Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘safety

How the Displaced residents of Achrafieh explosion are navigating compensation?

Victims of Friday’s Ashrafieh bombing, staying in hotels while their homes are inaccessible, expressed a mix of appreciation for officials’ efforts and confusion over the process of repairing their apartments.

Alex Taylor published in The Daily Star on Oct. 24, 2012:

BEIRUT: Sarah Abi Saab, 22, has been displaced since Friday when the car bomb that killed senior intelligence official Wissam al-Hassan and two others exploded at the entrance of the parking garage of her building.

She is now staying at the nearby Hotel Alexandre and was able to access her apartment Tuesday for the first time since the blast.

She returned to a scene of disarray where “not just the glass but the metal frames [of windows] had fallen out and everything was on the opposite side of the room, even the doors.”

“Everything was on the floor,” said Abi Saab, who lives alone in the apartment while she finishes school at the Lebanese American University in Jbeil.

The Higher Relief Committee began meeting Monday with Abi Saab and other residents of Ibrahim Monzer Street, the site of the explosion.

According to operations coordinator Elie Khoury, the HRC had registered residents of 59 apartments by the end of Tuesday and distributed $1,000 to every family living on the main street of the explosion.

“Today we finished processing all the families living on the street where the explosion occurred and have given out cash for rent to those families,” Khoury said.

Khoury could not yet estimate the total cost of the damage, nor when residents in the blast zone would be able to return to their apartments, as HRC teams are still surveying the damage.

“The engineering studies are still ongoing – can the buildings be renovated or do they need to be demolished? We have not been able to determine yet,” Khoury said of the five buildings at the center of the blast.

Abi Saab was at home Friday afternoon when the bomb exploded.

“I was sleeping on the bed and heard a boom. I woke up all of the sudden and a wind of glass just came over me,” she said.

Luckily she was not injured except for minor cuts on her legs and feet.

Although she was able to enter her building briefly Tuesday, Abi Saab wasn’t allowed to collect her possessions and had to be escorted by police as the criminal investigation into Friday’s bomb is ongoing.

Abi Saab said she had received $1,000 from the HRC to pay for temporary accommodations, but was facing difficulties registering her case for damages because her immediate family live outside Lebanon, in the United States and Cyprus.

“We had to fill out papers, but they wouldn’t accept my signature because the house is in my mom’s name. They need a lot of documents, papers and IDs but I didn’t have them because they’re all trapped in the building,” the student explained.

“I’m the only one that is responsible for the house and the papers. If I don’t get it done, they won’t come check the house.”

Various government officials have told the residents different timelines regarding when they may be able to access their homes.

“I wish there was more transparency,” said Zeina Nehme, a resident of the same building, who says different officials have told her she will either be able to enter her apartment within a day or not for a week.

“If only they would tell us on these few days, from this time to this time, we’ll be going to the apartments and checking on the damages … because now we’re getting different answers.”

Nehme, who works as a visiting university professor, recently returned to Lebanon for the year after working abroad for a long period. She was teaching Friday afternoon, but her elderly parents were in the building at the time of the explosion, escaping relatively unscathed.

“Nobody died in the building. It was a miracle,” Nehme said.

Nehme and other displaced residents have been given free hotel rooms in Hotel Alexandre for a week, personally paid for by Telecommunications Minister Nicolas Sehnaoui and other Free Patriotic Movement officials.

“I thank everybody for their help and for putting us up in this hotel. But we want to go home,” Zeina said.

Nehme is anxious to salvage what remains in her apartment, which she was only able to access with police escort for a few minutes Tuesday to retrieve medicines for her parents.

“The weather is changing and it’s going to start raining. We need to go start fixing and cleaning,” she said.

Despite confusion over proceeding with the HRC, Abi Saab said she was impressed by the response of ordinary Lebanese citizens to the bombing.

“Leave the politicians out. The Lebanese people and youth, they really surprised me, they had donations coming in, they’re holding a concert [to raise money] and they have gathered lists of what we need,” she said.

“I’m very, very proud.”

 A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Daily Star on October 24, 2012, on page 4.

Read more:
(The Daily Star :: Lebanon News ::

Article #28, December7, 2005

“How do you perceive the inspection job to mean?”

Inspection in engineering has a narrow meaning that connotes quality control of physical products.

It might be viewed as a statistical process in production to keep physical errors in the manufactured products within acceptable ranges with subsequent determination of an inspector or production manager of whether the production mechanism satisfies certain quality control specifications.

It might be understood as a method for inspecting individual items whether the task is paced as in conveyor belts or the pacing is under control of the inspector and his own rate of work.

The concept of inspection might also be studied from a Human Factors organizational perspective of the personal qualities of inspectors and the work pressures from individual workers or groups trying to influence his decision for refusing batches of products.

In this perspective, inspection is implicitly of people; inspection decisions about a man’s work directly reflected upon him and thus the resentment associated with the age, skills, gender and professional behavior of the inspector.

Inspectors are expected not to be impaired in their eyesight, auditory and tactual judgments and be highly trained and knowledgeable about quality standards.

An inspector must have opinions about the working conditions, how workers are paid when defects are found, method of payment of the inspector and number of break time, general environment in quality of lighting, noise and temperature, organizational factors of isolation, interruptions, monotony and decision pressures from foremen and supervisors, calibration at interval of inspectors’ norms or their expectations in rate of defects, pre-conceived ideas of accuracy resulting from deterioration in physical or mental abilities and lack of agreement on quality.

Is inspection the task of a single person for a phase in the production process or should it be an organization within the administration having responsibility for the total control of quality starting from the design concept for the foreseeable errors, risks and safety, usage of the product not intended for, raw materials, subcontracted parts, manufacturing, packaging, recall, marketing deficiencies and customers’ complaints because quality is finally in the customer eyes and mind?

Should an inspector be part of the team in the production process or independent associated with a specific inspection organization?

Some companies do not take inspection seriously and most of the times assign this task to employees about to retire who in turn perceive their new assignment as a downgrading in their responsibilities.

Some companies are ready to sacrifice quality in order to maintain a steady flow in the conveyer belt; for example it is well known that cars produced on Mondays and Fridays are fraught with systematic defects because on these days novices replace the high rate of absentee trained employees.  The fact is since weekly checks are paid on Thursdays it encourage trained workers to extend their vacation from Friday to Tuesday.  Failing to show up on Friday and Monday the work force is altered which condition the administration learn to cope with as best it can.   In this case, companies allocate expense funds to repairing returned products through warranties.

Article #19, April 16, 2005

“Could one general course in Human Factors make a dent in a career behavior?”

Allow me to state the contents of the four parts of my course materials.

Part one contains an overview, human systems design and modeling, designing for people, human error, accidents and safety, communicating the Human Factors message, human limits and differences, sensing capabilities and limitations, the body and performance, body size, muscular work, nervous control of movements and cognitive processing and performance.

Part two comprises the chapters on improving work efficiency, heavy work, handling loads, lifting, and design of workstations, hand tool design and biomechanics.

Part three is about physical and social environments, noise, vibration, ergonomic principle of lighting, temperature regulation, indoor climate, occupational heat stress, occupational stress, inspection, shift work and the age factor.

Part four covers Human Factors in system design, human-machine system, display and controls, code design, data collection, speech communication, product liability engineering, the engineer as an expert witness, Human Factors and the automobile and human-computer interface.  That’s it!

Throughout the semester I hammer on the main criteria of what Human Factors engineers should constantly consider in their design: mainly, to first target the end user, ease of use of the interface, error free design, acceptability, fitting the capabilities of users, limited training needs, comfortable workstation for extended duration of working habits, safety usage, safety behavior and healthy environment.

This course is not about objects, characteristics of materials, quantity produced or speed in manufacturing processes.

This course is focused on the end users because most systems are designed for target users and operated by end users.

Throughout the semester the perennial question happens to squeeze itself among the exams’ questions: “How would you like to define the Human Factors discipline; what are the most important practical sections that could readily be applied in your engineering discipline and how your own understanding of this subject can alter your behavior when you secure a job?”

Mind you that I am not asking them what the Human Factors professionals would like them to define this discipline but what they have actually assimilated and might make the appropriate information or methods an intrinsic part of their knowledge.

There was an optional course offered, but unfortunately not on a consistent basis, which is called “Risk assessment and Occupational Safety and Health”.

This course covered the safety regulations, laws and standards that private workplaces and institutions have to follow and abide by them.

I used this course as an excellent medium to set the tone and objectives of the Human Factors discipline but the School of Architecture and Engineering revised their optional courses offering to substitute Reliability Engineering instead. 

In the “risk assessments and occupational safety” course I introduced such topics of human errors in operational systems and the corresponding interfaces, the risks and consequences of committing these errors and the remedies in redesign, management and organizational direct concerns and involvement in reducing injuries and unsafe behavior in the workplaces and procedures were very appropriate as an introduction to the purposes of Human Factors course.

These topics allowed me to focus on other issues in the one Human Factors course and substantially reduced the course materials.

But this important optional course was alas dropped from the curriculum but not yet officially.

Article #10, April 7, 2005

 “How Human Factors get involved in the safety and health of end users?”

There is an issue that many in the Third World consumers are not aware of:  mainly the legal liability of manufacturer and system designers of any faulty designed product.

This product liability concept has evolved greatly since the first quarter of last century through court rulings of various complaints from plaintiffs due to either physical or mental injuries that users suffered in different aspects of product usage.

Nowadays, in modern and developed States the burden of proof for defective products is on the manufacturers, distributors and deep pocket companies with financial strength and who are directly or indirectly related to any defective product reaching the consumers.

Another legal victory to consumers is that designers have the responsibility to foresee most operations not intended specifically for the product but that a few consumers might operate the product for different usage and end up being injured.

Although the product was well designed for its intended use most probably it was less than performing in safety and health for other possible usages.

A range-oven is intended for cooking but when the range door is left open and thus facilitating the curiosity of a toddler to step on the door, then the overturn of the range can lead to catastrophic consequences.

Designers are thus asked to foresee this usage of the range door and design in a counter balance or also designing in a preventing obstacle to a toddler inserting his hands inside the range to satisfy his unlimited curiosity.

When I was preparing my doctoral dissertation in the late 90’s there was a defensive attitude to affixing warning signs and warning pictorials on products and on instruction manuals.

The rational for this wave for displaying warning signs was because if companies failed in posting messages on functions that may cause injuries, then their successes in legal defenses were next to nil and compromises with plaintiffs outside the court system were considered less costly.

Posting warnings gave the companies a chance to defend their cases if their manufacturing processes are well documented and safety procedures are well managed.

There are well established consumer products like TV, dishwashers, washing machines, video recorders, cellular phones and so on. 

If you consider the statistics of the actual injuries data in hospitals versus the expected frequencies of the injuries by common people you will be surprised of the high discrepancy and under valuation of the risks involved.

People think that the design of these well established products can be guessed by common sense that people acquire through experience.

A few simple experiments can prove that common sense should be the last resort method to designing.

The opinions and answers for specific design arrangements and best alternatives are as varied as users are, even among the expert designers of these products.

April 4, 2005

“What message should the Human Factors profession transmit?”

I have in a previous article, in a short sentence that may have gone unnoticed, mentioned that the main objective of Human Factors Engineering is designing interfaces between complex systems and targeted end users.

Modern days are an accumulation of very complex systems that societies can no longer live without and have to suffer their consequences in health, safety, comfort, risks or fatal accidents.

Modern days rely on communications systems, on health care, on educational, on information, on transportation, on energy, on financial, on tourism, on diplomatic, and even on political systems.  Usually, there are purposes for establishing any system and the money generated could only be the consequences of satisfying human specific demands that a developed standard of living requires, or are encouraged through advertisements, or are initiated by new laws to regulating a society.

Transportation systems, from automobile to trains to airplanes and ships have allowed distances to be accessible to many users for daily business in remote areas from where they reside.  More people are tempted to doing routine business trips to other countries and the trend might increase if entrance visas to foreign countries were to be eliminated.

A transportation system consists of safe routes, safe vehicles, safe maintenance facilities, safety standards, health standards, and efficient human support from ticketing, to baggage claim, to insurance, to inspection, to monitoring and to planning for future expansions.

Modern days rely on power generation and distribution systems, from the kind of energy sources, to the distribution lines, to the demand and supply of energy, to the maintenance facilities and all the safety and health standards and human support interfaces.

This modern world, more than in any previous centuries, is plagued with complex systems that are automated in many portions with no human understanding of how a system functions or can be repaired or be redesigned except a few rare professional experts.

These vast and very costly systems are created, assembled, maintained and run by different specialized personnel who have no serious interconnections among one another.

Every section of any system requires an interface with another section so that the end user can communicate with another section without any obligation to know or understand the details of the other section.

These interfaces have to be designed to be used with minimal skills, knowledge or special training. These interfaces have to be usably friendly and to fit most of the personnel regardless of gender, race, stature or religious affiliations.

These interfaces should have functions and tasks that correlate well with the capabilities of the users. Consumers require easy to use objects, safe objects, error free and accident free objects.

Consumers need to access these complex systems quickly, cheaply, without the requirement for extensive training or intermediate personnel to doing business or making the objects function according to their idiosyncrasies. The Human Factors engineering discipline should be the application of the body of knowledge, information and facts about human abilities, limitations, and characteristics to the design of tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments for safe, comfortable and effective human use; it is expected to direct its research toward practical design purposes and offer data that can be readily applied by engineers from different discipline.

Note:  My initial version attached the word “system” to every service offered in order to exaggerate the trend in our modern world.  The baffled student who was assigned to reading my version was prompted by the whole class, in a rhythmic fashion, sarcastically pronouncing “system” to every word he read.

Designing what? The Human Factors Concept


The bottom line in industrial engineering is to design a system that would optimize production, inventory, distribution, material handling by maximizing profit or minimizing cost or finding a trade-off that would satisfy the marketing department, the shareholders, the after sale, the union, the consumer product, and the health and safety agencies and so forth.

Now we can recognize that optimizing a system involves inter-relationship among various interested groups of people.  The inter-relationship with consumers, operators, employees, workers, management, and shareholders requires a good understanding of the research done in psychology, sociology, marketing, econometrics and other social studies. This fact is anathema to mathematical solutions that do not consider constraints on human needs, demands, safety and health regulations and specifications, and variability in capabilities and limitations and ethnic idiosyncrasies.

Can industrial engineering discipline be of any aid to small and family based businesses and industries with limited financial resources and marketing scope?  It should be of aid if the boss is an industrial engineer but my opinion is that this discipline is geared toward large industrial complex that hires many employees and workers even if many sections are automated.  Designing an optimum system of production without serious awareness of the research done in the consequences of shift work, pay rate, sleep deprivation, and the political infighting among departments, management, syndicates and employees is tantamount to failure.  We can understand that there are many strong and interesting interactions among industrial, social, psychological and business administration fields.

Whether we like it or not human factors engineering that studies the capabilities and variability of the human element, his health and safety and risk taking tendencies or avoidance should be an intrinsic part of designing work production.  The reality is that companies are wary of hiring generalists such as industrial or human factors engineers for the benefit of specific specialties that are much more in demand because they are better known, even if a global view and comprehension of a system can, in the medium and long terms, deliver much better performance in production, minimizing lost work days, turnover, human aches and pains, emotionally and physically. 

Private companies conjecture that they cannot afford human factors engineers whose jobs are designing interfaces for end users to interact efficiently with complex systems; this is partly true because experimenting with human subjects is time consuming and very costly when dealing with the innumerable variables involved in studying the behavior of workers, employees, engineers and consumers.

I like the current tendency to label industrial engineering as engineering management because the scope matches the management requirement and responsibilities and avoid the connotation with mechanical design and fabrication.

Sex is Stupid: Ask Viagra (February 11, 2009)


            Do you know that the sex medicine molecule for impotence, named VIAGRA, happened to be an acronym for its discoverer Ronald Virag in 1980?  Doctor Virag tested a procedure of micro-injections of papaverine in the cavernous body of the penis.  A few years later, prostaglandin (secreted by the two glands seminal vesicles) had proven to have fewer side effects. 


With Viagra, the supposedly impotent old fart of a penis was shocked to be standing still “saluting the Chief”, for hours.  Could you imagine a situation more ridiculous than an elder man carrying a stupid face for an incongruous condition?  Many had to be admitted to hospitals for painful relief procedures, admittedly less painful than the erect position case.


Do you know that over 40% of men in the developed countries become impotent by the age of 40?  Male menopause or middle age difficulties are setting in early on, and psychologists are making fortunes with the high turnover rate of impotant male. To increase their hourly rate, psychologist bring up the Death symbolism.


For example, psychologists ask their hapless clients “Do you have the feeling that the world is crumbling underneath your feet?”  Guess what, the client invariably and candidly answers “That is exactly my feeling! I kind of have the impression that I have been dispossessed”


Naturally, the impotent male feels dispossessed of a woman to love or a 14-years old pretty boy… This is the time when a male obsessively observes himself and starts to have presentiment of his own mortality, an unimaginable occurrence as long as his prick reassured him of its vivacity. 

 Now the impotent is ready to bow his head for “le coup de grace”.  Most probably, the new impotent failed to observe the reactions of his mate for so long, a mate “who was content for once in a while, a night every month…” because she was tiring quickly of physical exercises.    

It is time for introspection.  It is time to ask fundamental questions “What is love”, “What happened to my youth?”, “Where did I go wrong?”, and “How could I have managed my health better?”


There is this deep misconception that the act of sex is a re-establishment of power or a confirmation of power.  Reality is proving that sex is actually the signing of the political agreement after negotiating a balance on the terms of liberty, choices, and responsibilities.  Holding sex is an act of power to express outrageous disagreement of the relationship, a sort of revolt.  Thus, when it is time to sign the truce, then Viagra is appropriate, occasionally.


Sex is stupid; that is why youth is exciting and attractive. As we rot with age, we long for our stupid youth.  Usually, those who rot fast and suddenly, are those who denigrated the pleasures of reading, writing, and reflecting in their healthier period.  As impotence sets in, they have got nothing to revert to or compensate for, but their stupid esthetic recollections of failed prowess and inconsistent masks, which never fooled any one.

If sex is conveyed as a stupid act, which any mindless individual can perform, and if youth are instructed that intercourse requires high emotional and cognitive capabilities, then probably the age of impotence would recede into a very old age. Thus, feeling cool about intercourse and investing more time on knowing the partner would achieve better performance for all concerned parties. 

Maybe then sexual intercourses would be more pleasurable and meaningful and would offer most of the answers for later years existentialist questions.

Digitizing Human Memory: any Problems? (February 11, 2009)  

Do you know that a foundation in California called “Repository for Germinal Choice” had already generated over 200 babies by artificial insemination of “exceptional parents” in sciences, sports, and successful private entrepreneurial? 

The mother recipient has to undergo test of intelligence and score high IQ.  The billionaire Robert Graham had this lube of storing sperms of Nobel Laureates  in order “to improve human intelligence by eugenics selection“.

The Nobel Laureates declined the temptation and the foundation went after second choices for successful and smart people in all fields.

Daniel Plotz published in 2005 “The Genius Factory: Unraveling the Mystery of the Nobel Prize Sperm Bank“.  Plotz managed to locate 15 out of the 200 “super intelligent” kids, but so far only one family agreed to come out publicly. 

One of the new breed is Doron Blake with an IQ of 180 and born in 1982.  This adolescent stated in a TV interview:

Having a high IQ does not make me a good or a happy person. Being intelligent is not enough to define an individual. What kids need is not to be pressured by over motivated parents for solely education purposes.  What I appreciate most in me is my capacity for loving others; I don’t think it is feasible to select genetically good and loving individual; nurturing is the key factor here.

On another front, it seems that researchers in cognition are attempting to transfer electrical impulses from human memory into digital signals

This phase of the endeavor might be possible with the nanotechnology where microscopic elements are infused in the blood reaching specific sections of the brain. 

The first problem would be what hard or soft storage technology would be appropriate to transfer that much information and at what speed.  

The second difficulty is the hardest:  Given that the headaches in the first stage are ironed out then how to interpret the stored data?

I have taken many courses in human memory and what I recall is that it is not reliable

The critical problem would be the interpretation of the data. 

I am inclined to believe that most of the research would not be geared to emulating human intelligence or its problem solving capability or how man transfer its information to the “dust bin” and then how he recovers the needed information to survive and go on living. 

What the zealot researchers don’t know is how the data would “benefit” other objectives.

The providers of funds and decision makers surely have different agendas that researchers are not supposed to know at this stage. 

One agenda is probably to transfer the memory of one person to another person or to a robot and test and evaluate and eliminate and improve and then scrap projects after sinking in billions of scarce resources.

Cloning therapy: not a science fiction (January 29, 2009)

This is no longer the realm of science fictions: you can repair any sick organ with cloning parts and if you are rich you can extend your life to 150 years.  We don’t need male sperms to clone a complete entity, human or animal.  We don’t need a female nucleus in eggs to clone a complete entity, human or animal.  Soon, we won’t need female eggs; labs would be able to manufacture the “pouch” or envelop of the female egg.  It is going to take some time before human invest on research to circumvent female uterus for incubating fetuses during nine months.  There are human clones on earth. 

Italian gynecologist Severino Antinori announced publicly in 2003 that he has cloned three babies; he was forced to recant and moved his business to Ukraine.  There are many professional institutions cloning human, for a price, after they have been cloning favorite pets of the rich and famous.  No State or institution is about to go public on human cloning; they don’t have to, they just do it.

Let us examine the protocol for clone fertilization which is very close to cloning spare parts.  First phase, a female egg is removed; its nucleus, which contains the genetic instructions, is extracted. A male non-sexual cell (generally taken from the skin) is treated to extract its nucleus (containing the DNA) and implanted in the de-nucleated egg.  Let me remind you that the cell can belong to the same female person of the ovary and it would work equally well!  The new egg contains all the DNA information of the donor.

Phase two: A special cocktail of electric shocks and chemicals aid the cell to regress to a primordial cell that replicates.   Phase three is the process called “blastocyst” that can generate either an embryo for fertilization or the production of specialized spare parts of the various organs such as kidney, liver, heart muscle, or even hair.

Phase four cultivates the different organs by immersing the cell “souche” in a “soup” of proteins and enzymes to normally develop and then be transplanted to the sick donor in order to repair the failing organ.

Three main obstacles for assuring complete success have already been conquered. The first hurdle was taming the chaotic replication of cells; the second problem was the immunological aspect where virulent tumors developed in reproduced cells; and the third problem was the longevity of the organ due to the atrophy of the telomeres.

China, Britain, and the USA are publicly leading the research on cloning therapeutic spare part organs but they are the tip of the iceberg; many specialized institutions in Asia, Turkey, Israel, and India are working full time.

Article #35 (Started March 4, 2006)

 “Efficiency of the human body structure”

This article is an on going project to summarize a few capabilities and limitations of man. While the most sophisticated intelligent machines invented by man may contain up to ten thousand elements, the human machine is constituted of up to a million trillion of cells, up to a thousand trillions of neurons in the central nervous system, about a couple hundred bones, and as many organs, muscles, tendons and ligaments.

In the previous article #33 we discussed a graph in a story style and discovered that a human barefoot in texture, shape, and toes has a higher coefficient of friction than many man-made shoes that allow easier traction to move forward for less energy expenditure. We also expanded our story to observe that the structure of the bones and major muscles attached to limbs for movements as lever systems provide higher speed and range of movements at the expense of exorbitant muscular efforts.

A most important knowledge for designing interfaces is a thorough recognition of the capabilities and limitations of the five senses.  One of the assignment involves comparing the various senses within two dozens categories such as: anatomy, physiology, receptor organs, stimulus, sources of energy, wave forms, reaction time, detectable wavelengths and frequencies, practical detection thresholds of signals, muscles, physical pressure, infections and inflammations, disorders and dysfunctions, assessment, diagnostic procedures, corrective measures, effects of age, and safety and risk.

Human dynamic efforts for doing mechanical work is at best 30% efficient because most of the efforts are converted to maintaining static positions in order to preserve stability and equilibrium for all the other concomitant stabilizing joints, bones and muscles.  For example, the stooping position consumes 60% of the efforts for having a work done, in addition to the extremely high moment effected on the edges of the lower back intervertebrae discs.  Static postures constrict the blood vessels and fresh blood is no longer carrying the necessary nutrients to sustain any effort for long duration and heart rate increases dramatically; lactic acid accumulates in the cells and fatigue ensues until the body rests in order to break down that acid.

Human energy efficiency is even worse because most of the energy expended is converted into heat.  Not only physical exercises generate heat but, except for glucose or sugar, most of the nutrients have to undergo chemical transformations to break down the compounds into useful and ready sources of energy, thus generating more heat.  Consequently, heat is produced even when sleeping when the body cells are regenerated. Internal heat could be a blessing in cold environments but a worst case scenario in a hot atmosphere because the cooling mechanism in human is solely confined to sweating off the heat accumulated in the blood stream.  Heat is a source of blessing when we are sick with microbes and bacteria because the latter is killed when the internal body temperature rises above normal.




June 2023

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