Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Sea people

Jerusalem: Ur Salam (City of Peace) (May 2, 2009)

As biased history dust settles down, people will realize that it was the people of Canaan who hired as mercenary nomadic Jewish tribes coming from the desert to ward off the incursions of the “sea people” who settled in Gaza in the 18th century BC.

Recent archeological works by Kathleen Kenyon discovered a wall surrounding the city of Jerusalem dating from the 18th century BC; water was diverted through underground canals from the fresh source of Guihon to Siloe cisterns inside the walls.

The sea people called Philistines had devastated the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, settled for a while in coastal Egypt, destroyed the nascent Greek fleet and settled in Gaza and the southern coastline of Palestine around the 12th century.

The entire eastern coastline from north Syria to Sinai was dominated by the Canaanites.  Thus, in southern Palestine the Canaanites had to flee northward and retreat inside toward Jerusalem, one of their inland 25 City-States.

Jerusalem was then inhabited by over 10,000 urban dwellers, a huge number for the period.

Around 11th century BC, Moses arrived with his nomadic tribes and his successors endeavored to settle in part of Palestine and battled with the Philistines.  The Canaanites aristocracy aided David to enter Jerusalem and who became their administrative supporters.

David had two high priests (Ebyatar and Sadoq), two military leaders (Joab and Benayahou), and two heirs apparent (Adoniyyahou and Solomon).

David had also two formal sanctuaries for the Jews and the Canaanites.  David adopted the God of the Land El and the two demy-Gods of the Sun (Shahar) and the Moon (Shalem) were worshiped.

The Jewish Yahweh (God of thunders) was relegated to the background and played a support function in times of urgent need, particularly in military excursions.

The Jews had no such concept of “throne” and the Canaanite aristocracy provided a throne to David. David’s solar God was Justice personified and a divinity of the order “sadeq”; thus, Milki Sadeq was the King of Jerusalem when Abraham came to Canaan and paid the tenth (one tenth) tribute to Melki Sadeq.

Solomon’s supporters for acceding to the throne were the Canaanites and they assassinated Adoniyyahou and Joab.  Ebyatar fled and was in pursuit.

Solomon relied on the King of Tyr to building his Temple for the Sun God facing east.  The dedication read: “The divinity of the Sun has announced: Yahweh has decided to live in the shadow. A house has been renovated for his dwelling”.

The God Sun sent two messengers of Right and Justice to destroy Sodom.  In this event as in others, Yahweh shares the responsibility as a subordinate to the Sun God.  Slowly but surely, Yahweh acquired a convincing divinity by the period that preceded the exile to Babylon.

In 587 BC, the Babylonian King Nabukhodonosor destroys part of the Temple.  The Persian King Cyrus repatriates the Jews in 538 and restores the temple.

Alexander enters Jerusalem in 332 and Judea falls under the Ptolemy dynasty.

The Seleucid dynasty dominates Jerusalem from 200 to 142.

Judas Maccabees revolted in 164 and enters Jerusalem which falls to the Hasmonide dynasty until the Roman Pompeii takes Jerusalem in 63 BC.

The zealot Jews take over Jerusalem for two years in 66 AC.

The Roman General Titus enters Jerusalem in the year 70 and burns the Temple.  Jerusalem is named Aelia Capitolina.

Bar Kokheba recaptures Jerusalem in 131.  Emperor Hadrian enters Jerusalem and the Jews are definitely dispersed and forbidden to enter Jerusalem.

Emperor Constantine consecrates the Anastasis (The Saint Sepulcher).

The Persian King Chosroe destroys Jerusalem in 614.

Emperor Heracles re-takes the city in 628.

The Caliph of Islam Omar enters Jerusalem in 638. The Dome of the Rock is built in 691.  The mosque Al Aqsa is built in 705.

The crusaders enter the city in 1099.

The Sultan Sallah el Din enters the city in 1187 and chased out the crusaders.

The Turkish Sultan Selim II enters the city in 1244 and gives Jerusalem a religious function and dots it with many religious schools (madrassa).

The Ottoman Empire captures the city in 1516.  Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent rebuilds the walls and enlarges the city with newer walls.

In 1967 the Zionist State of Israel enters Jerusalem. Menahim Begin PM declares that Jerusalem is the capital of Israel in 1980.

The State of Israel is flaunting all UN resolutions to stop destroying Palestinian houses in East Jerusalem that is proposed to be the Capital of the Palestinian State.

The Sea People and the 12 tribes (July 11, 2009)

Around the 13th century BC, “Sea People” of the northern Mediterranean Sea coasts vandalized coastal town and pirated ships in the eastern Mediterranean.  Commerce and trade degenerated in that sea, which later on permitted the Phoenician City-States (Tyr, Sidon, Byblos…) commerce and trade to prosper.

Those “sea people”, the ancient precursors of the “Vikings”, spread havoc in Egypt before they were countered and forced to redeploy to Gaza and the southern coast of Palestine (named after the sea people).

It is plausible that the Palestinians returned Not as a block, but in waves to the Palestinian coasts.  Many might have shipwrecked and many were lost in deserts (Sinai) before reaching the deserted region in south Palestine (the Negev/ al Nakab).

The fiction stories of Moses and the nomadic “tribes” that he led out of the wilderness might be a symbolic tale, or a mythical tale since there are no archeological facts or records in any civilization of the peregrination of these nomads.  Even the stories of the Hebrew tribes raiding urban setting in Canaan (all the region north of current Gaza, all the way to coastal Turkey) are fiction stories: No artifacts or any archeological finding have uncovered anything, and possibly because they were nomads and didn’t leave any long-lasting residue or marks.

As these “Hebrew” tribes got acquainted with Canaan civilization they set aside “Yahweh” (God idol of war) and adopted “El”, the monolithic God of the Land.

Now and then, a few of these nomad tribes generated their own “prophets” to remind them of “Yahweh” in period of dire disaster to strengthen tribal identity and pick up arms, devastation, and desolation.

Yahweh‘s” anger and thirst for revenge against civilized and settled people had no limits, and the mythical stories in the ancient testament tell how the Canaan settled people had to suffer from the periodic razias of the desert nomads for loots and easy profits, as was the custom for the nomads in the “Arabic Peninsula” who raided Damascus, until the nomads learned to taste the fruits of civilized life. I call these nomads on the borders of the urban agglomerations as the “Tribes of Transmission” of civilized customs and life-style

The process of absorbing nomads into settled life was long.

Frequently, new waves of nomads knocked on the doors of settled people in Canaan and Palestine.  The new waves of nomads did not just emerge from the south but they also converged from the north (Turkey), the east (Persia), south-east (Arabic Peninsula), and the west (Greeks and sea people).

The Near East settled civilization, in City-States studded along the Euphrates, Tiger, Orontes Rivers and the coastal region, had to negotiate with warrior nations and infuse in these nations their monotheist religion and philosophy, which spread all around the Middle East.

Like in every religion, every town and city had to adopt a patron saint or demi-god to consecrate and identify its particular characteristics or line of business.  Thus, Baal, Astarte, Adonis, Apollo, and all the derivative demi-gods, symbolizing the strength and bounty of nature, were mere representations of particular aspects of the all powerful and omniscient God El.

The Near East has been the melting pot of all kinds of immigrants fleeing from persecution, disasters, wars, harsh life, and soldiers deciding to remain in the land of “honey and milk“.

The trend has reversed: the Near Eastern citizens are immigrating to greener pastures for the same reason they settled down this region thousands of years ago.

The new nomads (apartheid Zionists) are brandishing sophisticated weapons and are abusing the same unyielding barbaric Gods but there are no profitable loots to generate.

The Near East region has been ransacked, impoverished, and depleted of educated and artistic generations.

Now the Near East is succumbing to brutal globalization.

Note: It has been demonstrated that the new human species of Homo Sapiens first settled in the Near-East 100,000 years ago, and from here they migrated to the 5 continents in wave, and the Neolithic Age (10,000 years ago) as mankind started planting and harvesting originated also in the Near-East.

Lebanon and Palestine: Same and Different (April 28, 2009, Part 1)


Brief ancient history:

Lebanon is a recognized State by the UN, in 1946 (2 years before Israel). Palestine was partitioned in 1947 between Palestinians and the minority Jews. Currently, all of Palestine is under occupation by this Zionist State called Israel.

Lebanon and Palestine were throughout antiquity under the domination of neighboring Empires such as in Egypt, Turkey, Iran, and Iraq (Mesopotamia).  The people in the two tiny stretches of coastal lands on the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea were mainly mariners, traders, middlemen among Empires, and skilled artisans.

Under the nominal or explicit domination of Empires, Lebanon and Palestine had autonomous administration of their society as City-States that were highly democratic within the city limits as Athens emulated in the 7th century BC. 

The famous City-States from north to south are Ugarite, Tripoli, Jubail (Byblos), Saida, Sour (Tyr), Akka (Acre and Haifa), and Askelan. 

The City-State of Jubeil (inventors of the alphabet) built Saida; Saida built Sour and dominated the sea routes; and Sour built Akka and relayed Saida in sea domination and expanding the trading posts to Spain.  These City-States were the masters of the sea and traded with all Empires and build trading towns; they have resisted many overwhelming sieges, sometimes for years, and occasionally managed not to be entered and devastated.

Every empire that conquered Syria resumed its drive by dominating Lebanon and Palestine.  In general, when more than one empire co-existed at the same period and when the empire in Egypt was powerful enough then it governed the southern half of Palestine while the other empire governed the upper half, including Lebanon.  The strip of Gaza to Yafa was mostly under Egyptian cultural influence.

The coastal strip from north actual Syria to the Sinai was called Canaan. Then, the upper stretch to Akka was called Phoenicia or even Saida (in reference for the main City-State). The Sea People, called Philistines and probably coming from the Adriatic Sea, destroyed Greece fleet, devastated many coastal cities, and conquered Egypt before they were driven out and settle in Gaza and the southern part of Canaan, called Palestine ever since.

Moses (this mythical story) arrived with an amalgam of nomadic tribes and his successors attempted to occupy part of south Palestine.  These tribes worshiped Yahwa, thus, yahoud and Jews for the Latin people.  These tribes under Moses reverted to worshiping the all encompassing God of the Land called El., except a few tribes such as Judea and Benjamin.  During the Roman Empire, Tyr administered the upper half of Palestine.


Modern History:

            In the beginning of the 20th century, the military in Turkey deposed the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and started policies focused on Turk Nationhood.  Many in Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine immigrated to Egypt. 

During the First World War famine fell on Lebanon along with a devastating wave of locust; they immigrated to the USA, Brazil, Latin America, and many were dropped in Africa by unethical ship captains. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the First World War, Britain had mandate over Palestine and Iraq; France had mandate over Lebanon and Syria.

Consequently, the bilingual Palestinians spoke English, and their counterpart in Lebanon spoke French. In 1930, Haifa grabbed the center of trades and many Lebanese flocked to Haifa and Palestine.  The reverse wave occurred when the State of Israel was recognized by a majority of one vote at the UN in 1948.  Lebanon received Palestinian refugees who were installed in camps on the ground that their stay is temporary!


In one chapter of “World Adrift” Amine Maaluf said “The western powers are now paying the price for failing to apply their values in the colonies”  The European colonial powers of Britain, France, Germany, and the  Netherlands had no intentions of spreading their moral values to those they considered not worthy of their pearls and gems.

The indigents were to be enslaved, exploited, and humiliated; the indigents who adopted the western values of equality, liberty, and democracy were persecuted and harassed and imprisoned; the colonial administrators negotiated with the conservative conformists who were ready to strike deals and cohabit with lesser human rights.  Dictators in Europe are abhorred but readily accepted in under-developed States.

Human values had different quality and flavors according to the whims and interest of the exploiting colonial powers.  Britain used astute diplomatic policies to subjugate their colonies more frequently than France did; France of the French Revolution had no patience negotiating and communicating with their colonial people and never skipped an occasion to stating its true purpose for domination.and exhibiting arrogant military posturing.

            The colonial powers installed infrastructures that were appropriate for exploitation of the colonies; they established the required administrations for smooth and efficient exploitation.  The other administrative offices for legislation and justices were carbon copies of the ones in their homeland but these codes could be disposed off and trampled at the first occasion that short sighted interest called for swift and immediate actions.


Contemporary history:

Current Lebanon was created by France during its mandate period and cut out from Syria; it is now a recognized State by the UN since 1943.  Palestine was divided but the Zionist movement conquered the allocated portion for the Palestinians by the UN in 1948. 

The Palestinians are now located in the West Bank of the Jordan River and in Gaza where Israel has built 150 Jewish-only colonies and increasing every year. 

The Palestinians who fled their towns and villages in the State of Israel are refugees in Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria.  The UN resolution 193 demands the repatriation of these Palestinians to their hometowns but Israel has been rebuffing that resolution since 1948.

Lebanon suffered many civil wars and calamities for not being capable or unwilling of absorbing the Palestinian refugees; Israel has waged four devastating wars against the State of Lebanon on flimsy pretexts based on the Palestinian resistance trying to regain their rights for a homeland.




February 2023

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