Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Political Islam

Is Political Islam at Odds With Democracy? What types of democracy again?

 Egypt’s top military commander, Gen. Abdul-Fattah el-Sisi, went on the air Sunday to defend the army’s decision to oust Mohamed Morsi, the country’s first democratically elected president, on July 3.

“The armed forces remained committed to what it considered the legitimacy of the ballot box until this presumed legitimacy moved against its own purpose,” General el-Sisi said. “The Egyptian people were concerned that the tools of the state could be used against them. The armed forces had to make a choice, seeing the danger of deepened polarization.”

The general said that the military had offered Mr. Morsi the option of a referendum on whether he should stay in power, but that the deeply unpopular president had refused.

YOUSSEF RAKHA published  on the Opinion Pages of the NYT this July 15, 2013 “Egypt Shows How Political Islam Is at Odds With Democracy”

CAIRO — Painful as it was to see the democratic process interrupted so soon after the revolution that overthrew the longtime autocrat Hosni Mubarak in 2011, the military’s action was necessary. At its most blatant level, there was no way that Mr. Morsi and his affiliates in the Muslim Brotherhood were going to leave power willingly, no matter the severity of the civil discontent over the president’s efforts to consolidate his power while mismanaging major problems from fuel shortages to rising inflation.

Like it or not, the military is the core of Egypt’s deeply bureaucratic state apparatus.

But the army, always a major political player, has seldom interfered with politics unless forced to. Just as the army pushed out Mr. Mubarak in 2011, so it forced out Mr. Morsi when it seemed like the Egyptian state might very well cease to exist. At risk were not only basic amenities but also control of the borders, notably with the Hamas-dominated Gaza Strip, and diplomatic failures regarding Ethiopia’s plans to build a new dam on the Nile, Egypt’s long-term water supply.

The Brotherhood managed to antagonize every arm of the state as well as much of the business sector. In seeking office, it sold subsidized foodstuffs and fuel at reduced prices, or distributed them free of charge. It seemed clueless as power cuts and gas shortages became the norm.

The wiles and guile of Islamic fundamentalism were given free reign as never before, threatening not only republican norms but the spiritual wellbeing of the average moderate, and presumably pro-democracy, Sunni Muslim on the street.

The legacy of the Morsi episode may sadly be that in the Middle East, democracy and political Islam “don’t mix.”

They don’t mix not only in theoretical terms — the Umma (or community of believers) vs. the modern nation state; the sect vs. the citizen; Islamic morality vs. individual liberties — but also because political Islam gives political cover to all that is undemocratic in an Arab society.

Under Mr. Morsi, jihadists blew up the export gas pipelines on the Sinai Peninsula with relative impunity.

Indeed, when militants went so far as to abduct military personnel, Mr. Morsi expressed concern for both the abductors and abductees. (The kidnap victims were later released.) Members of unofficial Saudi-style religious police forces could kill a young man for taking a walk with his girlfriend. Women who did not wear the hijab could be subjected to discrimination and sexual harassment — not to mention having their hair forcibly cut with scissors on public transportation and in school. The despicable practice of child marriage threatened to resurge.

In the dysfunctional Parliament, Islamist members focused on such issues as legalizing female genital mutilation and banning the teaching of foreign languages in state schools.

A controversial Salafi preacher, Abu Islam, defaced a Christian Bible to make his sectarian point. (He was ordered to pay a fine.) Meanwhile, in southern Egypt, a Coptic Christian schoolteacher, Dimyana Abdel-Nour, was tried on trumped-up charges of attacking Islam in the classroom. She paid a much larger fine, and her case is still open.

(Four Egyptian Shias were thrown from their balcony and dragged in the street…)

A glaring example of the Brotherhood’s sectarianism occurred at a Syria Solidarity Conference convened by Mr. Morsi on June 15. What at first seemed like a fascist-style pro-Morsi rally quickly devolved into a hate-speech bonanza against the Alawite regime of President Bashar al-Assad of Syria. A number of popular Wahhabi preachers, like Mohamed Hassan and Mohamed Abdel Maqsoud, not only complained of Mr. Morsi’s earlier, tentative rapprochement with Iran, but also frothed at the mouth as they openly identified the Shiites with all evil. Mr. Morsi may not have been directly responsible, but he did nothing to prevent it.

On June 23, a mini-pogrom took place in which Hassan Shehata, a leader of Egypt’s tiny homegrown Shiite community, was dragged through the streets in his village outside Cairo, and then killed, along with three of his followers. Not a peep from Mr. Morsi.

To say that the events of the past month cannot be described as a coup — contrary to the position of some Western democratically obsessed political observers — should in no way imply a pro-military position. The generals are not eager to govern directly and they fear Western censure (and the possible cessation of American military aid), as well as the Islamists’ continuing political power, as demonstrated by ongoing pro-Morsi protests. What happens next is an open question.

What is no longer an open question is how Washington’s role in propping up political Islam is more likely to result in the death and discontent of Muslims. The Obama administration, which has largely stayed on the sidelines as our crisis has unfolded, must recognize that Islamic fundamentalism will always be more of a problem than a solution.

Youssef Rakha, a writer, journalist and photographer, is the author of the forthcoming novel “The Crocodiles.”

Note: I disagree that the US stayed on the sideline https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2013/07/16/why-the-usa-is-playing-it-fuzzy-in-egypt-after-the-upheaval-of-2011/

Political Islam: Any demonstration of democratic turn-over of power?

“After Tunisia revolution, I returned to my homeland.  I am moving from one group to another on Bourguiba Avenue, listening to heated conversations.  All political spectrum are concatenated here and have their speakers.

Secular tendencies are dominant. But, in every circle, there is someone defending an Islamic perspective for transforming democracy into an Islamic alternative democracy. The far more organized Islamic party of Nahda dispatch experienced members to calm down recalcitrant civic citizens, by claiming that the Islamists are for democracy, that they are ready to discuss all opinions, even Marxist and atheist positions.

Islamic party of Nahda monopolizes the passion and militant techniques among the youth who were the real power behind the Jasmin Revolution.  The middle class citizens who made the uprising a success claim to be basically apolitical, in the sense of caring that much of political issues and discussions…Middle class Tunisians think that they can resume their engagement through social platform means…

The Islamists Nahda keep announcing that they completely adhere to democratic principles, that they evolved, that they are emulating the Turkish AKP of Recep Tayyip Erdogan…  The question is: “How they comprehend democracy to mean, and how far are they willing to share power or turn over power if the votes are not to their favor?”

The Islamists in Turkey of Erdogan, ten years in power, have not yet demonstrated that they are willing to hand over power, in case they fail.  How can they fail in an Islamic country?  Ever since they got in power, they are in the ascendance after each election.  Secular forces managed to retain power under the guise of preserving the Republic.  All is right for preserving the Republic, even bashing and flaunting human rights, freedom of expressions and of gathering; such as in Turkey, Syria, Egypt, Tunisia, Yemen, Iraq…

So far, Turkish Islamists of the AKP have not demonstrated any application of democracy, but persevered with the former Republican concept that governed Turkey for over 50 Years.  The sticky issues of minorities in Turkey are there to find any agreeable resolution.  For example, the Kurds (20% of the population), the Alawit sect (15%), the Armenians (Turkey still refuses to apologize for the genocide committed in 1915-16)…

It would be hard to be convinced of the democratic evolution in Turkey Islamists until they recognize the identities of the Kurds, the Alawit, the diversity of languages and dialects, the anthropological particularities.  The experiment of Turkey is not achieved, and it cannot be reclaimed as a successful alternative for Tunisia democratic principle and style.”

It is my contention that the best test for democracy in Tunisia, Egypt, and Syria to eek its head and have a chance to start its journey is that the clause “Islamic chari3a is the foundation of judicial system” be entirely dropped from Constitutions.  A referendum of such as draft constitution should be tested right away, before parliamentary and presidential election.  The people in the Middle East want to know this simple pre-requisite: “Do we have a chance for a democracy of the people, from the people, to the people?”

Syria of Bashar al Assad can turn the table around in order to complete his term by putting to referendum a draft constitution that eliminates the “Chari3a clause” and the clause that the Baath Party is the leading political party.

Note:  Article inspired by the French book “Tunisia Spring revolution: Metamorphosis of history” by Abdelwahab Meddeb


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

October 2020
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