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Posts Tagged ‘psilocybin

What is myth? Any links among psychedelics and psychosis?

Note: A re-edit of article of 2015 by Zoe Cormier and Nature magazine

A large U.S. survey found that users of LSD and similar drugs were no more likely to have mental-health conditions than other respondents. No Link Found between Psychedelics and Psychosis?
Fears that psychedelics can lead to psychosis date to the 1960s, with widespread reports of “acid casualties” in the mainstream news.
Credit: Chris Murtagh/Flickr
Data from population surveys in the United States challenge public fears that psychedelic drugs such as LSD can lead to psychosis and other mental-health conditions and to increased risk of suicide.
Two studies have found No links.
In the first study, clinical psychologists Pål-Ørjan Johansen and Teri Suzanne Krebs, both at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, scoured data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual random sample of the general population, and analysed answers from more than 135,000 people who took part in surveys from 2008 to 2011.Of those, 14% described themselves as having used at any point in their lives any of the three ‘classic’ psychedelics: LSD, psilocybin (the active ingredient in so-called magic mushrooms) and mescaline (found in the peyote and San Pedro cacti),the researchers found that individuals in this group were Not at increased risk of developing 11 indicators of mental-health problems such as schizophrenia, psychosis, depression, anxiety disorders and suicide attempts.Their paper appears in the March issue of the Journal of Psychopharmacology.

The findings are likely to raise eyebrows.

Krebs says that because psychotic disorders are relatively prevalent, affecting about one in 50 people, correlations can often be mistaken for causations.

Psychedelics are psychologically intense, and many people will blame anything that happens for the rest of their lives on a psychedelic experience.

The three substances Johansen and Krebs looked at all act through the brain’s serotonin 2A receptor.

The authors did not include ketaminePCP, MDMA, fly agaric mushrooms, DMT or other drugs that fall broadly into the category of hallucinogens, because they act on other receptors and have different modes of biochemical action.

Ketamine and PCP, for example, act on the NMDA receptor and are both known to be addictive and to cause severe physical harms, such as damage to the bladder.

“Absolutely, people can become addicted to drugs like ketamine or PCP, and the effects can be very destructive. We restricted our study to the ‘classic psychedelics’ to clarify the findings,” says Johansen.

The ‘acid casualty’ myth

“This study assures us that there were not widespread ‘acid casualties’ in the 1960s,” says Charles Grob, a paediatric psychiatrist at the University of California, Los Angeles. He has long has advocated the therapeutic use of psychedelics, such as administering psilocybin to treat anxiety in terminal-stage cancer. But he has concerns about Krebs and Johansen’s overall conclusions, he says, because individual cases of adverse effects use can and do occur.

For example, people may develop hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD), a ‘trip’ that never seems to end, involving incessant distortions in the visual field, shimmering lights and coloured dots.

“I’ve seen a number of people with these symptoms following a psychedelic experience, and it can be a very serious condition,” says Grob.

Krebs and Johansen, however, point to studies that have found symptoms of HPPD in people who have never used psychedelics.

The second of the new two studies, also published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, looked at 190,000 NSDUH respondents from 2008 to 2012.

It also found that the classic psychedelics were not associated with adverse mental-health outcomes. In addition, it found that people who had used LSD and psilocybin had lower lifetime rates of suicidal thoughts and attempts.

“We are not claiming that no individuals have ever been harmed by psychedelics,” says author Matthew Johnson, an associate professor in the Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

“Anecdotes about acid casualties can be very powerful—but these instances are rare,” he says.

At the population level, he says, the data suggest that the harms of psychedelics “have been overstated”.

This article is reproduced with permission and was first published on March 4, 2015.

Psychedelics and Psychosis: Any links?

No Link Found between Psychedelics and Psychosis?

A large U.S. survey found that users of LSD and similar drugs were no more likely to have mental-health conditions than other respondents
Fears that psychedelics can lead to psychosis date to the 1960s, with widespread reports of “acid casualties” in the mainstream news.
Credit: Chris Murtagh/Flickr

Data from population surveys in the United States challenge public fears that psychedelic drugs such as LSD can lead to psychosis and other mental-health conditions and to increased risk of suicide, two studies have found.In the first study, clinical psychologists Pål-Ørjan Johansen and Teri Suzanne Krebs, both at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, scoured data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual random sample of the general population, and analysed answers from more than 135,000 people who took part in surveys from 2008 to 2011.

Of those, 14% described themselves as having used at any point in their lives any of the three ‘classic’ psychedelics: LSD, psilocybin (the active ingredient in so-called magic mushrooms) and mescaline (found in the peyote and San Pedro cacti).

The researchers found that individuals in this group were not at increased risk of developing 11 indicators of mental-health problems such as schizophrenia, psychosis, depression, anxiety disorders and suicide attempts.

Their paper appears in the March issue of the Journal of Psychopharmacology.

The findings are likely to raise eyebrows.

Fears that psychedelics can lead to psychosis date to the 1960s, with widespread reports of “acid casualties” in the mainstream news. But Krebs says that because psychotic disorders are relatively prevalent, affecting about one in 50 people, correlations can often be mistaken for causations.

“Psychedelics are psychologically intense, and many people will blame anything that happens for the rest of their lives on a psychedelic experience.”

The three substances Johansen and Krebs looked at all act through the brain’s serotonin 2A receptor.

The authors did not include ketamine, PCP, MDMA, fly agaric mushrooms, DMT or other drugs that fall broadly into the category of hallucinogens, because they act on other receptors and have different modes of biochemical action.

Ketamine and PCP, for example, act on the NMDA receptor and are both known to be addictive and to cause severe physical harms, such as damage to the bladder.

“Absolutely, people can become addicted to drugs like ketamine or PCP, and the effects can be very destructive. We restricted our study to the ‘classic psychedelics’ to clarify the findings,” says Johansen.

The ‘acid casualty’ myth
“This study assures us that there were not widespread ‘acid casualties’ in the 1960s,” says Charles Grob, a paediatric psychiatrist at the University of California, Los Angeles. He has long has advocated the therapeutic use of psychedelics, such as administering psilocybin to treat anxiety in terminal-stage cancer. But he has concerns about Krebs and Johansen’s overall conclusions, he says, because individual cases of adverse effects use can and do occur.

For example, people may develop hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD), a ‘trip’ that never seems to end, involving incessant distortions in the visual field, shimmering lights and coloured dots. “I’ve seen a number of people with these symptoms following a psychedelic experience, and it can be a very serious condition,” says Grob.

Krebs and Johansen, however, point to studies that have found symptoms of HPPD in people who have never used psychedelics.

The second of the new two studies, also published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, looked at 190,000 NSDUH respondents from 2008 to 2012.

It also found that the classic psychedelics were not associated with adverse mental-health outcomes. In addition, it found that people who had used LSD and psilocybin had lower lifetime rates of suicidal thoughts and attempts.

“We are not claiming that no individuals have ever been harmed by psychedelics,” says author Matthew Johnson, an associate professor in the Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

“Anecdotes about acid casualties can be very powerful—but these instances are rare,” he says.

At the population level, he says, the data suggest that the harms of psychedelics “have been overstated”.

This article is reproduced with permission and was first published on March 4, 2015.

How you look on different drugs: Artist Self-Portraits

In what could be considered the craziest/most creative drug experiment ever, artist Bryan Lewis Saunders pushed himself to the limit when he decided to take a different drug every day for a few weeks.

Not only was he not sober, but he also drew a self-portrait of himself while under the influence of these drugs each day.

  posted this 

Artist Creates Self-Portraits On Different Drugs, And The Results Are Insane (Photos)

After all, there’s no doubt that this takes a toll on your body. From nicotine gum, to cocaine, to Zoloft, to PCP, Saunders did it all.

Nicotine gum

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-0

Klonopin

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-1

Dilaudid

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-2

Risperdal

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-3

Abilify

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-4

Trazodone

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-5

Hydrocodone/Oxycodone/Xanax

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-6

Abilify/ Xanax/Ativan

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-7

Absinthe

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-8

Adderall

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-9

Ambien

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-10-e1344527750588

Ativan/Haloperidol

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-11

Buspar

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-12

Butalbitals

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-13

Butane Honey Oil

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-14

Cephalexin

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-15

Cocaine

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-16

Computer duster

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-17

Cough syrup

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-18

Crystal Meth

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-19

Dilaudid/Morphine

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-20

Morphine IV

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-21

G13 Marijuana

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-22

Geodon

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-23

Hash

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-24

Huffing gas

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-25

Marijuana

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-26

Huffing lighter fluid

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-27

Loritab

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-28

Nitrous Oxide/Valium

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-29

Psilocybin mushrooms

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-30

Nitrous Oxide

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-31

PCP

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-32

Percocet

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-33

Pruno

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-34

Marijuana resin

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-35

Ritalin

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-36

Salvia Divinorum

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-37

Seroquel

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-38

Valium

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-39

Valium I.V.

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-40

Valium I.V./Albuterol

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-41

Xanax

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-42

Zoloft

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-43

Zyprexa

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-44

H/T: The Chive, Photos courtesy of Bryan Lewis Saunders

Marijuana

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-26

Valium I.V./Albuterol

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-41

Xanax

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-42

Zoloft

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-43

Zyprexa

self-portraits-different-drug-every-day-44

H/T: The Chive, Photos courtesy of Bryan Lewis Saunders

ANTHONY SELDEN

Anthony is a New York-based writer and a graduate of Johnson & Wales University with a passion for exploring the cooler things in life.

Always eager to inform, Anthony is the lifestyle editor at Elite Daily and is knowledgeable about pretty much anything within the walls of awesomeness: from the latest Lamborghini, to the most absurd burgers around.

He also enjoys spontaneous skateboarding sessions on New York City’s Upper East Side. Much like writing, it’s what keeps the guy alive.

Single magic mushroom ‘can change personality’ for the better?

A single dose of the chemical psilocybin (contained in a single magic hallucinogenic mushroom) may induce a person to witness mystical experience, after which this attitude of “openness” scores rises, and remains higher for up to a year after the tests.

What’s that openness attribute?

Experimental psychologists define Openness as associated with imagination, artistic appreciation, feelings, abstract ideas and general broad-mindedness.

One trait among the major 5 traits, such as extrovert, neurotics, agreeableness and conscientiousness.

What’s more, None of the other 4 traits was altered during the year.

All that from a single dose.

Question: What if a person is injected with 2 doses or more? Kind of inadvertently?

Matt Blake posted in The Independence on 30 September 2011:

Forty-five years after Timothy Leary, the apostle of drug-induced mysticism, urged his hippie followers to “turn on, tune in and drop out”, researchers have found that magic mushrooms do change a user’s personality – for the better.

The fungi have long been known for their psychedelic effects, but far from damaging the brain, the hallucinogenic drug they contain enhances feelings and aesthetic sensibilities, scientists say.

The study, at Johns Hopkins University of Medicine in Baltimore, found that a single dose of psilocybin, the active ingredient in magic mushrooms, was enough to cause positive effects for up to a year.

“Psilocybin can facilitate experiences that change how people perceive themselves and their environment. That’s unprecedented.” said Roland Griffiths, a study author and professor of psychiatry and behavioural science at Johns Hopkins.

Users who had a “mystical experience” while taking the drug showed increases in a personality trait dubbed “openness”, one of the 5 major traits used in psychology to describe human personality.

Openness is associated with imagination, artistic appreciation, feelings, abstract ideas and general broad-mindedness.

None of the other 4 traits – extroversion, neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness – was altered.

Under controlled scientific conditions, researchers gave 51 adults either psilocybin or a placebo in up to five 80-hour sessions. They were told to lie on a sofa with their eyes covered and listen to music while focusing on an “inner experience”.

Their personalities were screened after each drug session and also about a year later.

Of the 51 subjects, 30 had a mystical experience, after which their openness scores rose, and remained higher for up to a year after the tests.

The 21 who did not have a mystical experience showed no change.

Questions:

1. Can I deduce that the advent of a mystical experience expands the awareness of individuals to recognize differences and interactions in the environment?

2. Would more than a single dose affect negatively anyone of the 5 traits?

3. Would two doses extend the effects longer than one year?

4. If a person is prone to experience magical feeling, would hallucinogenic ingredients deteriorate his performance?

5. How addictive is magic mushroom?

6. If I add half the dose in a cigarette, what do you think might happen? Would addiction be switched from nicotine to psilocybin?


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