث في لبنان، شيء مفعم بالأمل وإيجابي، للمرّة الأولى منذ أن أشعلت الحرب الأهليّة في عام درباً لا ينتهي من العنف. وكان بشير وسولانج فرحَيْن ومتحمسَيْن للتدشين (الرئاسي)، وملأ الغرفة شعور بالحميميّة، فيما جلستُ أنا وبشير للتحدّث في الخطوات التي سيتخذها كرئيس للجمهوريّة. وبالرغم من الدفء الشخصي، كنتُ مدركاً أن أوّل موضوع على جدول البحث كان في إزالة الشعور السلبي الذي تولّد بين بشير ومناحيم بيغن في اللقاء في نهاريا قبل أقل من أسبوعيْن. لم تكن الكيمياء بين الرجل المسنّ والرجل الشاب جيّدة. ومع أن فرص مستقبل العلاقات بين البلديْن كانت واعدة، فإن البحث في نهاريا تركّز لسبب من الأسباب على مواضيع الخلاف، وبالتحديد وضع الرائد سعد حدّاد بعد الحرب … وفي عالم الانقسامات اللبنانيّة المعقّد، كان حدّاد ينتمي إلى فريق مسيحي منافس لبشير الجميّل، ولم تكن العلاقة بين الرجليْن ودودة. وفي تلك الليلة في نهاريا، أوضح بيغن بشكل جلي أن إسرائيل لن تهجر صديقاً مُخلصاً لها، بينما لم يكن الرئيس المُنتخب حديثاً، بشير، في وارد تقديم أي تنازلات عن صلاحيّاته في الرئاسة التي سيتولّاها قريباً. كان اللقاء متوتّراً وتركه بشير ممتعضاً من محاولة رآها من بيغن للتدخّل في شؤون لبنان الداخليّة. ومثل بيغن، كنتُ مُلتزماً بالدفاع عن حدّاد، رجل قاتل معنا لسنوات. وقد تفهمتُ شعور بشير. وفيما جلسنا في منزله للحديث في تلك الليلة من 12 أيلول، حاولتُ جهدي لإزالة رواسب الغضب. وتحدّثنا بعدها في مواضيع أكثر عمقاً، وكان أوّلها موضوع الخطوات التي يجب أن تُتخذ لتنظيف بيروت الغربيّة من كوادر منظمة التحرير الفلسطينيّة لخلق مدينة مفتوحة وآمنة. لم يكن عند بشير أو عندي شك بأن قدرته على تشكيل حكومة مركزيّة مستقرّة مستحيل بوجود عاصمة مقسمة يمكنها أن تخلق بيئة خصبة لتوليد إعادة انطلاق لمنظمة التحرير. اتفقنا على أن في صالح بلدينا أن نتأكّد من انتزاع ما تبقّى من إرهابيّين من بيروت الغربيّة، على أن تقوم بذلك الحكومة اللبنانيّة بالتنسيق مع قوانا الأمنيّة. تحدّثنا في أمور كثيرة، كما تحدّثنا في مستقبل العلاقات بين لبنان وإسرائيل. وكنا في هذا الموضوع على اتفاق، آخذين في الاعتبار التحديات التي ستواجه بشير في تعزيز سلطته كرئيس للبنان المسلم كما للبنان المسيحي. اتفقنا على أنّ مفاوضات مباشرة يجب أن تبدأ عما قريب، وبدأنا بالتحدث في طبيعة اتفاقيّة السلام التي نودّ أن نتقدّم نحوها. ولعلمنا بأولويّة هذا الأمر، حدّدنا موعداً للقاء إضافي (يحضره وزير الخارجيّة، إسحق شامير) يوم 15 أيلول، أي بعد ثلاثة أيّام. الأمسية بدأت متأخرة، واستمرّ الحديث إلى ما بعد الواحدة بعد منتصف الليل بقليل، عندما دخلتْ سولانج لتدعونا الى عشاء خاص أعدّته هي على شرف المناسبة، ومليء بالأطباق التي تعلمُ هي أنني أحبّها. وعندما انتهينا من الأكل، قدّمت هي وبشير لي صندوقاً بديعاً منقوشاً من خشب الكرز وبداخله مجموعة من الأواني الفينيقيّة الزجاجيّة. كانت لحظة عاطفيّة. وبالرغم من المصاعب التي مررنا بها والتي لم نكن نتوقّعها، شاطرنا شعور في تلك اللحظة بأن البلد المُتشظّي يمكنه أن يستعيد عافيته. وعندما هممتُ بمغادرة المنزل في تلك الليلة، دعتني سولانج أنا وليلي والأولاد للقيام بزيارة مستفيضة للقصر الجمهوري بعد التنصيب. وأصرّ بشير على قيادة السيّارة لتوصيلي إلى الشاطئ حيث تنتظر الطوّافة. «لا تفعل»، قلتُ له. «لديك الكثير من الناس هنا الذين يستطيعون أن يقودوا السيّارة. عليك أن تكون أكثر حذراً، وخصوصاً الآن. أي شيء ممكن أن يحدث» …
خلال اللقاء التالي مع أمين (الجميّل)، تحدّثنا عن التطوّرات وعن احتمال استمرار المفاوضات. لم ألمس حماسة من أمين، لكن من الصعوبة معرفة ذلك. ومع أن جنازة بشير كانت قد جرت للتوّ، كان أمين يرتدي بزة بيضاء جميلة، ومُحاكة بمهارة. وكانت أصابعه مثقلة بالخواتم المذهبة وكان ينتعل حذاءً لمّاعاً من جلد الأفعى. نظرت إليه وأدركت أن أياماً صعبة ستكون أمامنا. وفيما كنا في موضوع (صبرا وشاتيلا)، همس أحدهم في أذني: أنتم اليهود، أنتم مجانين. أنتم شعب مجنون». وفي كانون الثاني (من عام 1983)، زرتُ أنا وليلي بيروت كضيوف لشاعرة لبنان العظيمة، مي المرّ، وزوجها المهندس المعماري، ألفرد المرّ. وكالعادة، كانت حشود الشوارع حماسيّة (نحوي) للغاية. لكن حكومتهم كانت أقل حماسة بكثير منهم على مر الأشهر المنصرمة». هذا الفصل المشين من تاريخ لبنان يجب أن يكون معروفاً ومدروساً. والرجل كتب في وصف كورنيش المزرعة على أنّه شارع عريض يفصل بين «الأحياء الإرهابيّة». (ص 503)
ووصف «الأحياء الإرهابيّة» ينطلق من عقليّة صهيونيّة كلاسيكيّة تعاملت مع المدنيّين العرب منذ بدء الهجرة الصهيونيّة على أنهم دخلاء على الإنسانيّة ويجوز هدر دمهم بشتّى الوسائل. لا تخفي سيَر أرييل شارون المنشورة في الغرب أنّ الرجل كان يرسل السيّارات المُفخّخة (يضحك جوني عبده عندما يُسأل إذا كان هو أيضاً يُرسل سيّارات مُفخّخة إلى بيروت الغربيّة في تلك الحقبة) من أجل زيادة الضغط على المدنيّين المحاصرين (انظر صفحة 166 من كتاب أنيتا ميلر وزملائها، «شارون: المُحارب _ السياسي لإسرائيل»). لكن علاقة شارون بقادة وكتّاب ومثقّفين في لبنان مرّت من دون حساب أو محاكمة، ويتحمّل مسؤوليّة ذلك أيضاً من لا يزال يزهو بأن «ضربة كف» لم تصاحب الانسحاب الذليل لقوّات العدوّ الإسرائيلي من أرض لبنان. لم تتعامل المقاومة الفرنسيّة بضربات كف مع أعوان الاحتلال النازي. * كاتب عربي (موقعه على الإنترنت: angryarab.blogspot.com

 

“Peace treaty”: Paris, 1919; (Nov. 14, 2009)

I watched a documentary on the French channel TV5 this Thursday, Nov. 12, 2009. The documentary was relating and commenting on the 5 months that dragged on before the most lousy “peace treaty” was finally signed to end WWI.

The chiefs of the main 5 nations who won in the First World War sat around in Paris to discuss how to partition the world.  The government chiefs were: USA (Wilson), Britain (Lloyd George), France (Clemenceau), Italy, and Japan.  Germany had ceased fire; the Kaiser, “Emperor Guillaume“, is settled in the Netherlands.  Turkey is declared defeated as ally to Germany.

Every delegation from all over the world, when allowed, was given 10 minutes to expose his case and demands.  Ho Chi Minh (from Viet Nam) was refused an appointment; he will later defeat the French in 1954 and then the US forces in 1973.

Wilson wanted to discuss establishing a world organization of State of Nations to prevent further military escalations; the other four leaders were trying hard to convince Wilson that they are not against this idea but there are more urgent matters to resolve at this junction.

The four other leaders wanted to redraw world’s borders; cartographers spent 5 months redrawing borders.  Wilson wanted the people to decide and vote for their destiny; the other four leaders tried hard to educating Wilson on pragmatic procedures.

In the meantime, Communism was spreading everywhere in Europe and the USA.  The “Spanish flu” had decimated 20 millions in Europe and America (it was called the “Spanish flu” simply because it was the Spanish press that divulged this scourge that States were trying to keep under cover).

Soldiers were returning from the war front at the pace of 100,000 each month; I see one-legged soldiers hoping around in a baseball game and their companions laughing and having good time. Soldiers were returning home to experience famine, miseries, and desolate institutions to take care of business.

The world’s “five leaders” are smoking cigars and pipes and looking mightily serious. Lloyd George wanted 300 billions in gold for war reparation from Germany; his financial counselor, the famous Keynes, is steadfastly suggesting agreeing on 10 billions for material damages on the ground that Germany could barely pay even that amount; Lloyd George had plenty of time to get practical at this stage.

Wilson does not want any reparations and the other four leaders are fuming because it was not the US that lost millions of dead and injured soldiers and civilians in the war.

Clemenceau wants

1. to recover the Alsace and Loraine in addition to

2.  La Sarre region, rich in coal production, in Germany, in order to exploit for 15 years as war reparation.

The Italian President just wants a port on the Adriatic Sea as an advanced post to check any resurgence of hostility but the other leaders adamantly refused his wish.

A Germany delegation of over 110 individuals arrives in Paris to deal a peace treaty.

The train is made to stop first in Verdun where 450,000 soldiers on both sides died. This delegation is typing reams of legal papers claiming that they are not the only culprit for starting the war.

The vanquishers have no time to read the German side of view: they want Germany to admit that it is the sole bad party and that it had lost the war. The Germans are upset: why discuss a peace treaty if the other party has already made his mind?

The German delegation refused the humiliating peace deal and the war was on the verge of resuming.  The German sank their merchant marine in order not to be captured by the allies.

Clemenceau is furious because he could not convince Lloyd George to jointly board these ships to avoid sabotage.

By now, Wilson is totally worn out and more hawkish than even Clemenceau. In the last 5 days before the refusal of Germany to sign the humiliating peace treaty Lloyd George had second thoughts: if Germany is completely humiliated then any demy-god would take power and start another war.

Lloyd George also needed to trade goods with a strong Germany. What Keynes suggested as reasonable reparation of 10 billions in gold is fine with Lloyd; Germany does not need to admit that it lost the war.

The problem was how to convince Wilson after manipulating him for five month on pragmatic politics. Wilson is adamant: Germany has to understand that it lost the war; period!  The German Chancellor resigned and another peace delegation arrived in Paris and signed the treaty in Versailles. Wilson could go home to face major downturns.

The Italian President lost the election and could not attend the peace signing ceremony: Mussolini was on the rise.

The American Congress refused the plan of Wilson for establishing the Society of Nations.

China and Japan were not satisfied; Japan will invade China in 1935 and capture Korea as a colony.

While the leaders in Paris were discussing dividing the world into mandated colonies, Wilson’s concept of people deciding on their future destiny by vote went down the drain as the months eroded his determination into “pragmatic” attitudes.

Clemenceau got just what he asked La Sarre. and Poland recaptured a region in Germany with the Danzig port.

The Middle East people want independence from Turkey that lost the war. No problems.

Turkey is to lose the eastern region for an independent Armenia, the western region for Greece, including the city of Izmir, and the southern region under French mandate. The army of Mustapha Kemal “Ataturk” will recapture all the lands taken out of Turkey, including the Syrian land of Antaquia and Iskandaroun.

Hussein of Mecca has many children. One of them by the named of Faissal is appointed King to Syria and Lebanon. Another by the name of Abdullah is appointed King to Jordan. A third is appointed King to Iraq, I think: I am confused.

Wilson sent a delegation to gather field intelligence on the wishes of the people. Clemenceau and Lloyd George had another plan: they partition the Middle East between them.

France is to have mandate on Syria, Lebanon, and “Antaquia” in Turkey that Syria claimed to be part of its lands.  England is to have mandate on Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine. There were barely 5,000 immigrant Jews in Palestine at the time.

Clemenceau sent a French army to depose King Faissal and govern his “mandated people”.

Mount Lebanon is split from Syria and more lands are attached to Lebanon so that it might have the illusion of agricultural “self-sufficiency”.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

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