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Posts Tagged ‘Robert Livingston

How George Washington filled a few loopholes in the initial Constitution…

Posted on January 8, 2014

In the previous post on how George Washington was elected first President 

https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2014/01/05/how-george-washington-was-elected-in-his-first-executive-functions-part-3/ 

I wrote:

“The ceremony of investiture is done in the Federal Hall at the angle of Wall Street and Broad street.

At noon, Robert Livingston, the chancellor of New York administers the Presidential oath.

This ceremony institutes two precedents that were not covered by the Constitution:

1. Washington swore with the right hand on the Bible

2. And concludes “May God assists me

George Washington had to create the Presidential functions from scratch. He was allocated a limited budget of 16% of the $639,000 spared for the executive branch that was newly provided for in the Constitution.

Washington is supported by a dozen assistants, about 1,000 tax collectors, and 700 military personnel.

He nominated Alexander Hamilton (his right hand during the revolution) for the Treasury, Henry Knox for the department of war, Thomas Jefferson for foreign affairs, Samuel Osgood as Post Master, and Edmund Randolph as Attorney General.

The Constitution didn’t provide for a cabinet of ministers and the heads of department barely met.

Philadelphia was the temporary Capital for the Confederated colonies, and on July 1790, Congress decided for a permanent Capital to the new Federal Constitution.

Maryland and Virginia ceded a portion of their lands to erect the Capital from the ground up, which was later named Washington DC. The essential building in that Capital will be operational to host the President a decade later.

In August 1789, the Senate refused to provide recommendations concerning a treaty with the Indians in the North-West and Washington decided since then to bypass Congress during the negotiation phase of any treaty.

On June 1790, Washington, bypassing Congress, dispatched 3 incursions against the Indians, 240 km inside Ohio, without declaring war, in order to tame the Indian resistance and he opened up the North-West territories for colonization on August 1794.

Alexander Hamilton created a national bank in 1791.

In 1791, Washington traveled for 2 months in the southern States, accompanied by journalists. Washington relied on James Madison to manage the executive function, initiated prepared ceremonies, and organized bi-weekly meetings with ordinary citizens to impress his position.

Internal conflicts between Hamilton and Jefferson took Washington and Congress by surprise, and the Constitution had no provisions for such instances among heads of departments.

Jefferson issued the daily National Gazette and formed the Republican-Democrat political group in order to oppose the Federalists of Hamilton.

Because of worsening foreign wars in Europe, Washington decided to run for another term of 4 years and in 1793, he obtained 132 out of 136 votes of the Grand Electors.

The Constitution didn’t discuss the number of terms a President can seek. Since Washington and Jefferson refused to run for a third term, it became a custom for Presidents not to try for a third term.

Only Franklin Roosevelt (1933-45) ran for 4 terms before the Constitution was amended for only 2 terms.

In April 1793, Washington accepted the letter of credential of the French ambassador “citizen Genet” without consulting Congress, which was Not in session.

On April 22, he proclaimed the neutrality of America in the French/English conflict, a decision that cancelled the treaty of alliance of 1778 with the French, and the legislative branch had to approve this “proclamation” a posteriori.

Madison replied to Hamilton under the pseudo-name of Helvidius that grabbing the double power of deciding on and leading wars by the executive is the beginning of tyranny.

Under Washington, the effective of the military was multiplied by 7.

In 1796, Washington created a first by refusing to divulge to Congress secret documents relative to the Jay treaty with England on the ground of “State security interests“…

What were so secret in that treaty?

Thomas Jefferson resigned as head of foreign affairs department in 1794 on the ground that only France can play a counter power to England. He was proven right since British troops invaded the US and burned the new capital Washington DC in order to pressure the US government to renew the monopoly for printing US money by the Rothschild family of England…

The anti-federalists accuse Washington and Hamilton for their close ties with England, and the opposition press suggest that Washington has black blood and may have been an agent to England during the war of independence…

By Sept. 19, 1796, Washington let know that he will not seek a third term. He returned to Mount Vernon on March 4, 1797 and dies on Dec. 14, 1799.

Mason Weems published in 1800 a biography of George Washington, which was re-edited 20 times within 2 decades.

Note: How the-rothschild-family-Controlled the printing-of-the-dollars/https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2012/06/10/privately-owned-federal-reserve-bank-how-the-rothschild-family-controlled-the-printing-of-the-dollars/

How George Washington was elected in his first Executive Functions? Part 3

By July 2, 1788, 9 States out of the 13 have ratified the Constitutional text.

On may 29, 1790, all the Stated signed on.

Between October 1787 and May 1788, Alexander Hamilton, James Mason and John Fray published 85 open letters in New York dailies to explain their conception of the executive federal function.

These letters are collected in The Federalist in the Spring of 1788 in order to interpret the Constitution of Federation.

For additional guarantees to individual freedom, 10 amendments are joined to the initial text, and by the end of 1791, the Federal Constitution goes into application.

It was George Washington that was in the mind of the delegates when they agreed on the presidential function and central power.

Born in 1732 in Virginia, Washington leads the local colony militia at the age of 22. He fought against the French during the European war of the 7 years.

The Continental Congress designate Washington as military chief as the battles with the British started.

With the aid of the French, the 13 colonies gained independence from England.

Washington was not famous as a military strategist but his competence was recognized.

At the end of the War for Independence, Washington put down the New-burgh mutiny and retired to his property in Mount Vernon.

Washington had already presided the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention and is highly qualified for the executive function.

The delegates had to work hard in order to convince Washington to accept to be a candidate.

The electoral process begins on the first Wednesday of January 1789. The legislature of each State designates its two candidates for the Presidency.

On the first Wednesday of the next month, the Grand Electors of each State select their choices. North Carolina, Rhode Island and New York didn’t participate in the election.

Among the 12 candidates are John Jay, John Adams and the governor of New York George Clinton.

The legislature election was done in January, but the voting on the President had to wait till April 6, 1789. Washington received 69 votes and in second place came John Adams with 34 and became the vice-president according to the Constitution.

Washington arrived to New York (the capital since 1785) on April 30, the Inauguration Day.

The ceremony of investiture is done in the Federal Hall at the angle of Wall Street and Broad street.

At noon, Robert Livingston, the chancellor of New York administers the Presidential oath.

This ceremony institutes two precedents that were not covered by the Constitution:

1. Washington swore with right hand on the Bible

2. And concludes “May God assists me

Washington’s inaugural speech was the shortest in history, and then they converge to St. Paul Church for mass.

Next post will cover how Washington transformed the executive functions and added by filling loopholes and gaps in the initial Constitution

Note 1: Read part 2 on power of Executive function https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2014/01/01/initial-constitutional-text-on-the-usa-presidential-institutionpart-2/

Note 2: Read “Les Presidents Americains” by Andre Kaspi and Helene Harter


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