Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘reading

Now that you are reading

Bless this moment:

You are alive, hope is around the page

You’ll learn something, feel something, have doubt of something

Insurge, reflect, act and change something

 

Keeps Me Sane (1998)

      Reading keeps me sane. The time for enjoying a great book

Is still there, and always will be.

I always expect jewels on human relationship.

I like surprises which reveal feelings that I would never divulge

Either to a shrink or to anyone at my deathbed.

 

Feelings that reveal emotions I thought were my exclusive domain.

Puerile ideas that I would be ashamed to express,

Dangerous tendencies that I like to ignore.

 

The more I read, the more I am convinced that I am sane,

That everyone is sane given time to read as much,

That mankind shares every thought and emotion I can come up with.

 

Accepting that humbling knowledge needs time,

Time to reach a stage of vulnerability where life seems too complex,

For diminishing energy and forever growing dreams.

 

Run baby run, though you are sane and think otherwise.

Sink baby sink, though you are not much different than your neighbor.

 

Once I realized that all kinds of feelings are common to all,

What little work remained is a trifle to many.

It is a job you did all your life with no effort:

Acting normal.

 

Just act normal to all who cannot stand reading.

Why wait to be reincarnated, now and then,

Over thousands of years, as a new kind of animal?

Why not have a thousand human souls in a lifetime?

 

Every character in a story is You

Under different time, country, climate, class, birthrights, condition,

In different situations, social, political, financial and gender.

You span the whole gamut of human emotions

You are the good, the bad, the evil, the saint.

You are the rich, the poor, the nobleman, the peasant.

You are the genius, the idiot, the hardworking, and the fainéant.

 

Pick a well described character, good or evil.

Personify it and the story changes as you change,

Your heart and mind reedit the story as you change character

Because it could have been you; it is you indeed.

 

You can be everybody, everywhere and it is still a fact,

You are a changed person, many peoples in one.

Future depends on libraries, reading and daydreaming

It’s important for people to tell you what side they are on and why, and whether they might be biased. A declaration of members’ interests, of a sort.

I am going to be talking to you about reading. I’m going to tell you that libraries are important. I’m going to suggest that reading fiction, that reading for pleasure, is one of the most important things one can do.

I’m going to make an impassioned plea for people to understand what libraries and librarians are, and to preserve both of these things.

 15 October 2013

And I am biased, obviously and enormously: I’m an author, often an author of fiction. I write for children and for adults.

For about 30 years I have been earning my living though my words, mostly by making things up and writing them down. It is obviously in my interest for people to read, for them to read fiction, for libraries and librarians to exist and help foster a love of reading and places in which reading can occur.

So I’m biased as a writer. But I am much more biased as a reader. And I am even more biased as a British citizen.

I’m here giving this talk tonight, under the auspices of the Reading Agency: a charity whose mission is to give everyone an equal chance in life by helping people become confident and enthusiastic readers. Which supports literacy programs, and libraries and individuals and nakedly and wantonly encourages the act of reading. Because, they tell us, everything changes when we read.

And it’s that change, and that act of reading that I’m here to talk about tonight. I want to talk about what reading does. What it’s good for.

I was once in New York, and I listened to a talk about the building of private prisons – a huge growth industry in America. The prison industry needs to plan its future growth – how many cells are they going to need? How many prisoners are there going to be, 15 years from now? And they found they could predict it very easily, using a pretty simple algorithm, based on asking what percentage of 10 and 11-year-olds couldn’t read. And certainly couldn’t read for pleasure.

It’s not one to one: you can’t say that a literate society has no criminality. But there are very real correlations

It’s tosh. It’s snobbery and it’s foolishness. There are no bad authors for children, that children like and want to read and seek out, because every child is different. They can find the stories they need to, and they bring themselves to stories.

A hackneyed, worn-out idea isn’t hackneyed and worn out to them. This is the first time the child has encountered it. Do not discourage children from reading because you feel they are reading the wrong thing. Fiction you do not like is a route to other books you may prefer. And not everyone has the same taste as you.

We need our children to get onto the reading ladder: anything that they enjoy reading will move them up, rung by rung, into literacy.

Also, do not do what this author did when his 11-year-old daughter was into RL Stine, which is to go and get a copy of Stephen King’s Carrie, saying if you liked those you’ll love this! Holly read nothing but safe stories of settlers on prairies for the rest of her teenage years, and still glares at me when Stephen King’s name is mentioned. (An awkward sentence that I didn’t get)

And the second thing fiction does is to build empathy. When you watch TV or see a film, you are looking at things happening to other people. Prose fiction is something you build up from 26 letters and a handful of punctuation marks and you alone, using your imagination, create a world and people it and look out through other eyes. You get to feel things, visit places and worlds you would never otherwise know.

You learn that everyone else out there is a me, as well. You’re being someone else, and when you return to your own world, you’re going to be slightly changed.

Empathy is a tool for building people into groups, for allowing us to function as more than self-obsessed individuals.

You’re also finding out something as you read vitally important for making your way in the world. And it’s this:

The world doesn’t have to be like this. Things can be different.

I was in China in 2007, at the first party-approved science fiction and fantasy convention in Chinese history. And at one point I took a top official aside and asked him Why? SF had been disapproved of for a long time. What had changed?

It’s simple, he told me. The Chinese were brilliant at making things if other people brought them the plans. But they did not innovate and they did not invent. They did not imagine. So they sent a delegation to the US, to Apple, to Microsoft, to Google, and they asked the people there who were inventing the future about themselves. And they found that all of them had read science fiction when they were boys or girls.

Fiction can show you a different world. It can take you somewhere you’ve never been. Once you’ve visited other worlds, like those who ate fairy fruit, you can never be entirely content with the world that you grew up in. Discontent is a good thing: discontented people can modify and improve their worlds, leave them better, leave them different.

And while we’re on the subject, I’d like to say a few words about escapism. I hear the term bandied about as if it’s a bad thing. As if “escapist” fiction is a cheap opiate used by the muddled and the foolish and the deluded, and the only fiction that is worthy, for adults or for children, is mimetic fiction, mirroring the worst of the world the reader finds herself in.

If you were trapped in an impossible situation, in an unpleasant place, with people who meant you ill, and someone offered you a temporary escape, why wouldn’t you take it?

And escapist fiction is just that: fiction that opens a door, shows the sunlight outside, gives you a place to go where you are in control, are with people you want to be with and books are real places, make no mistake about that.

And more importantly, during your escape, books can also give you knowledge about the world and your predicament, give you weapons, give you armour: real things you can take back into your prison. Skills and knowledge and tools you can use to escape for real.

As JRR Tolkien reminded us, the only people who inveigh against escape are jailers.

Another way to destroy a child’s love of reading, of course, is to make sure there are no books of any kind around. And to give them nowhere to read those books. I was lucky. I had an excellent local library growing up.

(I patronize a supposedly private library that closes during holidays. When kids are supposed to visit a library? And I go to library because at home no one encourages to read)

I had the kind of parents who could be persuaded to drop me off in the library on their way to work in summer holidays, and the kind of librarians who did not mind a small, unaccompanied boy heading back into the children’s library every morning and working his way through the card catalogue, looking for books with ghosts or magic or rockets in them, looking for vampires or detectives or witches or wonders. And when I had finished reading the children’s’ library I began on the adult books.

They were good librarians. They liked books and they liked the books being read. They taught me how to order books from other libraries on inter-library loans. They had no snobbery about anything I read. They just seemed to like that there was this wide-eyed little boy who loved to read, and would talk to me about the books I was reading, they would find me other books in a series, they would help. They treated me as another reader – nothing less or more – which meant they treated me with respect. I was not used to being treated with respect as an eight-year-old.

But libraries are about freedom. Freedom to read, freedom of ideas, freedom of communication. They are about education, which is not a process that finishes the day we leave school or university, about entertainment, about making safe spaces, and about access to information.

I worry that here in the 21st century people misunderstand what libraries are and the purpose of them. If you perceive a library as a shelf of books, it may seem antiquated or outdated in a world in which most, but not all, books in print exist digitally. But that is to miss the point fundamentally.

I think it has to do with nature of information. Information has value, and the right information has enormous value. For all of human history, we have lived in a time of information scarcity, and having the needed information was always important, and always worth something: when to plant crops, where to find things, maps and histories and stories – they were always good for a meal and company. Information was a valuable thing, and those who had it or could obtain it could charge for that service.

In the last few years, we’ve moved from an information-scarce economy to one driven by an information glut. According to Eric Schmidt of Google, every two days now the human race creates as much information as we did from the dawn of civilisation until 2003.

That’s about five exobytes of data a day, for those of you keeping score. The challenge becomes, not finding that scarce plant growing in the desert, but finding a specific plant growing in a jungle. We are going to need help navigating that information to find the thing we actually need.

Libraries are places that people go to for information. Books are only the tip of the information iceberg: they are there, and libraries can provide you freely and legally with books. More children are borrowing books from libraries than ever before – books of all kinds: paper and digital and audio. But libraries are also, for example, places that people, who may not have computers, who may not have internet connections, can go online without paying anything: hugely important when the way you find out about jobs, apply for jobs or apply for benefits is increasingly migrating exclusively online. Librarians can help these people navigate that world.

I do not believe that all books will or should migrate onto screens: as Douglas Adams once pointed out to me, more than 20 years before the Kindle turned up, a physical book is like a shark. Sharks are old: there were sharks in the ocean before the dinosaurs. And the reason there are still sharks around is that sharks are better at being sharks than anything else is.

Physical books are tough, hard to destroy, bath-resistant, solar-operated, feel good in your hand: they are good at being books, and there will always be a place for them. They belong in libraries, just as libraries have already become places you can go to get access to ebooks, and audiobooks and DVDs and web content.

Literacy is more important than ever it was, in this world of text and email, a world of written information. We need to read and write, we need global citizens who can read comfortably, comprehend what they are reading, understand nuance, and make themselves understood.

Libraries really are the gates to the future. So it is unfortunate that, round the world, we observe local authorities seizing the opportunity to close libraries as an easy way to save money, without realising that they are stealing from the future to pay for today. They are closing the gates that should be open.

According to a recent study by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, England is the “only country where the oldest age group has higher proficiency in both literacy and numeracy than the youngest group, after other factors, such as gender, socio-economic backgrounds and type of occupations are taken into account”.

Or to put it another way, our children and our grandchildren are less literate and less numerate than we are. They are less able to navigate the world, to understand it to solve problems. They can be more easily lied to and misled, will be less able to change the world in which they find themselves, be less employable. All of these things. And as a country, England will fall behind other developed nations because it will lack a skilled workforce.

Books are the way that we communicate with the dead. The way that we learn lessons from those who are no longer with us, that humanity has built on itself, progressed, made knowledge incremental rather than something that has to be relearned, over and over. There are tales that are older than most countries, tales that have long outlasted the cultures and the buildings in which they were first told.

I think we have responsibilities to the future. Responsibilities and obligations to children, to the adults those children will become, to the world they will find themselves inhabiting. All of us – as readers, as writers, as citizens – have obligations. I thought I’d try and spell out some of these obligations here.

I believe we have an obligation to read for pleasure, in private and in public places. If we read for pleasure, if others see us reading, then we learn, we exercise our imaginations. We show others that reading is a good thing.

We have an obligation to support libraries. To use libraries, to encourage others to use libraries, to protest the closure of libraries. If you do not value libraries then you do not value information or culture or wisdom. You are silencing the voices of the past and you are damaging the future.

We have an obligation to read aloud to our children. To read them things they enjoy. To read to them stories we are already tired of. To do the voices, to make it interesting, and not to stop reading to them just because they learn to read to themselves. Use reading-aloud time as bonding time, as time when no phones are being checked, when the distractions of the world are put aside.

We have an obligation to use the language. To push ourselves: to find out what words mean and how to deploy them, to communicate clearly, to say what we mean. We must not to attempt to freeze language, or to pretend it is a dead thing that must be revered, but we should use it as a living thing, that flows, that borrows words, that allows meanings and pronunciations to change with time.

We writers – and especially writers for children, but all writers – have an obligation to our readers: it’s the obligation to write true things, especially important when we are creating tales of people who do not exist in places that never were – to understand that truth is not in what happens but what it tells us about who we are. Fiction is the lie that tells the truth, after all. We have an obligation not to bore our readers, but to make them need to turn the pages.

One of the best cures for a reluctant reader, after all, is a tale they cannot stop themselves from reading. And while we must tell our readers true things and give them weapons and give them armour and pass on whatever wisdom we have gleaned from our short stay on this green world, we have an obligation not to preach, not to lecture, not to force predigested morals and messages down our readers’ throats like adult birds feeding their babies pre-masticated maggots; and we have an obligation never, ever, under any circumstances, to write anything for children that we would not want to read ourselves

We have an obligation to understand and to acknowledge that as writers for children we are doing important work, because if we mess it up and write dull books that turn children away from reading and from books, we ‘ve lessened our own future and diminished theirs.

We all – adults and children, writers and readers – have an obligation to daydream. We have an obligation to imagine. It is easy to pretend that nobody can change anything, that we are in a world in which society is huge and the individual is less than nothing: an atom in a wall, a grain of rice in a rice field. But the truth is, individuals change their world over and over, individuals make the future, and they do it by imagining that things can be different.

Look around you: I mean it. Pause, for a moment and look around the room that you are in. I’m going to point out something so obvious that it tends to be forgotten. It’s this: that everything you can see, including the walls, was, at some point, imagined. Someone decided it was easier to sit on a chair than on the ground and imagined the chair. Someone had to imagine a way that I could talk to you in London right now without us all getting rained on.This room and the things in it, and all the other things in this building, this city, exist because, over and over and over, people imagined things.

We have an obligation to make things beautiful. Not to leave the world uglier than we found it, not to empty the oceans, not to leave our problems for the next generation. We have an obligation to clean up after ourselves, and not leave our children with a world we’ve shortsightedly messed up, shortchanged, and crippled.

We have an obligation to tell our politicians what we want, to vote against politicians of whatever party who do not understand the value of reading in creating worthwhile citizens, who do not want to act to preserve and protect knowledge and encourage literacy. This is not a matter of party politics. This is a matter of common humanity.

Albert Einstein was asked once how we could make our children intelligent. His reply was both simple and wise. “If you want your children to be intelligent,” he said, “read them fairy tales. If you want them to be more intelligent, read them more fairy tales.” He understood the value of reading, and of imagining. I hope we can give our children a world in which they will read, and be read to, and imagine, and understand.

This is an edited version of Neil Gaiman’s lecture for the Reading Agency, delivered on Monday October 14 at the Barbican in London.

The Reading Agency’s annual lecture series was initiated in 2012 as a platform for leading writers and thinkers to share original, challenging ideas about reading and libraries.

//

 

 

 

 

Speed reading: How and what for?

Why would you care to speed read?

Would care reading an Entire Harry Potter Book In Under 90 Minutes?

Would feel happy if your adviser read your entire thesis in a few minutes?

Would feel happy if your publisher read your draft manuscript in 3 minutes?

Are you planing to become a politician and flip quickly through thick reports?

What speed reading gives you is a really high speed of word in-take. It doesn’t make the processing of those words any faster. It’s like connecting a huge data pipe to a 486 processor. (see note 1)

Apparently there is this App that will train you to speed read.

Alexis Kleinman posted in The Huffington Post this Feb. 27, 2014

Main Entry Image

To get through the book that quickly (a pace of 1,000 words a minute) you’ll have to use an about-to-be released app and forgo the idea of reading page by page.

With Spritz, which is coming to the Samsung Galaxy S5 and Samsung Gear 2 watch, words appear one at a time in rapid succession.

This allows you to read at speeds of between 250 and 1,000 words per minute. The typical college-level reader reads at a pace of between 200 and 400 a minute. (Even with a PhD degree and being a voracious reader, I don’t think that I enjoy reading faster than 100 words per minute)

Try reading this at 250 wpm:

Pretty easy, right? Now you can bump up the speed to 350 wpm:

After you have 350 wpm mastered, try 500 wpm below:

Spritz goes all the way up to 1,000 wpm, but there isn’t a visual for that yet.

Spritz isn’t the first to suggest reading one word at a time.

Apps like Velocity show the reader one word at a time in quick succession, allowing for much faster reading. And another speed reading method, works almost the same way: Rapid serial visual presentation, or RSVP, has been around for years and has proven to be successful for many.

The one-word-at-a-time technology is particularly good for smaller devices like smartphones and smartwatches. No more scrolling, zooming or pinching.

Boston-based Spritz, which says its been in Stealth Modefor nearly 3 years, is working on licensing its technology to software developers, ebook makers and even wearables.

Here’s a little bit more about how it works: In every word you read, there is an “Optimal Recognition Point” or ORP. This is also called a “fixation point.”

The “fixation point” in every word is generally immediately to the left of the middle of a word, explains Kevin Larson, of Microsoft’s Advanced Reading Technologies team.

As you read, your eyes hop from fixation point to fixation point, often skipping significantly shorter words.

“After your eyes find the ORP, your brain starts to process the meaning of the word that you’re viewing,” Spritz explains on its website.

Spritz indicates the ORP by making it red, and positions each word so that the ORP is at the same point, so your eyes don’t have to move. That’s what makes it different from RSVP speed reading, which just shows you words in rapid succession with no regard to the ORP.

Here’s a graphic that shows how Spritz keeps your eyes still while reading:

spritz reading

(In Spritz, the red characters are aligned vertically).

H/T viiviwagner on Imgur

Note 1: On February 13, 2006, Manish Bansal posted on Opinion

Why I don’t like speed reading.

Speed reading is a method of reading wherein you can achieve really high reading speeds using techniques like word assimilation, skimming, removing subvocalization and controlling eye movement etc.

Some people even claim to achieve reading speed of 1000 words per minutes, with 100% comprehension!

I am not a slow reader but, hell, who can resist 1000 wpm reading speeds?

So I tried this speed reading thing but couldn’t really see any real gains. My brain would hurt and I was not able to sleep at night after a speed reading session.

Here is why this thing doesn’t work.

What we call reading is actually made up of two parts – words in-take + processing.

What speed reading gives you is a really high speed of word in-take. It doesn’t make the processing of those words any faster. It’s like connecting a huge data pipe to a 486 processor.

The processor works at its own pace while the data sits there waiting to be processed. And that buffer storage space is limited. As long as the old data is there, you can’t do any more reading.

You can’t read physics faster and you don’t want to read novels faster. Kind of a lose-lose situation.

So you can either read slowly and process the data at the same time or cram in huge chunks of data into your buffer and let the brain do its thing at its own pace. I prefer the former method, at least for the joy of reading that it gives me.

Note 2: I have a few questions:

1. If the eyes don’t move, how can this method overlap to be able to view an entire scene (environment) better than ordinary persons or much quicker?

2. At least reading word by word is better than believing that you have read an entire page by letting your eyes roam vertically in the middle of the page.

Am I writing to enjoy reading?

And “How I learned to read” by Agnes Desarthe

The initial process of a toddler to crying, weeping, throwing tantrum and shouting monosyllables… is meant to attract attention in order to relay a disenchantment, a complaint, a doleance, a grievance….

As the toddler learns a few words, the set of crying becomes a boring method to the kid and the people around: no one is paying attention or responses are no longer that fast and empathizing…

Mother tells me that when I was about 5 year-old, I used to cry my heart out, hiding under the bed, as I heard my parents and grown ups deciding to go to a movie, and I being excluded.  Occasionally, they had to cancel their projects. Mother tells me that my crying was not of the wet kind.

Once, in an open-air movie “theater” in Africa, I saw an airplane flying in the film, and I wanted the airplane. I kept pointing my finger toward the airplane, and never desisted till they dragged me out of the theater.

It is a fluke of the living that I survived in Africa: There was no inoculation and vaccination of any diseases at the time, and didn’t catch any until I lived in Lebanon. Mother tells me that she carried me to visit a relative of father in Sikasso (Mali), and the physician met her at the door and summoned her to take me back home: The daughter of the relative had just suffered polio

Have you ever heard a kid saying: “I am happy, satisfied, contended…?”

Most probably you heard the kid shouting: “I am hungry, thirsty, angry…”  The kid learned to talk in order to express his grievances and doleances.

The range of grievances in quality and a quantity increases with mastering the language.

All those invented new jargons by gang youth are symptoms of their inability to articulate their new grievances and sorrows to a community that does not share their life-styles

We learn to speak so that we can transmit our grievances in the language that a community understand, otherwise, our expressions turn physically violent due to our impotency to express ourselves “civilly”.

And writing is the best means of expressing our list of doleances, as we feel a lack of quick verbal intelligence for effective communication of our miseries, or inability to associate with people and feel comfortable in gathering…

Writing becomes a means to enjoy reading, and reading more seriously and assiduously: How else can we communicate intelligently our emotions and grievances through words?

I am certain that I would enjoy fuller the previous books that I read.

It is by the writing process that I started to comprehend the emotional reality, and appreciate the emotional world in the books.

Writing was my best means to bypass the world of rational thinking and discovering the wide set of emotional intelligence.

In my case, I read a lot since I was 12 and for 4 decades, until I began to write anything outside school homework.

I guess that I was too dumb socially, shy and inarticulate to feel comfortable discussing anything in gatherings.

And I was inarticulate for lack of exercising articulation due to tacit feeling of not having reasonable cause for valid complaints: I felt neutral and had no inclination to get engaged in any activity or project…

I must have been shoving under the rug of my consciousness all the unsuspected emotional discrepancies and grievances.

The perception by others of being arrogant in my silence and mutism, as if I knew more than the assembly and refused to share what I knew or felt, isolate me even further from being invited…

Actually, my mutism reflected my ignorance of what was going on in relationships among the group, and I could not participate in the conversation…

Where to start with the zillion of questions that are needed in order to untangle the web of relationships and interrelationship, and to begin the fitting process of engaging and appreciating the concerns of people around me?

It’s a daunting task if you lack conscious emotional intelligence and are unable to believe that all the expressed emotions are real and genuine…

Writing got me engaged in becoming an accomplice and a collaborator to authors I like.

I agree with the saying: “If you are interested in a topic, write about it…” It doesn’t lend to saying that what you wrote is correct: good or bad, at least you reached a position on the topic. 

Most probably, since you were interested in a topic, you must have read about it, and the more you write, the more you read on the topic. It is a refreshing feeling to feel that you nailed down one of the zillion of mysteries…

I realized that before writing I barely seriously asked “Why” of anything and tried to resolve it.

As for the “How”, your best bet is to “doing it”. The more bruises and injuries you suffer “doing it”, the more you appreciate the value of the “How”

Note: May I suggest to have a notebook and a pen handy when you read a book? You will realize that you are communicating much better with the book and yourself as you take notes of what impresses your emotions and imagination… And the environment of reading acquires a festive feeling and joy. And if you got the habit of writing, you’ll write a couple of articles just by reading and perusing a few book strewn around you…

You can now live very long: what are your plans for old age? (February 14, 2009)

            With the current progress in the medical field you can prolong your life 150 years.  If you ca afford it then there are no major barriers to live very old and functional too with a basic sane body.  The gene for longevity was discovered in 1998; the cell was extracted from a bacterium that can withstand massive doses of irradiation, heat, cold and then can reconstruct its ADN. 

After fifty the outer membrane of your eye is no longer supple; then you can replace it; it is a very common operation. At the age of 110 the aorta has to be replaced; it is done frequently.  At the age of 150 your skin is totally useless; then collagen is injected; actually you don’t have to wait that long; the injections are performed in young bodies.  Like an old car, new organs (or spare parts) are transplanted; it is done already with countless organs and even produced in laboratory from cell stumps.

There are on the market many hormones targeted for longevity such as growth hormone EPO, melatonin, Viagra, and the hormone DHEA for longevity; all of these hormones are secreted by the glands but they can be artificially produced to supplement the aging body.

I would be curious to know the variety of alternatives for padding your spare time when you grow old, functional and relatively sane, bodily and mentally. Send me your plans; let them be imaginative.  Your plans don’t have to be so damned practical to correspond to our current conditions of aging since the remedies are already available.

I wish in my old age to have a team of helpers visit me once a week, all the team on the same day so that I might reserve the week for my activities and reflections in solitude. This team should bring all the essential provision for a week, just enough to survive because I need to feel short on provision by the end of the week and keep struggling with the survival process; that is a sure way of keeping alive and balanced.  This team will maintain and repair the house and do paperwork or administrative tasks.  I guess all elder people are not to be bothered with driving and hitting the various administrations; they have done their share of stupid slave work.

In my old age, all that I want to do during the week is be able to see; read, write, and publish; I don’t mind having good hearing: that would be a blessed bonus. I would also follow the news and see movies on cables.  It would be nice to have my relatives, nieces, and nephews to visit me occasionally when they need a listening ear: it is always great to recollect the troubles of youth and their struggle for life.  I would like to be invited for a swim or to a skiing resorts so that I can refresh my visuals of the newer activities of youth.


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